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Title page – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – vii

1.1 Background of the study – – – – – 1-4
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 4-5
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – 6
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – 6-7
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – 8
1.6 Research Hypothesis – – – – – 9
1.7 Delimitation of the Study – – – – 9-10
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – 10-12

2.0 Introduction – – – – – – 13-15
2.1 The Concept of Community Based Rehabilitation – 15-21
2.2 The Concept of Visual Impairment – – – 22-25
2.3 Significance of CBR to the Visual Impaired Children 26-27
2.3.1 Actions for Health – – – – – – 27-28
2.3.2 Actions for Education – – – – – 28
2.3.3 Actions for Livelihood – – – – – 29
2.3.4 Actions for Social – – – – – – 29
2.3.5 Actions for Empowerment – – – – 29-30
2.4. Components of Community Based Rehabilitation – 30
2.4.1 Health Component – – – – – – 30-31
2.4.2 Education Components – – – – – 31-32
2.4.3 Livelihood Components – – – – – 32-34
2.5 The Principles of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR)34-36
2.6 The Main Objectives of Community Based Rehabilitation
(CBR) – – – – – – – 36-37
2.7 The Benefits of Community Based Rehabilitation
(CBR) Programmes – – – – – 37-38
2.8 The Process of Community Based Rehabilitation
(CBR) Programmes – – – – – 39-43
2.9 The challenges of Community Based Rehabilitation
(CBR) Programmes – – – – – 43-46

3.0 Introduction – – – – – 47
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – 47-48
3.3 Sampling Techniques – – – – – 49
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection – – – 50
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument – – – 50-51
3.6 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 51-52
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 53
4.2 Data Presentation – – – – – – 54
4.2.1 Personal Data of the Respondents – – – – 55-56
4.3 Research Questions Analysis – – – – 56-78

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – 79-80
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 80-81
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 81-82
5.4 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 83
References – – – – – – 84-88
Appendix A
Appendix B

The research work examines the impact of Community Based Rehabilitation Services on persons with visual impairment in Sabongida Community of Langtang South Local Government Area of Plateau State. Visually impairment occurs when any part of the optical system is defective, diseased or malfunction. Community Based Rehabilitation Services stands in as a gap to provide employment to persons that are blind or visually impaired who are looking for jobs or want to retain or advance in their current careers. CBR believes that with the right specialized independent living skills, orientation and mobility training, adaptive technology and vocational training opportunities that makes the visually impaired competitive and valuable employee within their communities. A survey exam was used and a sample of 20 people each from the five divisions of the town drawn using random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was the instrument for data collection with formulated questions to guide the study. The data obtained were analysed using mean score. The results obtained showed that Community Based Rehabilitation Service has a very strong impact on the life of a person with visual impairment, for if restored back to lost glory of the visually educationally, vocationally, socially and economically. Also discussed, was the concept of CBR and visual impairment, significance of CBR to the visually impaired, the components, principle and the objectives.

1.1. Background of the Study
Development initiative has often been top-down, initiated by policy-makers of locations far removed from community level, and designed without involvement of the community. It is now recognized that one of the essential elements of development is involvement of the community as individuals, groups or organizations, or by representation at all stages of the development process including planning, implementation and monitoring. A community-based approach helps to ensure that development reaches the poor and marginalized, and facilitates more inclusive, realistic and sustainable initiatives (WHO, 2010).
The World Disability Report estimates that there are over one billion people with disabilities in the world, of which between 110-190 million experience very significant difficulties (WHO, 2011). People with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments resulting from any physical or mental health condition which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others (UN, 2008).
“Unless disabled people are brought into the development mainstream, it will be impossible to cut poverty in half by 2015 or to give every girl and boy the chance to achieve a primary education by the same date which is among the goals agreed upon by more than 180 world leaders at the UN Millennium summit in September 2000” (James Wolfenhn, 2002).
Poverty and disability has many aspects it is more than just the lack of money or income “poverty erodes or nullifies economic and social rights such as the right to health, adequate housing, food and safe water, and the right to education. The same is true of civil and political rights, such as the right to a fair trial, political participation and society of the person” (WHO, 2010).
Koffi Anna added added that, “wherever we life one soul from a life of poverty, we are defending human rights. And whenever we fail in this mission, we are failing human rights.” Hence, this is what CBR standout for, to rescue the life of people with disabilities (visual impaired or the physically challenged).
A key large scale strategy which springs from this right-based approach to disability is community Based Rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, and social inclusion of all people with disabilities (WHO, ILO & UNESCO, 2004).
In 2004, the Joint Position Paper of (WHO, ILO & UNESCO , 2004) recognizes that people with disabilities should have access to all services which are available to people in the community, such as community health services, child health, social welfare and education programmes that match with their disabilities especially the Braille writing of the visual impaired compared to their non-disabled counterpart.
It also emphasizes human rights and calls for actions against poverty, government support and policies development for the disabled. The early programmes were focused on physiotherapy, assistive devices and medical or surgical interventions. Also, educational activities and livelihood opportunities through skills-training or income generation programmes and a lobby for loans and assistance to invest and attain to education as a common goal, (MDG, 2000).
The researcher’s interest on this topic, “The impact of Community Based Rehabilitation services on the Visual Impaired (disability)” is because most rehabilitation activities in Nigeria often take place in homes and hospitals in cities, living a good number of our disabled people in the rural areas been “parasite on their families and the communities by begging for alms or depending on others for their livelihood, making life miserable experience” (WHO, 2011).
Hence, failing in the campaign for their families and communities from stigmatizing and discriminating them as the only people living close to them; instead of helping them (People with Disability) to come out productive and make (counseled) them to accept their condition and feel belong.
CBR can also enables the family and the community to know some roots causes of disabilities and worked towards curtailing them for the future, and to also see the need for some visually impaired to get enrolled in schools specially meant for them and other vocations for life sustainability.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
It is widely reported that people living with disabilities especially the visual impaired are excluded from education, health, employment and other aspects of society and that this can potentially lead to exacerbate poverty (WHO, 2011). This to a large extent makes most special needs persons more often than not become parasite on their family and the community by begging for alms or depending on others for their livelihood, making life a miserable experience. This exclusion is contrary to the essence of the United Nations (UN) without considering the special need persons especially need persons especially the physically challenged. Physical obstacles and social barriers prevent these people from participating in community and social life.
The research is designed to answer the following questions:
i. Whether education, vocation, empowerment and medical attention can raise productivity in the life of people with Visual Impairment (disability).
ii. To ascertain the ratio of disabled (visual impaired) in school, vocation, empowerment and treated of illment to the ones who do not.
iii. To examine the awareness of families and the community in the causes of visual impairment and the ways of curtailing them.
iv. To what extent does family and community stigmatized and discriminate people with visual impairment (disability)?
v. Do the family and community benefit any referral services of their words?
1.3. Purpose of the Study
Ozoji, (1993/2005), sees the purpose of any CBR activity to be that of a “rescue mission” to people with disabilities. However, the researcher has the following purpose for the study:
To educate visual impaired (disabled) to accept their condition.
To rehabilitate families and communities to accept the visual impaired (disabled) children as part of them without stigma and discrimination.
To empower the visual impaired to independence through vocations to stop begging or been borden on relations.
To enhance referral of the disabled on medical, educational, vocational and empowerment purposes.
1.4. Significance of the Study
If the outcome of this research is found worth, valuable and worthwhile, the visual impaired and other forms of disabilities in our communities will have a place in their families, communities and nations and the world at large; in contribution of their quarter for the good of themselves, family, community, nation and the world as well.
The importance of this will be much felt in the area of future occurrence of disabilities which must record a decrease if not eradicated as a result of the awareness campaign during the study period leading to an eye-opening opportunity for rural areas to come to the know of some causes and preventive measures to the pathogens such as prompt sanitation of the environment to clear their brooding centres, prompt immunization for children under five years of age, constant medical check, stopping drugs abuse to mentioned a few.
To the entire community, knowledge on how to take good care of the visual impaired (disabled) are made known as a result of the CBR interaction. Some of the untapped resources of the community are harnessed for used to the disabled in the area of vocational training.
Most potential abilities in the disabled partners are raised to lamp-light as a source of glory to his/her life time.
Moreso, the research will reposition the families and the community in the habit of stigmatization and discrimination of the visual impaired (disabled) which is seen as a major killer.

1.5. Research Questions
i. Are visual impaired children (disabled) given the same rights in the family and community to their non-disabled counterpart?
ii. Are there visual impaired (disabled) children in the schools in Sabongida?
iii. Is the ratio of visual impaired (disabled) on streets greater than those in school?
iv. Do the family and community benefited any sensitization on disability matters?
v. Is there any disabled child in any vocational training in Sabongida?
vi. Has there been any empowerment scheme to any visual impaired in Sabongida?
vii. Are there craftmen in Sabongida to train the disabled?
viii. Is there any training centre in Sabongida?
ix. Is there any special school in Sabongida?
x. Are families and communities aware of the causes of visual impairment?

1.6. Hypothesis
The researcher chose to use the following for testing his research:
i. There is no significant relationship between Community Based Rehabilitation and the visual impaired children
ii. There is significant relationship between Community Based Rehabilitation and visual impaired children.
1.7. Delimitation of the Study (scope)
The researcher intends to find out the “Impact of Community Based Rehabilitation services on persons with visual impairment in Sabongida, Langtang South were he uses the five divisions of the town for the research work.
These are: Angwan Bwarat, Angwan Langtang, Angwan Zini, Angwan Goemai, Angwan Millionnaires.
Due to the duration time on the side of the researcher, he is choosing to use the following community Based Rehabilitation strategies:
– Awareness campaign to families and communities of the visual impaired and other children with one forms of disabilities or the other, in taking note os some causes and prevention of disabilities.
– Enhancing them on the need to make referral of disabilities for medical attention as the need arises.
– To imbibe the spirit of sending their disabled counterparts to school meant for them to maximize their potentials.
– And above all, to rehabilitate them to accept disabled partners as part of them.
Questionnaire will be used as a method of collecting data by random sampling across the five divisions of the town. Data will be analysed using chi-square.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
In the course of this research work, the following words are going to be used:
– CBR: It refers to an effort to entrust members of the family and the community with the task to perform rehabilitation functions. This way, rehabilitation process is simplified in a way that illiterate community members are able to carryout therapeutic exercises, produce and use simple aids and services, (Ozoji, 1993/2005).
– Client: Is a person who received help or advise from a professional person (social worker, psychiatrist and rehabilitator) or any other person around him.
– Visual Impairment: Is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
– Rehabilitation: Is a measure which is aimed at reducing the impact of disability for an individual, enabling him or her to achieve independence, social integration, a better quality of life and self-actualization.
– Health: Is a state of optional body performance or functioning.
– Pathogens: Are disease causing agents.
– Inclusion: Is an act of allowing disabled the opportunity to access education, employment, healthcare etc as any other person does.
– DPO: Disabled people organization.
– Advocacy: Means to ask and persuade for the disabled persons welfare and wellbeing.
– Empowerment: The essence is that people with disabilities and their families take responsibility for their development. That is, changing their mindset from passive receivers to active contributors in families, communities life, in learning, playing, working and household activities, in politics and cultural activities.
– Disabled: Is an inability of an individual to perform a task carriedout by his grade.
– Community: Cluster of people living in an area.






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