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  • Background of the Study

Business education is one of the occupational areas that are richly provided by vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Business education refers to a programme of instruction that offers various skills in accounting, marketing and Office Technology and Management (OTM). Major topics include: office practice, book keeping, business mathematics, business communication, secretarial duties, word processing, advertising (Ajisafe, Bolarinwa & Edeh 2015). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) had stipulated that the actual goals of business education shall be to: prepare students for specific career in office occupations; equip students with the requisite skills for job creation and entrepreneurship; and expose students with knowledge about business, including a good blend of computer technology, which incorporates Information and Communication Technology (ICT). They further explained that the first two goals involve education ‘for’ business, which is aimed at equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, competencies, and attitudes) to become gainfully employed in the world of work, whereas the later addresses education ‘about’ business, which is aimed at providing a sound basis for further studies at the graduate and post-graduate levels.

Some contemporary thinkers in education and training conceive of business education as a major contributor to human resource, entrepreneurial and national development. Despite these laudable roles, available indications have shown that Nigeria have been handling business education with levity (Edokpolor & Egbri, 2017). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) added that this situation has consequently deprived business education from adequate provision of funds, qualified manpower, modern facilities, quality curriculum, and proper attention. Although, business education have attracted bulk of research within these areas leaving a gap in literature pertaining to empirical support. Also, it remain unclear how the possibilities of overcoming the issues and challenges of business education would help in promoting national development. However, adequate optimization of resources for the effective delivery of business education in Nigeria is receiving a growing attention (Edokpolor & Oduma, 2017). This is because vocational education in general has been considered as a viable programme that helps to promote sustainable economic growth and development. It is believed that for any nation to help in promoting sustainable economic growth or development, effort shall be made to invest sufficient amount of financial resources on business education programme.

Business Education plays a pivotal role in equipping graduates with the necessary knowledge and skills to thrive in the dynamic world of commerce and entrepreneurship. Through a comprehensive curriculum encompassing subjects like accounting, marketing, management, and economics, business education programs empower students to grasp fundamental concepts and strategies vital for success in the corporate landscape. However, to bridge the gap between theoretical learning and practical application, the integration of an Industrial Training Scheme (ITS) has emerged as an indispensable component in the journey of business education graduates towards becoming industry-ready professionals (Akinyemi, 2012). The ITS presents a unique opportunity for these aspiring graduates to immerse themselves in real-world business environments, gain hands-on experience, and refine their skills under the guidance of seasoned professionals. This symbiotic relationship between Business Education and the Industrial Training Scheme not only nurtures a talented and competent workforce but also significantly impacts the subsequent job performance of graduates.

Within the context of the Industrial Training Scheme, Business Education graduates are offered an invaluable chance to put their acquired knowledge into practice, enabling them to develop a profound understanding of the practical challenges and complexities present in the corporate world. According to Davou (2018), the exposure gained through ITS fosters a sense of adaptability and resilience, as graduates encounter real-time business scenarios that demand innovative problem-solving and critical thinking. Moreover, the ITS serves as a platform for students to cultivate essential interpersonal skills, such as communication, teamwork, and leadership, which are indispensable for thriving in today’s professional landscape. As they navigate through the intricacies of the industrial setting, these graduates not only refine their academic acumen but also foster a strong work ethic and a deeper appreciation for the value of collaboration. As a result, the influence of the Industrial Training Scheme on job performance becomes apparent as Business Education graduates emerge as competent and confident individuals ready to make meaningful contributions to their respective organizations and the broader economy.

Industrial Training, sometimes known as IT, is a skill development project that was launched in 1973 by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) and has its headquarters in Jos, Nigeria. Because it bridges the gap between theory and practise, it is designed to make it possible for students enrolled in tertiary institutions in Nigeria to obtain the technical skills and experiences necessary for professional growth as part of their course of study. It is the recognised skills training plan that is offered in Nigerian educational institutions of higher learning, and it is incorporated as an authorised academic prerequisite in a variety of degree programmes. Before they can graduate, students are required to complete this course, which is worth three credit units. The programme is a structured, supervised training and intervention programme that is based on specified and specific learning and career objectives, leading to the development of occupational competencies in the participants. The programme is known as the scheme. It is also to expose and prepare students in higher learning institutions for the industrial work circumstances which they are to confront after graduation. This will happen once they have graduated. The programme assists students in becoming familiar with work practises and provides them with the opportunity to gain the essential experience working with hand equipment and machinery that is not available in their educational institutions.

Students are given the opportunity to develop the skills they will need to make a seamless transition from the classroom to the working world as part of an effort to close the gap that currently exists between theory and practise. Students are afforded the opportunity to acquire the practical experience and technical skills necessary for furthering their education through this programme. Before the Scheme was established, there was a rising worry among Nigerian industrialists that graduates of institutions of higher learning lacked the required practical background experience that is necessary for employment. This issue was prompted by the fact that graduates of such institutions lacked the necessary experience. Therefore, businesses were of the opinion that the theoretical education offered by higher education institutions did neither meet nor satisfy the requirements that the economy required. It was against this backdrop that the Fund, during its early years, established IT with the intention of providing students with the chance of exposure to handle equipment and machinery in industry, which would enable them to acquire required practical knowledge and skills. Because the scheme (IT) functions as a catalyst for industrial growth and productivity through professional development, the skills aimed at exposing students to professional work techniques in an effort to boost their employability.1974 marked the beginning of the Scheme, which initially consisted of 748 members spread over eleven (11) different educational institutions. By the year 1978, its reach had been broadened to encompass around five thousand (5,000) participants hailing from thirty-two (32) distinct universities across the nation. In 1979, the Industrial Training Fund withdrew from managing the scheme as a result of difficulties in organisational logistics and an increased financial load brought on by the rapid rise of information technology (IT). Students, educational institutions, and private businesses will all have a role in the implementation of this plan, making it a tripartite initiative. In Nigeria, information technology is funded by the federal government (through the ministry of commerce and industry), and it is managed by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). The goals of this programme are to 1) make education more pertinent, and 2) bridge the yearning gap between the theory and practise of engineering, technology, and other related disciplines in Nigeria’s tertiary institutions. The various organisations that are involved in the operation of information technology are referred to as the stakeholders. These stakeholders include the Federal Government of Nigeria (through the Ministry of Commerce and Industry), the Industrial Training Fund, the National University Commission (NUC), the National Board of Technical Colleges (NBTC), the National Council of Colleges of Education (NCCE), the institution itself, the industries or employers, and the students.

A sort of collaborative industrial internship programme, IT is something that all of its stakeholders participate in. Students are the key actors who are directly involved in the implementation of IT, while all other stakeholders have a lower role to play in the real training process. Although all stakeholders are involved in the operation of IT, only students are directly involved in its implementation. IT is considered to be a general subject because it is covered in more than sixty (60) different programmes at universities, over forty (40) different programmes at polytechnics, and over ten (10) different programmes at colleges of education. Students from higher educational institutions who are enrolled in Library and Information Science, Engineering, Vocational, or Technological programmes, as well as other related programmes, are eligible to participate in this training session. Agricultural science, forestry, industrial chemistry, microbiology, geology and mineral science, physics and mineral science, plant and environmental biology, computer science, tourism and hospitality, business education, industrial engineering, enterprise creation and management are some of the other courses that are involved in information technology.

  • Statement of the Problem

There is a shift towards placing a greater focus, within the Lafia Local Government Area, on the significance of bridging the gap between theoretical education and the development of practical skills. Nevertheless, despite the fact that Industrial Training schemes have been implemented for Business Education students, there is still a lack of complete awareness regarding the actual influence that these schemes have on the work performance of graduates in the field.

This study tends to examine and analyse the role that the Industrial Training scheme plays on the work performance of Business Education graduates in the Lafia Local Government Area. The study’s goal is to investigate and analyse the role that the Industrial Training scheme plays. This research intends to determine the unique benefits and limitations of the scheme in preparing graduates for their professional careers by examining the experiences of former and current Business Education students who have participated in Industrial Training. This will be done by examining the experiences of business education students who have gone through Industrial Training.




  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the role of Industrial Training scheme on Job performance of Business Education graduates in Lafia Local Government Area. Other specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To find out the importance of Industrial Training (IT)
  2. To evaluate the attitudes of students towards Industrial Training (IT)
  • To determine the challenges confronting Industrial Training (IT)
    • Research Questions

            The study postulated the following questions to serve as a guide in the research process:

  1. What are the importance of Industrial Training (IT)?
  2. What are the attitudes of students towards Industrial Training (IT)?
  3. What are the challenges confronting Industrial Training (IT)?
    • Hypothesis

the following hypotheses were postulated to be test at 0.05 level of significance:

H0: There is no significant relationship between Industrial Training scheme and Job performance of Business Education graduates in Lafia Local Government Area.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between Industrial Training scheme and Job performance of Business Education graduates in Lafia Local Government Area

  • Significance of the Study

            The significance of IT cannot be over emphasized. Hence, the study will be of great significance to curriculum planners.

  1. Business Education Graduates: The primary beneficiaries of this study are the Business Education graduates in Lafia Local Government Area. They will gain valuable insights into the impact of the Industrial Training scheme on their job performance. The findings of the study can help them understand the significance of their practical training experiences and how it relates to their job success and career advancement.
  2. Educational Institutions: The study’s results will be beneficial to educational institutions offering Business Education programs in Lafia Local Government Area. They can use the findings to improve their curriculum and training methods, ensuring that their graduates are adequately prepared for the job market and meet the demands of employers in various industries.
  3. Employers and Industries: Employers in different industries in Lafia Local Government Area will benefit from the study’s outcomes by understanding the positive effects of hiring Business Education graduates who have undergone industrial training. They will gain insights into the enhanced skills and competencies possessed by these graduates, potentially leading to improved job performance and productivity in their organizations.
  4. Government and Policy Makers: Government agencies and policymakers in charge of education and workforce development can use the study’s findings to inform their decisions and policies related to industrial training programs. This research can help them allocate resources effectively, design better training initiatives, and create supportive policies that bridge the gap between academia and industry.
  5. Future Researchers: The study will serve as a valuable resource for future researchers interested in the relationship between industrial training schemes and job performance. It can provide a foundation for further investigation into similar topics or offer a benchmark for comparative studies in other regions or disciplines.
  6. Local Community: The local community in Lafia Local Government Area can benefit indirectly from this research as it may contribute to a more skilled and competent workforce, potentially leading to economic growth and job opportunities within the area. A better-trained workforce could also lead to a positive impact on the overall standard of living and quality of life in the community.
  7. Society at Large: A well-trained and highly skilled workforce can have broader implications for society as a whole. By enhancing job performance, the study’s findings may contribute to increased economic development, reduced unemployment rates, and overall societal progress, thereby benefiting the larger community outside of Lafia Local Government Area.
    • Scope of the Study

The study is on the role of Industrial Training scheme on Job performance of Business Education graduates in Lafia Local Government Area after graduation. It is conducted in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study covered industries in the area mentioned above.

  • Definition of Terms

Importance: The benefit of something to a particular person or group of persons.

IT: Industrial Training (IT) is a skill development programme established by Industrial Training Fund (ITF). It is also an effort to bridge the existing gap between theory and practice and expose students to necessary skills for smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work.

Graduate: A person who has received a degree or diploma on completing a course of study, as in a university, college, or school. a student who holds the bachelor’s or the first professional degree and is studying for an advanced degree.

Employment: Is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does and/or which sector she or he is working in.

Industry: The manufacturing or technically productive enterprises in a particular field, country, region, or economy viewed collectively, or one of these individually. A single industry is often named after its principal product; for example, the auto industry. Any general business activity or commercial enterprise that can be isolated from others, such as the tourist industry or the entertainment industry.

  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below

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