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Title page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Approval page                                                                                                             iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of contents                                                                                                        -vi

Abstract                                                                                                                      -ix



1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                1         

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                3

1.3       Aims and Objectives                                                                                       4         

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                        5         

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                               6

1.6       Scope and Delimitation of the Study                                                             6

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                     7                                                                     





3.0       Introduction                                                                                                    24

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             25       

3.2       Population of the study                                                                                   25

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                   25

3.4       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                       26

3.5       Validity and Reliability of the Instrument                                                      26

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                        27

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                28



4.1       Presentation of Bio-data                                                                                 29

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions                                                                     30

4.3       Discussion of Findings                                                                                   32



5.1       Summary of the Study                                                                                    34

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      35

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          35

5.4       Suggestions for further study                                                                         36

            REFERENCES                                                                                              38

            APPENDICES                                                                                               39


This study examined the ascertain the usefulness of computer simulators in teaching Chemistry to senior secondary school students in Jos North and Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. To carry out this research work successfully, three research questions were formulated. The research design used for the study is experimental research design. The targeted population of the study comprised of three hundred and twenty four (324) Senior Secondary School students of Jos North and Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. The sample size of the study consisted of eighty (80) students which were classified into two groups namely the experimental group and the control group. A purposive sampling technique was used for the study to select the sample size. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using procedures like simple percentages for demographic variables, and t-test for analyzing the research questions. The finding revealed that computer simulators allows students to visualize abstract concepts and complex phenomena in chemistry. They can observe the behavior of atoms, molecules, and chemical reactions in real-time, which helps in developing a deeper conceptual understanding of the subject matter. The study also revealed that students who are already familiar with technology and comfortable using computer programs may have a more positive attitude towards simulators, while others might require additional support and guidance to adapt to this learning method. The study finally unveiled that students taught Chemistry using computer simulators outperformed students who were taught Chemistry without the use of computer simulators. The study recommended that educational institutions should consider integrating computer simulations into the chemistry curriculum to supplement traditional teaching methods. This will allow students to explore and engage with the subject matter in a more interactive and dynamic manner. The study also recommended that teachers should receive appropriate training and professional development opportunities to effectively utilize computer simulations in their teaching practices. This will ensure they are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to guide students through the simulation activities and facilitate meaningful learning experiences. The study finally suggested that schools should provide adequate access to computers or other devices with suitable simulation software. This will enable students to engage with the simulations both during classroom instruction and for independent learning, ensuring equal opportunities for all students.





  • Background of the study

   Science and technology are important tools for development and productivity in any nation. In the world today, science has become a dominant power development indicator (Parchmann, Gräsel & Baer, 2006). Science has been regarded as the base of modern day technological breakthrough. The study of science is of great importance in Nigeria, that a lot of emphasis has been laid on the teaching and learning of science. The major aim of science education in Nigeria as contained in in the Federal Republic of Nigeria in her national policy on education is to equip the students to live effectively in this modern age (FRN, 2013). This can be achieved by the inculcation in the learners the necessary scientific skills and attitudes. The inculcation of scientific skills and attitudes can only be achieved through the proper teaching of the various science subjects like Chemistry.

             Chemistry as one of the science subjects is taught at the senior secondary school level of Nigeria education system. Chemistry is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes, and attempts to explain chemical phenomenon of everyday life (Treagust & Harrison, 2010). Chemistry is essentially needed for nation’s technological development. As a core science subject, the proper teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school facilitate students’ enrollment in many professional disciplines like, Nursing, Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture and Geology among others.

             Despite the importance of chemistry in science and technological advancement in the subject at senior school certificate examination (SSCE) has been consistently poor in both internal and external examination. West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiner reports May/June 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 for instance attest to this ugly performance of chemistry students in external exams. The report revealed that the pass rate at credit level in chemistry were 15%, 18%, 21%, 31% and 28% for 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively.

             Also, according to West African Examination Council (WAEC, 2010), the use of conventional approach is deficient in meeting the needs of the new instructional strategies in teaching and learning. In this computer age, numerous Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applicants are available. They stimulate students’ active engagement in the teaching and learning process. Among the various ICT applications, computer simulation is of special importance in chemistry teaching and learning. The use of educational technology like simulation for instance in science classroom, not only helps with students’ understanding of content, but positively impact students’ engagement in lesson and their attitude towards learning (Johnstone & Mahmoud, 2018)

             According to Alessi and Trollip (2011), simulation is just one type among many of computer assisted instruction (CAI). Simulations are tools that facilitate learning through representation and practice in a repeatable, focused environment. Although the use of computer technologies in the schools is still debated among scholars (such as Pena & Olea, 2008) computers can play important roles in the classroom and laboratory science instruction. Computer simulations give students the opportunity to observe a real world experience and interact with it. Simulations are useful for simulating labs that are impractical, expensive, impossible or too dangerous to run. Simulations can contribute to conceptual change provide open-ended experience for students; provide tools for scientific inquiry and problem-solving experiences (Abraham & Renner, 2016). Computer simulations also have potentials for distance education.

              The main purpose of this paper is to review the use of computer simulations in science education. The main audiences for this study are instructional designers and curriculum leaders who seek a way to enhance teaching and learning with technology in both the classroom and distance. The second purpose is to review potential use and benefits of computer simulations in science laboratories distance education.

  • Statement of the problem

The persistent underperformance of secondary school students in Chemistry in Nigeria (both in internal and external examinations) has attracted the attention of several science educators and researchers across the country. Series of interventions had since been trial-tested in different parts of the country with the singular aim of improving the performance of secondary school students in Chemistry. However, majority of these interventions only focused on how to teach Chemistry in the classroom while paying little or no attention to the learning resources peculiar to teaching and learning of the subject. To learn Chemistry and learn meaningfully, teachers and students must engage in well-planned hands on learning activities which takes place in the laboratory.

             The laboratory plays a special and distinctive role in the meaningful learning of science and science educators have suggested that there are rich benefits in learning that accrue from using laboratory activities  Contrary to this fact, more often than not, classroom teaching and learning of Chemistry in many secondary schools in Nigeria ends with talk and chalk exercises.

             The use of computer technologies to aid learning is usually manifested as programmed instruction which is an individualized and systematic instructional strategy found quite useful for classroom instruction as well as self-learning or auto-instruction and do come in different modes. A computer simulation is a computer programme that creates animated, interactive, game-like environments, which focus on connecting real-life phenomena to the underlying science. Within this process, it makes the visual and conceptual models designed by experts and scientists simple, so that they can be understood by learners. 

            Being cognizant of the problem posed to students during classroom instruction in Chemistry, this study seeks to find out the use of computer simulation in teaching chemistry to senior secondary school students in Jos North and Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State.

1.3    Aims and objectives

The general objective of this work is to ascertain the usefulness of computer simulators in teaching Chemistry to senior secondary school students in Jos North and Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. The aims and objectives of this study include:

  1. To find out the effect of using computer simulation in teaching chemistry.
  2. To ascertain the attitude of students toward the use of computer simulators in teaching Chemistry.
  • To establish a difference between students taught using computer simulators and those taught without it.

 1.4               Research questions

  1. What is the effect of using computer simulators in teaching chemistry?
  2. What is the attitude of students towards the use of computer simulators in teaching Chemistry?
  • What is the difference in the achievement between students taught Chemistry using computer simulators and those taught without it?

1.5       Significance of the Study

This study is significant due to a number of reasons. First, the outcome of the study is expected to provide empirical evidence that would be useful to teachers of Chemistry in the classroom, curriculum developers as well as textbooks writers. As any research effort in on computer simulators could contribute tremendously by providing the necessary information about the effects and use of computer simulators during classroom class room instructions in Chemistry. The study could help Chemistry teachers to realize that mastery of Chemistry is largely dependent on the integration and proper usage of computer simulators. This realization would make teachers discover that one of the primary ways of instruction in Chemistry instruction is through the use of computer simulators. The study therefore made some useful suggestions which could encourage Chemistry teachers to use different materials in developing the content for Chemistry instruction.

             Also, the study would be useful to curriculum planners, educational administrators, textbooks writers and other stakeholders. Curriculum planners would need to take into consideration the need for proper and adequate use of the relevant materials and equipment to impart the knowledge of Chemistry appropriately. The findings from the study could also help curriculum planners to include segments where students would be taught strictly using computer simulators. The study could also provide guide for using computer simulators in teaching Chemistry. In fact, curriculum planners and all those concerned might come to appreciate the areas of difficulties of teachers of Chemistry and make necessary adjustments in the Chemistry curriculum.

1.6       Scope and Delimitation

The scope of this research study is going to be restricted to ascertaining the use of computer simulators in the teaching of chemistry.

              There are ten schools in the area, but this study would be restricted to cover four schools in Jos North and Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. The schools to be used in conducting the research includes two public schools and two private schools in the area. This is to achieve an in-depth treatment that the research desires since the study is strictly interested in finding out the use of computer simulators in Chemistry instruction in Secondary Schools in Jos North and Jos South Local Government Areas of Plateau State.

1.7       Definition of terms

Use: take hold, or deploy (something) as a means of accomplishing or achieving something; employ.

Computer: an electronic machine that can store, organize and find information, do calculations and control other machines.

Simulation: a situation in which a particular set of conditions is created artificially in order to study or experience something that could exist in reality.

Computer simulation: is the process of mathematical modeling, performed on a computer, which is designed to predict the behaviour of, or the outcome of, a real world or physical system.

Teaching: the occupation, profession or work of a teacher.
















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