THE ROLES OF PARENTS TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (P.T.A) IN ENHANCING SCHOOL MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIYOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
THE ROLES OF PARENTS TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (P.T.A) IN ENHANCING SCHOOL MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIYOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration Page – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – vii
1.1. Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the problem – – – – – – 8
1.3. Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 9
1.4. Research Questions – – – – – – – 10
1.5. Significance of the Study – – – – – – 10
1.6. Scope/Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 11
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 11
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
METHOD AND PROCEDURE
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 28
3.1 Research Design- – – – – – – – – 28
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study – – – – – 28
3.4 Sampling Technique- – – – – – – – 29
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 30
3.5.1 Description of the Instrument – – – – – – 30
3.5.2 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument- – – – – 30
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection- – – – – – – 31
3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 32
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction- – – – – – – – – 33
4.1. Results- – – – – – – – – – 33
4.2 Discussion of Findings- – – – – – – – 38
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Finding- – – – – – – – 40
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 41
5.3 Recommendations- – – – – – – – 41
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies – – – – – 42
References- – – – – – – – – 43
Appendixes – – – – – – – – – 47
This project was carried out in order to examine the roles of Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A) in enhancing school management of secondary schools in Riyom Local Government Area. The survey research design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of all the secondary schools teachers (both PTA and regular) in Riyom. The sample of the study consisted of 150 respondents from ten schools. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. The questionnaire served as the instrument for data collection. The method of data analysis was the simple percentage and simple mean scores. The findings of the study indicated that PTA does not involve the community in their meetings, community is not employed by the PTA. On the challenges facing PTA, it was discovered that they include lack of understanding on what the role of the P.T.A should be, apathy of parent members, government undue interference in the activities of the P.T.A. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended, that government reviews the edit establishing the PTA and make attendance to PTA meetings and membership of PTA compulsory for parents in their children’s schools, PTA should know their responsibilities and limits of their responsibilities, government should try and provide enough funds and school materials and delegate government officials as representatives at PTA meetings,
1.4. Background of the Study
Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) is a voluntary and welfare organization that brings together the major stakeholders in education, which are the parents, guardians and teachers of pupils in a particular school. They help in fund-raising, maintenance of discipline, seeing to the welfare of the school, and creating a bound between the school, the home, and the community, between the parents and the teachers and building parent involvement at school and other activities relating to the welfare of the school, rather than the progress of individual pupils. Eze, (2008) defined P.T.A as “a membership organization for parents of students/pupils and teachers of schools. The association is a group made up of parents, teachers and sometimes others within the school community. They provide a range of opportunities for parents or care givers to be actively involved in supporting schools, for the overall benefits of their children. The importance of PTA cannot be over emphasized, especially now that it is clear that government alone cannot shoulder the responsibility of providing qualitative education for every citizen.”
After the government took over schools, the State Government saw the need for the involvement of the community especially the Parents-Teachers Association in the administration of Schools. It saw that it was obvious that government alone cannot cater for the education of the children, and that there is the need to involve the Parents Teachers Association. The children, belong to the Parents who are the main members of PTA, therefore, the education of the children is important to them too. It is a collective responsibility. Government plays its role, and parents including teachers, play their own role in the education of the children. Ezeocha, (2000), saw the Parents-Teachers Association as a voluntary and welfare association of parents/ guardians of children of a particular school with the teachers who teach in that school as members. Parents Teachers Association also helps to promote an understanding between the home and the school, which is between the teachers, the parents and the student. Ukeje, (2002), sees Parents Teachers Association as a formal establishment that comprises parents whose children are currently registered as students in a school with teachers in that school. From the definitions we see that though parents sometimes are not really the official teachers of their children, they play an important role in the training of their children both at home and in the school; because they serve as a link between what happens at home and what happens in the school environment. This relationship between the school and the home helps to instill discipline in children, since a child would know that his activities both at home and in school can be monitored and communicated to either the school or the home. To Ohuche and Ali (2009), the purpose of the Parents-Teachers Association is to bring the home and the school close to each other, to study the problem of the children and if possible find solutions that are mutually beneficial to the parents, children and teachers.
The Parent-Teachers Association’s stated mission is to support and speak on behalf of children and youths in schools and in the community, and before governmental agencies and other organizations whose decisions affect children; to assist parents in developing the skills they need to raise and protect their children; and to encourage parental and public involvement in schools. Though the Parent-Teachers Association (PTA) was started by parents the need for teachers to be involved in it was seen hence the inclusion of teachers in the association. Oboegbulem (2004) said that “the teachers’ devotion to duty build up the status of the school community. The report card’s on students’ learning progress in school allows for indirect communication between the teachers and the parents and should be recognized as a valuable tool for improvement of public relations”.
Directly or indirectly the teacher is a link between the parents and the children who they are responsible for while in school. It’s a triangle from parents at home to teachers in school and back home. This should establish a more direct relationship between the teachers and the parents that is between the home and the school. Their responsibility to the children should be seen as a joint relationship. Eze saw the PTA as” playing a mediatory function, to bring about smooth teacher/student relationship, while improving quality education and good character of students. PTA should be there to encourage students to learn not only to respect school authorities but also to trust their teachers’ ability to mold them into responsible citizens.
The Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A) is aware of the numerous problems school encounters, apart from helping to instill discipline in schools, they help in providing the necessary funds and other services required in the school. Alhaji Haruna Danjuma, who assumed office in 2005, as the head of The National body of Parent Teachers Association (PTA) in Nigeria; spoke on the activities of the association and how to assist in ensuring effective learning in schools. According to him:
The objectives of PTA are to complement the efforts of the government in educating our children. We collectively accepted to go into it to make things easier for the government, the children, the teachers and, of course, assist in engaging the activities of part-time teachers and non-teaching staff and raising structures like classrooms, providing water, toilets and other necessary things that are needed in the school system, so that we can contribute our quota towards the welfare of children, teachers and parents in the education of our people by providing a conducive atmosphere to all levels of educational institutions.
The Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A) initiates moves to effect repairs, provide school buses, generating sets, water tankers, laboratory equipments, computer sets and even ambulances for the smooth running of the school and for a less stressful teaching and learning. Ndu, Ocho, and Okeke, (2007) say that parents organize themselves in groups mainly the age groups or age grades. These groups are involved in the provision of one type of project or another to help the state government in its efforts to provide the citizens with education.
PTA’s need in the school system cannot be over-emphasized, it provides a link between the parents, the teachers and the children, a link between the school and the community, it gives financial and material support to the school, and it supports and motivates both staff and students. Since the parents live with the children; the teachers teach them most part of the day, there has to be a sort of partnership between the two for a proper harmonization of the education system. Emphasis is on the harmonization of the education system, and creating a link between the home and the school. The link is through the PTA, a child’s activity is monitored both at home and in the school; the PTA provides some of the things the required in the school both emotionally and financially, bridging the gap between the community and the school. But in most parts the PTA is made to only make financial obligations to the school, forgetting that the child needs more than finance for proper upbringing. However, the tone of this association in Nigeria has assumed an unfamiliar ring. It appears to be mainly to raise funds for the erection of buildings and provision of equipment. Little seems to be going on by way of helping parents to understand their children better or parents helping teachers to appreciate the community and share its hopes and aspirations.
Education should be seen as a serious issue, if planning is faulty or when we fail to plan, we’ve planned to fail, therefore education should be planned more effectively. It should be noted that parents, teachers, students, schools as well as the society equally contribute to the unhealthy situation experienced today in the education sector. Without doubt, education in the hands of the state governments is not getting adequate attention. There is poor handling of secondary education by many state governments. The poor handling is manifested in non effective teaching staff and lack of good learning environment, lack of self confidence in students and consequent examination malpractices. Hence the need for active involvement of the PTA, and in effect the combination of the PTA, and the teachers that teaches. The combined effort of both parties will make a positive impact, in administration, maintenance of disciple and in equipping the schools adequately.
The Parents Teachers Association was set up, not to take over the running of schools from the principals, or school administrators, but to complement the efforts of government and school staff, for the well being of everybody in the school environment. Government needs to step in and improve on the modalities for improving the participation of the PTA in the administration of schools. Teachers need not feel that the PTA is taking over their jobs, school administrators should not feel that their jobs are being taken over by the PTA, the PTA would know their limits and not interfere but allow the experts to do their jobs. With proper intervention by the government, school authorities and staff would accept the PTA, and PTA’s, help would be better taken by them.
Government should also specify the role the PTA can play, in planning, organizing, decision making, motivating staffing, budgeting etc. bearing in mind some of the suggestions already made, like the 1976 edict of the then Anambra State government, section 18 (6) which state as follows:
i. To show such intimate interest in and concern for the affairs of the school as to ensure the achievement of high moral standards and academic excellence in co-operation with the Board of Governor or the school community as the case may be.
ii. To provide an effective link between the home and the school.
iii. To assist the Board of Governors or the school committee in ensuring cordial relationship between the school and the community.
iv. To give moral and financial support to the school.
v. The Parents Teachers Association may make representation to the authorities in the interest of the welfare and progress of the school, its pupils/students or staff but shall not otherwise directly interfere with the day to day administration of the school.
From the above it would be seen that the role of the PTA in school is much, but government must come out clearly to empower especially the PTA’s of government schools. PTA helps in disciplinary matters, that is by helping the school decide what proper punishment to give to earring students, how best to motivate both staff and students, bridging the gap between the home and the school, bring the community closer to the school, support the school financially; This could be done by the PTA helping to equip the school, make some repairs, buy some infrastructural facilities needed.
Teachers are also parents and as part of the P.T.A they have the most crucial and active part to play in the effectiveness of the role of the association; they will, welcome the assistance from parents once they have accepted the initial idea of parents helping in a really practical manner. Teachers will then see parents as partners in progress in the education of the children because a great demand is made on parents, for instance, raising funds to supplement equipment is of course, an important part of parental involvement, especially at this time of high cost of living in Nigeria. If teachers give their full cooperation and support, there would be mutual understanding and a better working environment all round. The P.T.A is poised to do everything in their power to move education forward.
From the foregoing discussion, it can be seen that the roles of PTA are enormous, therefore, it is in the light of this that this research seeks out to determine the roles of PTA in enhancing school management in Riyom Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.5. Statement of the problem
A lot of parents appreciate the need for good education and would leave no stone unturned to see that their children get good quality education therefore, the need for parents and teachers to come together to bring about a positive change in the school system. But there seems to be a lot of problems that hinder their participation. Government has not properly defined the role of the PTA in schools; PTA cannot do much if they do not know what they can do. Some PTA members are not really interested in what is done, so does not either go for meetings or not regular members. Some PTA members are afraid of the financial involvement; government has not helped matters because they insist they must know about PTA contributions and how the money contributed are spent. Some teachers do not like PTA participation, and so are not interested. Rules and regulations are not given to all members. This makes them not to what the body was established. Parents that are not educated but still made it in life, do not understand the question about PTA and what it could do for their children. Some uneducated members are afraid to attend PTA functions, because they feel they might show their ignorance in the midst of others. Some times influential members get to represent the school in matters they know nothing about.
The Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A) is not only seen as an avenue of generating fund, building project and donating things to the school. They are much more than that, the P.T.A can provide other services like awareness talks, seminars etc, they attract government through their influence and the school even consult the P.T.A in some crises situations. They bridge the gap between the school and the home by actively getting involved in what happens in the lives of the students both at home and in the school and not only to raise funds and erect buildings. However, the tone of this association in Nigeria has assumed an unfamiliar ring. It appears to be mainly to raise funds for the erection of buildings and provision of equipment. Little seems to be going on by way of helping parents to understand their children better or parents helping teachers to appreciate the community and share its hopes and aspirations.
The P.T.A’s involvement in school administration is not a threat but an additional strength and an avenue to boost and improve school administration and finance. Government regulation stipulates that the P.T.A must take permission from government before they can embark on or spend money on any projects. School also sometimes does not like PTA to interfere on how levies collected are spent, though governments now says that the P.T.A should not impose levies on students but rather make contributions themselves and handle monies collected by themselves. The intention here is to reduce the incidence of misappropriation of PTA funds.
Teachers’ non acceptance of the role of the P.T.A is another problem that exists and hinders the participation of the P.T A in the administration of secondary schools.s
1.6. Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the roles of Parents Teachers Association (P.T.A) in enhancing school management of secondary schools in Riyom Local Government Area. Specifically the study seek to:-
i) find out how the PTA can help to improve the relationship between the school and the community;.
ii) find out how the PTA can contribute to the maintenance of discipline;
iii) find out how to improve PTA’s participation in fund raising for the school;
iv) find out how to improve the relationship between the school and the PTA;
v) determine the role played by the PTA in managing the school as a unit.
vi) find out how to improve PTA participation in providing infrastructures and equipment in secondary schools.
1.4. Research Questions
The following are research questions that would help to guide the study:-
i) How can the PTA help to improve the relationship between the school and the community?
ii) What are the ways in which PTA can contribute to the maintenance of discipline in school?
iii) How can PTA’s participation in fund raising for the school be improved?
iv) How does the PTA enhance teaching and learning in school?
v) What is the role played by the PTA in managing the school as a unit.
vi) To what extent does PTA contribute in the provision of infrastructures and equipment?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is classified under two groups, the theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significance of this study is based on the system theory, while the practical significance is based on the direct beneficiaries which includes among others; the school principals, administrators, teachers and parents. It will also enable the stakeholders in education to appreciate the roles of teachers,’ principals and the PTA, and how they will complement each other.
From the findings also, the importance of involving the PTA in the administration of secondary schools will be appreciated. The study might initiate more studies in different areas, on the role of the Parents Teachers Association in schools.
1.6. Scope/Delimitation of the Study
This study covers the role of PTA in enhancing school management in some selected secondary schools. The selected schools for this study include:
i. Government Secondary School Ra-Hoss
ii. Government Secondary School Ryom
iii. Government Secondary School Rim
iv. Community Secondary School Ra-Hoss
v. Government Secondary Ganawuri
vi. Government Secondary School Kwagwi
vii. St. Andrew High School Ganawuri
viii. Yanang Academy Ganawuri
ix. Byian Secondary School Ganawuri
x. Government Secondary School Bum
The study shall be limited to Riyom Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, the findings of the research can be generalized to other parts of the state and country as well.
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms
In the light of the study, the following terms shall be used in the course of the study:
PTA: PTA stands for Parent Teacher Association, a school-based organization with a mission to make the school a better place for children to learn. Parents of students work together with teachers to volunteer in classes, raise money for school supplies, and generally support the school’s efforts.
School Management: School management is a situation whereby school authorities or PTA overlook the affairs of the school i.e. financially, disciplinarily, academically, etc to efficiently manage school functions and provide better educational experience to students.
Enhancing: Enhancing is defined as making something greater or improving the quality of something.
- Format: ms-word (doc)
- Chapter 1 to 5
- With abstract reference and questionnaire
- Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below
This Complete Project Material is Available for Instant Download Immediately After Payment of ₦3000.
Bank Name: United Bank of Africa (UBA)
Account Name: chianen kenter
Account Number: 2056899630
Account Type: savings