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Cover Title Page – – – – — – – i
Title Page – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – — – – – v
Table of Content – – – – – – – vi
List of Table – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – viii

1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – 1-3
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – 3-6
1.3 Purpose of the study – – – – – 7
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – 7-8
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – 8
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – 8-9
1.7 Scope and delimitation of the study – – – – 9
1.8 Definition of terms – – – – – 9-10.

2.0 Introduction – – – – – 13
2.1. The concept stigmatization of hearing impaired person 13-15
2.2. The concept of hearing impairment – – – – 15-22
2.3. Types of hearing impaired persons – – – – 22-25
2.4. Causes of hearing impairment – – – – 25-37
2.5. Effects of stigmatization on hearing impaired persons – 37-44
2.6. Societal views of hearing impaired persons – – – 44-47
2.7. The challenges in education for children with
hearing impaired – – – — – – 48-50
2.8. The benefit of education to children with hearing impaired 50-56
3.1. Research design – – – – – – 57
3.2. Sample of population – – – – – – 57
3.3. Sampling techniques – – – – – – 57
3.4. Instrument for data collection – – – – – 58
3.5. Procedures for data collection – – – – – 58-59
3.6. Method of data analysis – – – – – – 59-60
3.7. Reliability and validity of instrument – – – 60

4. Introduction – – – – – – 61
4.1. personal data – – – – – – 61-65
4.2. Analysis of the research question – – – – 65-75
4.3. Testing of hypothesis – – – – – – 76-77
4.4. Discussion of result – – – – – – 77-86

5.1 Summary of findings – – – – – – 87-88
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 88-91
5.3 The recommendation – – – – – – 91-92
5.4 Limitation – – – – – – – 92-94
5.5 Suggestion for further studies – – – – – 94-95
References – – – – – – 96-97


The research is staged in order to take a very explicit and objective look at the causes and effects of stigmatization on the people with hearing impairment in Mutum-biyu (Gassol L.G.A.). The paper x-rayed the types of hearing impairment, their causes and effects on the hearing impaired persons. During the cause of the investigation, it was unfolded that the prominent causes of the menace in Mutum-biyu include; measles, mal-nutrition impromptu antenatal of the pregnant mothers. In a related development, the stereotypes, shame, discrimination were some of the outstanding impact felt. Others which are less pronounced include: isolation work denial and many more. It was also gather during the findings that, there are great benefits in educating an hearing impairment is as old as man himself. But its rates of occurrence and destruction of our youths kept on increasing year after year. Hence, the prompt need to educate mothers and society at large. Recommendation were made, bearing in mind the need to sensitize the entire community and the country at large on the effects of stigmatization on hearing impaire


1.1. Background of the Study
In most developing societies, there is stigma associated with hearing loss. People with hearing impairment often have negative stereotypes and prejudice attributed to them that result in a deleterious effect on how they are perceived by others. People with hearing impairment are often perceived as Senile (Oyer & Oyer, 1985), uninteresting (Heine & Browing, 2002; Hetu, 1996) and undesirable communication partners, Jones, Farin, Hastorf, Miller & Scott (1984). Studies on the hearing aid effect have repeatedly shown that people are rated more negatively by others if they are seen wearing a hearing aid, Bloo, Blood, & Danhaver (1977). However, stigma also has negative consequences on how many people with hearing impairment perceive themselves.
Stigma can be defined as an adverse reaction to the perception of a negatively evaluated difference (Susman1994). As such, it is not an attribute of the individual who bears the difference but rather resides in interactions between the person with the difference and others who evaluate that difference in negative terms, Goffman (1963). The concept of stigma has traditionally been employed as an un-dimensional construct and has been widely criticized as being too broadly conceived, Catill and Eggleston (1994). Link and Phelan (2001), describe five components of stigma: labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination with the context of power differential. Labeling is the recognition of differences and the assignment of social salience to those differences. In the context of disability, it is the recognition that a certain biological trait differs from the norm in ways that have social significance.
Stereotyping is the assignment of negative attributes to socially salient differences. Stereotypical differences are differences that matter and are also deemed by others to be undesirable. Separation occurs when the reactions of others to these differences lead to a pronounced sense of ‘otherness’. When individuals with disabilities perceive that they are labeled, stereotyped, and separated from others, they experience felt stigma.
Status loss and discrimination occur when stigma interferes with an individual’s ability to participate fully in the social and economic life of her/his community. When individuals loss status or are discriminated against because of their negatively evaluated differences, they experience enacted stigma. Line and Phelan, go on to argue that stigma can only be directly enacted upon individuals when there is a power difference with those with the trait and those without – when those who have the negatively evaluated difference have less power than those who do not. Thus, the stigmatization of individuals with disabilities is a complex process which involves individual biological differences, the negative evaluation of those differences by others, adverse reactions of other and negative social and emotional outcomes for individuals with disabilities, Chill and Eggleston (1994).
Gofferman (1963), argues that stigma not only affects the experiences of those in possession of the stigmatizing characteristic, it also tends to spread to close family members and to others with whom the bearer of negative difference associetes whith. The slime body of recent literature in which the impact of perceived stigma on the wellbeing of family members of individuals with stigmatized traits is addressed. He suggests that, like individuals with disabilities themselves, family members who feel stigmatized often experience increased emotional distress and social isolation.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Over the last couple of decades, there has been a rising yet almost undetected trend in the number of healthcare professionals with hearing impairment (H1) working. The credit for this trend is due to advancing technology, improving education, increasing accessibility and changing a societal perceptions about hearing impaired. Students with (HI) are fully well capable of succeeding in the academic environment, and today, it is not too surprising to learn that some of these students have aspirations to working the healthcare industry. Students with (HI) who are already enrolled in healthcare programmes may encounter situations that require good hearing abilities, but many of these situations are temporary and resolved with compensatory strategies, assistive or modified technology, and/or alternative clinical placement. Practicing individuals with chronic ((HI) may have already assimilated themselves into their professional and social networks without significant problems. Clearly, it seems that there is very little to prevent individuals with (HI) from becoming successful practitioners. However, it appears that there is still a long, arduous road ahead for individuals with (HI) interested in or currently working in healthcare centres. Lack of accessibility and persistent discrimination problems may be related to the issue of stigma and misconceptions of Hearing Impaired.
The general issue of stigma has been described directly and indirectly by a number of authors in five major areas: psuchology, sociology, anthropology, public health and rehabilitation (e.g. Goffman, 1963; Aldo, 1981; Becker, 1981; Hetu, 1996; Gilbert, 2001). Though, there are a variety of definitions, stigma is generally defined as a condition of a person that is devalued because he deviates from the norm. stigmatization is mostly a social disease by which society imposes this negative status on a person or group of people, Links& Phelon (2001). However, a person may self stigmatize their own conditions due to feelings of shame and embarrassment (Hetu, 1996; Davioff, 2002). Stigma can be thought of as a spoiled identy by which a person may have a shortcoming, failing, or handicap. Examples of spoiled identify includes disfigurement, loss of reputation, or loss of hearing. Loss of reputation and loss of hearing both threaten social bonds. Hearing impairment threatens social bonds because of breakdowns in communication. Undesirable behaviours, beliefs, attributes, characteristics, or items can also lead to stigma. With respect to hearing impaired, having to ask people to repeat themselves, may constitute an undesirable behavior. Kochikin (1993), found out that hearing aids were considered undesirable items. What is it about hearing impairment that is so stigmatizing, so devalued? Why are people still not receptive to the advances that have been made for individuals with (HI)? Why do people continue to doubt eh abilities of people with HI?
Historically, hearing impaired has not been viewed in particularly positive light. Aristotle, Pliney the professionals with Hearing Impairment Elder and the Geeks believed that conjenitally deaf children had no capacity to learn language and they would never be able to think independently (Higgins, 1980). It was not until the mid 1700a that people began to consider whether deaf youths could learn (Lang, 1994). One can only wonder how the deaf were treated until this time. Wit and Ogden (1981: P/6), explained how deaf people throughout history have been view “ with a fear, scorn, distaste, misunderstanding and pity.”
Lang, (1994), gave numerous accounts on how congenitally – late – deafened scientist and doctors have been marginalized and silenced throughout history.


1.3. Purpose of the Study
Generally, the purpose of this research work is to find out the causes and effects of stigmatization of hearing impaired persons. But specifically, the purpose of this study is to:
i. Minimize the stigmatization of the hearing impaired in our communities if not eradicated.
ii. Sensitize the public on the education abilities of the hearing impaired.
iii. Proffer solutions to the challenges that are facing the hearing impaired in the society.
iv. Educate the parents of the hearing impaired the paramount of educating their hearing impaired children.
v. Partially fulfill the requirement for the award of BSC (ED), Special Education Certificate.
1.4. Research Questions
The following are the questions that will succor the researcher in finding out the root of the problem under investigation.
i. Is there any epidemic within the Mutum Biyu Metropolis?
ii. Are hearing impaired duly considered socially and educationally?
iii. Does stigmatization affect the social and academic performances of the hearing impaired persons?
iv. Has there been any measure taken to curb the menace?
v. Are there laws enacted against the stigmatization of the hearing impaired in the community?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
The researcher postulates these hypothesis in order to be tested to ascertain the causes and effects of stigmatization of the hearing impaired:
a. There is no significant relationship between stigmatization and the hearing impaired in Mutum Biyu (Gassol) Area.
b. The is significant relationship between stigmatization and the hearing impaired in Mutum Biyu L.G.A.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The outcome of this research work will be of great importance and an eye opener to the parents of the hearing impaired to see the needs of educating their hearing impaired children. It will also inlight the whole society on the effects of stigmatizing one’s disability. On the other hand, it will also boost the esteem of the hearing impaired to discover their hidden abilities and utilize them for self reliance and independence for the development of community and the nation at large.
The recommendations of their research will also help the government and the community leaders to give security and enact laws that will protect the hearing impaired individuals.
1.7. Scope of the Study
The study is concerned with the causes and effects of stigmatization on the hearing impaired persons in Mutum Biyu of Gassol Local Government Area of Taraba State. The emphasis is on the effects of stigmatization coming from the communities, families, and teachers of the hearing impaired children in Mutum Biyu communities upon which any result will be assumed to be the similar challenges facing hearing impaired persons in Gossol Local Government Area and beyond.
1.8. Definition of Terms
– Hearing Impairment: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), is “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affect a child’s academic performance. It can also be seen as partial or total inability to hear.
– Stigmatization: Can be referred to the attitudes and beliefs that lead people to reject, avoid, or fear those they perceive as being different. Stigma is a Greek word that in its origin refers to a kind of mark that was cut or burned into the skin. It identified people as criminals, slaves, or traitors to be shunned, (Disability Right California’s Protection and Advocacy system).
– Discrimination: According to mental health services Act, California, looks at discrimination as a behavioral because of those attitudes or beliefs. Discrimination occurs when individuals or institutions unjustly deprive others of their rights and life opportunities due to stigma. It can also be considered as the exclusion or marginalization of people and deprive them of their civil rights, such as access to fair housing options, opportunities for employment, education and full participation in civic life.
– Disability: Is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, intellectual, mental, sensory, developmental, or some combination of those that results in restriction on an individual’s ability to participate in what is considered “normal” in their everyday society.
– Effects: A change which is as a result of consequences of an action or other cause. Or an output of something to happen. It can also be seen as change that result when something is done or happens. Or to produce or achieve the result you want.
– Cause: A person or thing that acts happens, or exists in such a way that some specific thing happens as result, the producer of an effect or the reason or motive form some human activity.
– Special Needs: According to the medical definition, says it is the individual requirement (as for education) of a person with disability or a high risk of developing one’s or a mental, emotional, physical problems in a child that require a special setting for education. It also means people who might need extra help because of a medical, emotional, or behavioural problems or physical disabilities.
Labeling: The recognition of differences and the assignment of social salience to those differences. In the context of disability, it is the recognition that a certain biological trait differes from the norm in ways that have social significance.
Stereotyping: Is the assignment of negative attributes to socially salient differences.
Status Loss: This occur when stigma interferes with an individual’s ability to participate fully in the social and economic life or his/her community.
Separations: This occurs when the reactions of others to those differences lead to a pronounced sense of “otherness”.




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