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Title page-       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -i

Declaration-    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -ii

Approval page-           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -iii

Dedication-     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -iv

Acknowledgement-    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -v

Table of contents-       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -vi

Abstract-         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -ix



  • Background to the study- –           –           –           –           –           –           -1
  • Statement of the problem- –           –           –           –           –           –           -4
  • Purpose of the study- –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -5
  • Research questions- –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -6
  • Research Hypothesis- – –           –           –           –           –           –           -6
  • Significance of the study- –           –           –           –           –           –           -7
  • Operational definition of terms- –           –           –           –           –           -7



2.1       The Concept of Visual Impairment                         –         –           –           -8

2.1.1   Types of Visual Impairment                                     –         –           –           8

2.1.2   Causes of Visual Impairment                                   –         –           –           -9

  • The Concept of Learning Difficulty –         –           –           11
  • Factors affecting the learning of pupils with visual impairment- 12

2.4. Assessment of the learning difficulties faced by primary pupils with visual impairment          –        –                                                                                   –         16

2.5The learning/teaching resources that can suit the academic needs of primary pupils        with visual impairment.                                                                            –         –           –           19

2.6    Strategies that can be adopted to promote learning among primary pupils with visual impairment              –                                                                                   –         –           23

2.7       Summary of Literature Reviews                              –         –           –           24



3.1       Research design-         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.2       Population and Sample of the study – –           –           –           –           –           25

3.4       Sampling techniques-  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.5       Instrument for data collection-            –           –           –           –           –           -24

3.6          Validity and Reliability of the Instrument          –              –              –          27

3.7       Method of Data collection-     –           –           –           –           –           –           27

3.8       Method for data analysis-        –           –           –           –           –           –           -27



4.1.      Results –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           30

4.1.2    Analysis of Research Questions         –           –           –           –           –           -29

4.2       Hypothesis Testing                 –           –           –           –           –           –           36

4.3       Discussion of Findings                       –           –           –           –           –           38



5.1       Summary of Findings-            –           –           –           –           –           –           -41

5.2       Conclusion-     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -42

5.3       Recommendations-     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

5.4       Suggestions for Further Study –          –           –           –           –           –           44

REFERENCES-         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45

APPENDIX                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47













The purpose of this study was mainly to investigate the Assessment of learning difficulty among primary school pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprised of all the Special Education teachers in Otana Integrated School. Specifically, the population of the study consisted of twenty (20) teachers in Otana Integrated School, Jos. The sample size of twenty (20) respondents were used. The whole of the population size was used as the sample size for the study due to the limited number of the respondents. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents. This technique was used to deliberately select participants who possess specific characteristics or qualities that are relevant to the research study. Mean score and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the hypothesis was verified using Chi-Square.  The findings revealed lack of appropriate learning resources, mobility and orientation, tactile and sensory experiences, absence of adapted teaching method, difficulties in processing visual information as learning difficulties faced by pupils with visual impairment The findings also indicated that the teaching/learning resources that can suit the academic needs of pupils with visual impairment such as Braille textbooks, maps, models, and diagrams, screen readers/magnification software, audio materials and Braille typewriters and digital Braille notetakers. The tested hypothesis revealed that here is significant difference between the learning difficulties faced by pupils with visual impairment and their academic performance. The study recommended that the school authority should develop Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) for each pupil with visual impairment, outlining specific learning goals, accommodations, and support services tailored to their unique needs. The study further suggested that the school should provide specialized training and professional development opportunities for teachers to equip them with the knowledge and skills to effectively support pupils with visual impairment in the classroom.




  • Background to the Study

              Life without sight is hard to imagine and is one of the most feared of human conditions. Over half the information we receive about our world is through vision. Visual impairment can interfere with the development of learning, mobility, social growth and adjustment. For this reason, persons living with visual impairment present unique educational needs which are best addressed early in life (Anomonye, 2012). These educational needs include concepts development, improving listening skills, and developing study and research skills. Skills in daily living, socialisation and recreation also need to be taught. Training to use any residual vision to the fullest extent is very important. They may also need to be taught alternative ways to read and write.

              Visual impairment as a generic term is a wide range of visual problems. It is a concept that includes categories such as total blindness as well as mild and severe cases (Nasiforo, 2010). Educational definition of visual impairment emphasizes the functional visual efficiency because visual efficiency is unique to each learner. The way the learner uses the residual vision is the main concern of the educator. Visual impairment occurs when the peripheral field of vision is reduced. According to Abang (2005), the visually impaired are those with some amount of visual problems which could be remedied either by surgical operation or by optical corrections. This includes those who are partially sighted, low vision and the blind as the case may be. Visual impairment means having difficulties with one’s vision (Ekwueme, 2013). The difficulties could be defined according to the severity of impairment. It is believed that when an individual is visually impaired his learning, social interaction, locomotion, general operation and adjustment are bound to be adversely affected. This is why Anomonye (2002) defined visual impairment as the act of exhibiting reduction in visual performance when compared with the normal visual performance or the “actual drawn back” an individual experiences which others can observe in specific visual tasks.

              According to Jones, (2011) visual impairment is defined as a functional limitation of the eye(s) or visual system and can manifest as reduced visual acuity or contrast sensitivity, visual field loss, photophobia, diplopia, visual distortion, visual perceptual difficulties, or any combination of the above. These functional limitations can result from congenital (e.g., prenatal or postnatal trauma, genetic or developmental abnormalities), hereditary (e.g., retinitis pigmentosa or Stargardt’s macular degeneration), or acquired conditions (e.g., ocular infection or disease, trauma, age-related changes, or systemic disease). Beatrice and Janet, (2013) supported that visual impairment can cause disability (ies) by significantly interfering with one’s ability to function independently, to perform activities of daily living, and/or to travel safely through the environment.

              In spite of this condition of visual impairment, they still desire to be nurtured through education to make their intellectual ability globally useful. This is simplified through adaptations which are made in addition to regular school curriculum where by the nature of materials used and the teaching methods are so organized to meet their educational aspirations. The visually impaired groups need higher education as it pave way for them to be occupationally engaged in the labour market like any other person who is not visually impaired (Orodho, 2014).  Inclusion of blind and low vision children in schools (mainstream education) is beneficial not only to the blind/low vision child but to all other pupils in schools because it enhances social integration (Anne, 2014). It helps change the negative attitude and misconceptions people have of the blind and low vision and it is an opportunity to prepare them for their future roles in society. They learn the norms and values of the community in which they are and this prepares them for the world outside of school (Ekwueme, 2013). According to Hallahan, and Kauffman, (2000), pupils who have been with them in schools will know their potential and will give them chance to participate in social functions and other programmes. Furthermore, inclusion in colleges of education will promote healthy competition amongst pupils who are blind or low vision and regular pupils. When blind/ low vision children perform well in class, this will motivate the regular pupils to strive to work harder for they will think that if the blind/ low vision child can do well they can do the same. However, there are learning difficulties or challenges that they encounter at the cost of their learning in such a mainstream setting.

              According to Cole-Hamilton (2012), pupils with visual impairments face several structural and attitudinal barriers in schools. As Richardson and Roy (2010) remark, pupils with visual impairments are less likely to complete their studies than pupils without any disabilities. This could be either a result of academic failure because of lack of support or of withdrawal due to insufficient guidance (Richardson & Roy, 2000). Mobility around the school environment is stressed as an issue with a negative impact on pupils with visual impairments.  In Otana Integrated School Jos, the school has a ramp and can be accessed by persons using crutches or wheelchairs. However, most buildings are inaccessible for people with disabilities because of the presence of high steps, curved stair cases, and narrow walkways. Transforming a printed material to other formats is a great loss of time for pupils with visual impairments. The pupils face great difficulties in accessing human and material resources like personnel development, provision of talking books, optical aids, optacon, perkins brailers, writing frame, typewriters embossed Braille machine e.t.c and also obtaining books and handouts in their preferred format. Adequate mobility services and devices such as guide dogs for the blinds, the laser cane, white cane, the path sounders, the sonic guide, and mowal sensor are in lacking or rather in short supply. Therefore, it is on this background that the researcher is concern on examining learning difficulty among primary school pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated, Jos.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

              For children who are visually impaired, education is extremely important because it introduces them to the real world, where they can interact and develop their social, psychological, emotional, and academic lives. Therefore, education allows them to be independent and contribute to the growth of their societies and the country as a whole. It significantly increases the likelihood that students with visual impairments will find employment, thereby giving them the information and skills they need to participate in development, decision-making, and the democratic process. Nevertheless, the numerous obstacles that visually impaired students in educational institutions face both inside and outside the classroom prevent them from receiving a quality education. Family history, an inhospitable environment, and discriminatory behaviors and laws are a few of the obstacles. The study therefore aims at investigating the learning difficulty among primary school pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos.

1.3         Purpose of the Study

The study will be addressing the following specific objectives:

  1. To assess the learning difficulties faced by pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos.
  2. To determine the learning/teaching resources that can suit the academic needs of pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos.
  3. To find out the strategies that can be adopted to promote learning among pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos.

1.4         Research Questions

This research addresses the following research questions:

  1. What are the learning difficulties faced by pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos?
  2. What are the teaching/learning resources that can suit the academic needs of pupils with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos?
  3. What are the strategies that can be adopted to promote learning among student with visual impairment in Otana Integrated School, Jos?

1.5         Research Hypotheses

H1: There is no significant difference between the learning difficulties faced by pupils with visual impairment and their academic performance

1.6         Significance of the study

              The study, when completed, will benefit the learners (pupils) with visual impairments, lecturers, parents, ministry of education, researchers and curriculum planners.

              Learners or pupils will benefits from the results of the findings if truly observed by schools administrators and the result implemented as recommended by the researcher of the study. In a clearer term it means learners will learn with ease than before.

              Teachers will also benefit from the result of this study as they will know the appropriate method of teaching learners with visual impairment so that they can teach them well with consideration to their disabilities.

              The result will also help school administrators to wake up and supervise their staff in order to achieve the aim of education. Curriculum planners will use the result of the findings to modify the areas of weakness of the curriculum in terms of the use of instructional materials for learners benefit which will enable them perform well in their academics.

              The result of the findings will also help curriculum planners to plan a suitable curriculum that can suit visually impaired learners’ nature of disability with the use of instructional materials. Knowledge of the impediments encountered by learners with visual impairments may help the Nigerian Education planners in designing of appropriate inclusive education programmes suitable to the needs of learners with visual impairments.

              The results may help to change the attitudes of the administrators, teachers, non- handicapped pupils in the colleges and also the community at large towards the achievement and acceptance of pupils with visual impairment in inclusive society.

              Finally, the result of the study will benefit other researchers that wanted to conduct same or similar study to know what has been done and what is left in this area so that can fill the gap.

1.7         Operational definition of terms.

Learning difficulty: Any factor that may hinder conducive teaching/learning process and leads to poor performance.

Mainstream settings: It also refers to the practice of educating pupils with special needs in classes with non-disabled pupils during specific time periods based on their skills.

Special needs education: This is education which provides appropriate modification in curricula, teaching methods, educational resources, medium of communication or the learning environment in order to meet the special educational needs of persons with disabilities.

Visual impairments: Limitations imposed by visual loss or reduction on a person’s ability to interact with environment.

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