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Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – — ix

1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 4
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – 4
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – 5
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study – – – – 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms – – – 6
2.1 Concept of Poverty – – – – – – 8
2.2 Causes of household poverty in Nigeria – – – 10
2.3 The nature of household poverty in contemporary
Societies – – – – – – – – 13
2.4 household poverty and educational development of the
Girl-child – – – – – – – – 15
2.5 The effects of household poverty on educational
Attainment of the Girl-child – – – – – 17
2.6 measure in improving educational status of Girl-Child
Within House-hold – – – – – – – 19
2.7 theoretical framework – – – – – – 21
2.8 application of the theory on the effects of household poverty
on girl child educational attainment – – – – 24
2.9 summary of related literature – – – – – 26

3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 29
3.1 Research design – – – – – – 29
3.2 population of the study – – – – – – 30
3.3 sample size and sampling technique – – – – 30
3.4 description of the instrument – – – – – 31
3.5 validity and reliability of the instrument – – – 31
3.6 procedures for data collection – – – – – 31
3.7 method of data analysis – – – – – – 32

4.0 introduction – – – – – – – 34
4.1 personal data of respondents – – – – – 34
4.2 research question – – – – – – – 36
4.3 hypothesis – – – – – – – – 41
4.4 discussion of result – – – – – – 43


5.1 summary of findings – – – – – – 45
5.2 conclusion – – – – – – – – 46
5.3 recommendation – – – – – – – 46


The study examines the effects of household poverty on girl-child educational attainment, in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. Poverty is one of the major problems affecting most households today in Nigeria and other developing societies. The research methods used by the researchers includes research design, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, description of the instrument, validity and reliability of the instrument, procedure for data collection and method of data analysis. Questionnaires were distributed among the household of the study area who were given equal opportunity of being selected using systematic random sampling and two hundred and fifty (250) served as the sample size of the study. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and chi square method, from the analysis of the result, the hypothesis results show that there is a significant effect of household poverty on girl-child educational attainment. As the alternative hypothesis is accepted in the rejection of the null hypothesis, it was recommended that where is the need for greater participation of government in educational development with special consideration of girls with poor background. Government and other stakeholders should make a viable and accessible scholarship at all levels from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions to enables the girl-child improving their educational attainment etc. finally, bibliography, and appendix crown the report.

Poverty is one of the major problems affecting most households today in Nigeria and other developing societies. It is generally associated with condition under which people live. It is usually defined in absolute, relative and relative deprivation terms. Absolute poverty, this means not having enough money for basic needs. E.g. having shelter, a bed at night, not being able to eat everyday food, clothing and shelter are all needed for survival.
Relative poverty: this is measured by surveys of households throughout the country. The households are asked to state their weekly income. A minimum level of income is calculated and any one, whose weekly income is lower than minimum level, is living in relative income poverty. Relative deprivation is another aspect of poverty every person needs money for basic need. i.e. food, clothing and shelter, people also need other ‘necessities’ items and activities to lead a life that is considered the norm, when a person is unable to effort an items such as a warm coast or new clothes, they are experiencing relative deprivation. Although poverty is a worldwide phenomenon it has been observed that Nigeria is one of the poorest countries in the world, the situation has reached an alarming stage as more than forty-five percent of the population lives below the poverty line, sixty seven percent of the population extremely poor. For example, the federal office of statistics (F.O.S) reports for the period 0f 1980-1996 indicated that about seventy-six million (76 million)Nigerians are living below the poverty line in Nigeria. Urban poverty is prevalent and deep as a result of a combination of factors which include under provisions of facilities and amenities which are inadequate to meet the growing demand of urban populace resulting in scarcity premier with services rendered at prohibitive cost beyond the reach of average urbanities.
Former president of Nigeria Obasanjo in New gate (2003),stated that Nigerians are suffering, ‘I am not aware of the suffering in the land, but i am aware of the hardship they are going through’. Similarly, Abdullahi in the same paper says that poverty is ravaging Nigeria despite Nigerian potential in the 1960 is when the potential was discovered. The country has falling back to a position of 25th poorest country in the world. According to Abok,Jibrin and Sabang in news gate (2003), seventy percent (70%) of Nigerians are living below poverty line earning less than one Dollar per day this he argued that poverty is clear in the country.
However, transformation has made household experience poverty, industrialization, which leads to urbanization in turn leads to unemployment because people move from the rural area to urban areas in search of jobs in a situation where by the head of the household could not get employed he will not be able to take care of the household thus leading to poverty, more so food crises increase the level of the level of poverty in the country , inflation the price of commodities prevent those with low income to feet well and to meet the minimum needs of the house hold , and any family that cannot meet the basic necessity of life is said to be poor .
According to the federal office of statistics (1985-1992), half of the rural population is poor, half of the urban canters like Kano and Kaduna live in poverty and has low level of educational attainment the girl child is mostly affected by this consequences, while in urban areas like Lagos and Ibadan a quarter of the population is poor and has low level of educational attainment in the situation boys are preferred to be sent to school rather than girls.
Poverty therefore, is a social economic and political deprivation which makes an individual, household, community or nation powerless in analytical context, certain pertinent questions will be studied.
The issue of poverty is a global phenomenon in all human societies’ family in particular efforts by the government on poverty reduction by providing various programmes in the past. The federal government in collaboration with state and local government neared to the people have also been initiating plan for poverty alleviation to compliment the already existing ones.
These plans which are both sartorial and multi-sartorial include educational sector that is the compulsory and free educational skill, universal primary education (U.P.E) which is now universal basic education (U.B.E) and mass construction of schools, adult education programme and other programmes which are set aside to address the problem of poverty especially in the developing countries and in rural areas, yet situation of poverty is alarming in the society. Idris Jazairy (1992) said since poverty has been identified as a social problem the main focal concern to the research is how best humanity could be saved from this courage, because people living in poverty may stop going to school. Their children, in turn, are in a similar situation. The effects of household poverty on educational attainment of girl-child are wide-reaching and can lead to lifelong struggles, especially when young people do not receive full educations; therefore the researcher finds it necessary to investigate this problem in the study area.
i. To identify causes of household poverty: as a threat to the educational attainment off the girl child in the study area Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.
ii. To examine nature of household poverty in the study area.
iii. To examine the role of government and other agencies in supporting girl child education.
iv. To suggest measures that will help to educate the girl child

1. What are the effects of household poverty on girl child educational attainment?
2. What are the causes of household poverty among married couples in the study area?
3. What could be the factors militating against girl child educational attainment?
4. What measures could be taken to improve girl child education in the study area?
The following hypothesis has been formulated by the researchers:
Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant effect of household poverty on girl child educational attainment in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): There is a significant effect of household poverty on girl-child educational attainment in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.
This study is significant to the extent that poverty is one of the problems that households are experiencing in the contemporary Nigeria Society. Therefore, the research findings will provide measures to be adopted to promote girl child education in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State and beyond.
The research of these natures will also create awareness in promoting and protecting the rights of the girl child to education in the study area.
The findings of this research will also provide concrete awareness on our traditional rulers/leaders, opinion leaders, local, state and federal government as well as the general public the core of misconceptions and injustice and to the parents the essence of training a girl child along with the male child on education as applicable in other parts of the world.
The findings of this research work will also be beneficial to policy makers, government and the general public on how best to combat the problem of poverty among the household in the study area.
The findings of this research work on the effects of household poverty on girl child educational attainment will also serve the purpose of being a reference material which will be used in future by other researchers.
This study examines the effects of household poverty on girl–child educational attainment in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.

1. Household Poverty: Inability to provide sufficient income to satisfy its needs for food, shelter, education, clothing and transportation.
2. Educational Attainment: This refers to the level of academic qualification attained by any Mangu indigene up to the standard of primary, secondary, ND/NCE and HND/Degree.
3. Poverty Webster (1990), has observed that poverty can be defined in low ways, the first which is subsistence and the relative deprivation each of which is based on different assumption subsistence poverty is measured through an estimate of the average level of income necessary for purchasing sufficient food to satisfy income nutritional need of adults and children with a family interim of per capital. Relative deprivation perceived poverty as a process by which families, groups or individuals gradually ship out of the mainstream of social life almost unnoticeable without being the starve type’s paupers in rage and patterns (Webster 1990:20).
4. Girl: a female child or more generally, a female of any age.
5. Combat: to try to stop something unpleasant or a situation from happening or increasing.


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