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Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – viii

1.1. Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 6
1.3. Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.4. Research Questions – – – – – – 7
1.5. Significance of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.6. Scope of the Study – – – – – – 10
1.7. Definition of Terms – – – – – – 10


3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 29
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study – – – – 29
3.2.1 Population of the Study – – – – – – 29
3.2.2 Sample of the Study – – – – – – 29
3.3 Sampling Technique – – – – – – 30
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – 31
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument – – 32
3.5.1 Validity the Instrument – – – – – – 32
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – 32
3.6 Procedure for data collection – – – – – 32
3.7 Method of data analysis – – – – – 33

4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – 34
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – 43

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – 47
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 50
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 52
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies – – – – – 54
References – – – – – – – – 55
Appendices – – – – – – – 58

The main purpose of carrying out this project was to investigate into the poor reading culture among students in Nigeria in some selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. The chapter one of the project was basically an introduction to the research which consisted of the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the research questions, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study and operational definition of terms. The chapter two of the research was a review of related literature. The researchers discussed about reading, reading culture, strategies for developing a reading culture, benefits of reading to the individual, benefits of reading to national development, problems of developing a reading culture in Nigeria and possible solutions to these problems. The chapter three was basically the methodology of the research. The sample of the study consisted of 250 respondents. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The data collected were presented in tables and analysed using simple percentage. The findings indicated that the students had a poor reading culture. This poor reading culture, affects these students academically. This was blamed on teachers, parents and teachers as well. In the light of the findings, it was recommended that: the need to enact a policy that encourages construction of libraries in secondary schools and qualified librarians to run such libraries, radio and television media in the country should include in their schedules programmes that can promote reading culture, parents should encourage their children and wards to read at home, and watch children educational television programmes, there should be provision of more reading books to students to widen their scope in promotion of reading and development of a reading habit., the need to restructure the current secondary school curriculum to incorporate activities that can promote reading for leisure, a library period should be included in the school timetable, teachers must acknowledge the importance of reading skills and must plan an effective programme of reading instruction with a focus on promoting reading habit among students in their schools, teachers should engage students in frequent reading and writing activities. They should use varied and enough teaching aids to enhance reading, school principals should ensure that enough time is allocated for reading on the school timetable, parents should encourage their children to read from an early age, school libraries should organize readership promotion programs from time to time and prizes awarded to students who are proficient in reading and writing, the teacher librarians should provide enough necessary reading materials in their school libraries to motivate the interest of the students, variety of reading materials like story books, novels, newspapers and magazines should be provided for the students’ leisure time, computer sets should be provided for the school and students should have access to them. Also Internet facility should be provided in the school libraries.


1.1 Background to the Study
Reading is perceived as an indispensable tool for academic success and also forms an integral part of any learning situation, and is as well the bedrock of education. Therefore, Access to information is crucial to individual advancement as well as corporate educational development. Information is indispensable, and, according to Yusuf (2007), bridges the gap between knowledge and ignorance. One of the major sources of acquiring information is reading. Reading is the base by which other academic skills are built. It offers a productive avenue to improving vocabulary, word power, and language skills. Tella and Akande (2007) assert that the ability to read is at the heart of self-education and lifelong learning and that it is an art capable of transforming life and society. Yani (2003) posited that reading habits of Nigerians are what has become a matter of concern in our educational and national development. He stated further that in a developing country like Nigeria, the concept of reading habits should not be relegated to the background. This is because through reading, human beings get better informed and understanding of the universe they live on. More so, reading makes a way for better understanding of one’s own experience and can be an exciting voyage of self discovery. A child that forms the habit of reading is always performs better than his colleagues at school because he becomes he gains more knowledge than them and understands better than his colleagues what they are being taught in class.
It is saddening to note nowadays that in Nigeria reading culture is deficient. This is because the general orientation has placed priority on other less important things. For instance, majority of the youth believe that reading does not bring quick money. People believe that education and reading is a long term project which does not yield immediate dividend but, if at all, future money. Youths find it difficult to wait for a long term to make fortune; and because they want immediate money through Machiavellian means they venture into politics, business, internet fraud that brings money quickly. As a result of these, reading culture does not mean anything to many students nowadays anymore. An examination of reading shows its significance. Reading involves series of systems like eye to eye movement, tracing, moving along with hands while reading. A poor reading habit therefore does not only affect proficiency in the English language and other subjects, it possibly affects the coordination of some body parts.
There is a general feeling that many Nigerian students do not like reading. Many teachers often complain about the poor reading habit among their students which can have implication on the personal and intellectual development. Edomwandagbon (2005) held tenaciously to the view that if students who were preparing for both internal and external examination avail themselves of facilities in the various Libraries, read their notes and text books diligently, the incidence of cheating, impersonation and examination malpractice and cultism will be greatly reduced. In 2001, according to Omo-Ojugo (2005), the World Bank in conjunction with the Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research, Ibadan produced a grim report on the Nigerian graduate which has confirmed the fears of educators, parents, employers and the general public about the degeneration of the country’s education. The report revealed that the average graduate who leaves a university or polytechnic with a degree or certificate is not worth the qualification, which he is supposed to have. The report concluded by saying that the average Nigerian graduate lacks technical skill, has a poor command of English, is poorly trained and largely unemployable. Harold (2001) opined that lack of vibrant reading culture among Nigerians has been many a publisher’s nightmare for a long time in the country. Poverty, illiteracy and high cost of books were fingered as being responsible for this. Obafemi (2006) opined that the poor reading culture among Nigerians was due to economy that was prostate; reading was expensive and had become a leisure most people could ill afford. Also, the in-thing according to him was that people prefer to stay in their homes and watch home videos rather than pursuing education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The general feeling that poor reading habit among Nigerian students is getting out of control is very terrifying and infuriating. The high failure rate in examinations, the increase in student dropout rate, the production of half-baked graduates, etc, are all affecting the country socially, economically and politically. The Government effort in fighting illiteracy is being thwarted by the students who do not read neither their prescribed textbooks nor for pleasure. The much needed manpower which the tertiary institutions are supposed to produce fall beyond required standard because of the students’ nonchalant attitude towards their studies with regard to reading. Many students, who would have contributed immensely if properly trained, drop out because of poor performance due to inadequate preparation for their examinations. This study therefore intends to carry out an investigation into the poor reading culture among secondary school students and its effects using some selected secondary schools in Pankshin.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate into the poor reading culture of secondary school students. The specific objectives are:
i. To inquire the factors affecting reading culture in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area.
ii. To determine the general reading habit of secondary school students in Pankshin Local Government Area
iii. To survey the effects of reading culture on academic performance among secondary school students in Pankshin Local Government Area
1.4 Research Questions
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
i) what are the factors affecting reading culture in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area?
ii) what is the general reading habit of secondary school students Pankshin Local Government Area?
iii) what are the effects of reading culture on academic performance among secondary school students in Pankshin Local Government Area?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is designed to investigate into the poor reading culture of students reading and how it affects their academic achievement in school. It is also intended to find out why students cannot develop positive reading culture.

1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be limited to the investigation into poor reading culture among students in the secondary schools. It will therefore be restricted five secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. This will enable the researcher to thoroughly investigate the poor reading culture among students.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The researchers were only faced with the problem of reading the questions to some students as not all of them were able to read and write very well.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
The following terms were used in the course of this study:
Investigation: the evaluation or estimation of the nature, quality, or ability of someone or something
Reading culture: refers to habitual and regular reading of books and information materials.
Poor: Something that is of low quality compared to standard

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