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Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii

1.1. Background of the Study- – – – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem- – – – – – – 4
1.3 Purpose of the study – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research questions- – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Hypothesis- – – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study – – – – 7
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms- – – – – – 7

2.1 The Concept of ICT- – – – – – – – 8
2.2 The Concept of English Language- – – – – – 14
2.3 ICT Policies in Nigeria- – – – – – – – 17
2.4 Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning
of English- – – – – – – – – 18
2.5 Challenges to the Effective Implementation of ICT in Secondary Schools 21
2.6 Concept of Academic Performance – – – – – – 22

3.1 Research Design- – – – – – – – – 26
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study – – – – – 26
3.2.1 Population- – – – – – – – – 26
3.2.2 Sample – – – – – – – – – 26
3.3 Sampling Technique- – – – – – – – 27
3.4 Instruments for Data Collection – – – – – – 27
3.5 Description of Instruments- – – – – – – 27
3.6 Validity of Instrument- – – – – – – – 28
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument- – – – – – – 28
3.8 Method of Data Collection- – – – – – – 29
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 29

4.0. Introduction- – – – – – – – – 30
4.1 Analysis of Research Questions – – – – – – 30
4.2. Presentation of Students’ Results – – – – – 34
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 34
4.4 Discussion of Findings- – – – – – – – 35

5.1 Summary of Findings- – – – – – – – 37
5.2 Conclusion- – – – – – – – – 38
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 38
5.4 Limitations of the Study – – – – – – – 38
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies – – – – – – 39
References – – – – – – – – – 40
Appendixes – – – – – – – – 45

This project was carried out in order to determine the influence of ICT on the academic performance of students in English in senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area. The population of the study consisted of all the 62 secondary schools in Pankshin. The sample of the study was 50 teachers from 10 secondary schools and 50 students from two selected schools. The random sampling technique was used to selected the sample. The instruments used in collecting data for this study were test and questionnaire. The questionnaire for the teachers and the test was for the students. The instrument for data analysis is mean and t-test for testing hypothesis. The findings of the study indicated that students who were exposed to teaching using ICT performed better than those who were taught without the ICT, challenges confronting the use of ICT in teaching and learning English in senior secondary schools are: inadequate ICT equipment, teachers’ inadequate knowledge of ICT, among others. In the light of the findings, the study recommended that: government should provide adequate ICT equipments in the secondary schools, teachers of English should be trained in different workshops on how to handle ICT equipments

1.3. Background of the Study
The rapid growth in information communication technology (ICT) has brought notable changes in the 21st Century as well as affecting the demand of modern societies. ICT is becoming increasingly important in our day to day lives as well as in our educational system. As such, there is a growing demand on the educational institutions to students need for the 21st Century. Realizing the effect of ICT on the work place and everyday life, today educational institutions try to restructure their educational administration in order to bridge the existing technological gap in school administration. This restructuring process requires effective integration of technologies into the existing environment in order to enhance professional output as well as the general administration of the school (Buabeng, 2012).
The importance of ICT resources in empowering teachers and learners, and enhancing teaching and learning has been highlighted in several studies. The potentials of ICT resources to facilitate students’ learning and improving teaching have been established by various researchers (Kazu &Yavulzalp, 2008; Kirschner & Woperies, 2003). In addition, ICT resources technologies are computer based tools used by teachers to teach information and communication processing needs of an institution. These cover computer hardware and software, the network, and other digital devices like video, audio, camera, and so on, which convert information and resources (text, sound, motion, etc,) into digital form (Moursund & Bielefeldt, 1999). Successful integration of ICT resources in the school system depends largely on the competence and right attitude of teachers towards the role of modern technologies in teaching and learning. Furthermore, ICT resources have very strong effect in education and it provides enormous tools for enhancing teaching and learning. There have been many studies that have highlighted the various ways that ICT resources may support teaching and learning processes in a range of disciplinary fields such as the construction of new opportunities for interaction between students and knowledge; accessing information and etc. ICT resources can have a useful effect on teaching and learning if it is used under right conditions including suitable sources, training and support. ICT resources also offer the potential to meet the learning needs of individual students, to promote equal opportunity, to offer learning material, and also promote interdependence of learning among learners (Teo, 2008). The present and future teachers must be prepared to provide technology supported learning opportunities for their students and, therefore, need to have adequate ICT skills and digital competence themselves.
English language is not indigenous to Nigeria. Yet, it is studied and used in Nigeria more actively than most of the indigenous languages. The English language is Nigeria’s second language (L2) but many parents prefer their children speaking English to their indigenous languages. Our grandparents with little or no education still hunger and thirst for English language. In Nigeria, some primary and secondary schools use the English language as medium of communication and whoever speaks any of the indigenous languages within the school premises is fined or severely punished. The Nigerian tertiary institutions and work places are not left out in the wide spread of English usage.
As important as it is, the Nigerian users of English should aim at pronouncing English words in a way that it brings out their messages without altering the language to the extent that its value as a medium of communication will be lost. Where this foundation is laid is in the lower levels of education: nursery, primary and post primary schools. However, the English language teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools is a serious process. Teaching and learning of English language here does not only refer to grammar but also its oral parts of pronunciation which deals with the English sounds system.
Pronunciation according to the Hornby (2008) is the way in which a language or a particular word or sound is pronounced. The nature of English pronunciation is different from that of the Nigerian languages which are open syllable in nature that is why for example, a native Nigerian would pronounce the word ‘bread’ /bred/ as ‘bredi’ /bredi/, bringing the mother tongue (L1) into the second language (L2). This is one of the reasons why the Nigerian second language learners encounter difficulty in the learning of the English pronunciation.
Although English is undeniably a very confusing and perhaps complicated language to pronounce well, most especially to Nigerian second language learners, due to the mother-tongue interference, there is some good news – it can be learnt. Pronunciation is like any other skill, it involves learning new movements and rules and practicing them until they become second nature through the active involvement of the learner and the qualified teacher, but in past years, oral English was not taken seriously in the senior secondary schools in Nigeria. This is why Iyiola, (2010) writes that to say that the English of Nigerians is appalling is to state the obvious. This is so because over the years, attention has not been paid to the teaching of the speech sounds of English in schools. He further observes, however the emphasis in recent times on the phonic method of teaching English at the primary school level, and the inclusion of an oral English component in the SSCE syllabus is an indication of a renewed interest in correct pronunciation.
It is in the light of the above discussion that this study sets out to determine the influence of ICT in the teaching and learning of English language in senior Secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.4. Statement of the Problem
Over the years, there has been loud outcry of researchers and education stakeholders over the high rate of poor performance of students in both internal and external examination. The cause of this failures have been attributed to different factors such as method of teaching, use of instructional materials, etc.
There is sufficient empirical evidence that suggests that the academic performance of students relies substantially on the method of instruction and instructional tools. ICT has become one of the most essential tools for the teaching and learning of English. This is because learning objective might likely not be achieved without the use of language of instruction and drilling activities. English as a second language in Nigeria is officially recognized in public affairs both nationally and internationally: hence the importance of teaching and learning English language.
Consequently, the focus of this study is to find out if ICT will improve the performance of senior secondary school students in English.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of ICT on the academic performance of students in English in senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
1. Determine whether ICT influences students’ performance taught in English
2. Find out the extent to which there are available ICT equipment for teaching English in senior secondary schools in Pankshin LGA.
3. Evaluate the challenges of using ICT to Teach English in senior secondary schools in Pankshin LGA.
4. Examine the differences in the performance of students in English who are exposed to the use of ICT and those who are not.
1.4 Research questions
The following questions were postulated to guide the researcher in the course of the study:
1. What are the influences of ICT on students’ performance in senior secondary schools in Pankshin LGA?
2. To what extent are there available ICT equipment for teaching English in senior secondary schools in Pankshin LGA?
3. What are the challenges of using ICT to Teach English in senior secondary schools in Pankshin LGA?
4. What are the differences in the performance of students in English who are exposed to the use of ICT and those who are not?
1.5 Hypothesis
The hypothesis below was formulated for this study
Ho: there is no significant relationship between the use of ICT to teach English and the performance of students in English in senior secondary schools in senior secondary schools in Pankshin LGA.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study has become important, considering the vital role played by ICT in teaching and learning. The research work would enable teachers of English language to identify problems and factors that hinder the effective teaching and learning of English and how to handle such problems. Students would as well be informed on their major problems in learning English.
More so, findings from this study would provide valuable information to the government, the Nigerian educational research center (NERC) and the curriculum planners may gain awareness to create or install ICT media and incorporate use of ICT respectively for the effective teaching and learning of English.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Due to time constraint and finances or cost implication, this research work is limited to two(2) selected senior secondary school out of the sixty-three (63) secondary schools with Pankshin Local Government Area. The range of the study is wide but the study area selected as sample represents the range. However, despite the fact that the study is restricted to the selected local government and schools, the findings will be generalized to other parts of the country.
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms
English language: This is a native language in some countries like USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. While in other countries like Nigeria, it is either a foreign language. It is recognized as the language of instruction and international trade.
Information Communication Technology (ICT): Refers to diverse set of information communication and technology tools and resources that are used to transmit, store, create and share information in the context of a school.

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