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  • Background to the Study

The importance of teacher supply in the development of effective educational system, particularly at the secondary school level cannot be over emphasized. The utilization of the goals and objectives of education require the provision, maximum utilization and appropriate management of the teacher supplies. The design and size of school buildings have evolve over time. Many of the improvements reflected advancement in pedagogy and knowledge about environmental effects on learning. In the past, education was a much more informal activity than it is today and the physical setting for education was not considered important. Instruction usually occurred in open spaces or in structure designed for purpose other than teaching and learning. The early schools in Nigeria indicated that the national issues on education believed that the settings in which education occurred was of little consequence. This philosophy was visible in both school buildings, their locations and teacher supply, especially for the early schools.

School can be viewed as an organized environment where educational curricular are interpreted. It is a formal structured organization which serves as a transitional stage in life between family and the society. School is a place where the child is prepared to function as an adult, and through this transformation by way of teaching and learning process, whose purpose is to bring about in the learner desirable positive and effective change in the behavior through critical thinking in a more conducive environment which is structured to facilitate learning. The attainment of an effective and efficient teaching and learning is therefore dependent on teacher’s quality, the location of the school, the organization and arrangement of physical structures and other teacher supplies in the school. In the present day of technological advancement, there is need for the school principals to adopt modern method of plant and facility management which would improve the quality of teaching and learning. Adesina and Ogunsaju, (2011) stressed the importance of teacher supply. He maintained that the qualities of education that children receive bear direct relevance to the availability or lack of teacher supplies and overall atmosphere in which learning take place.

Secondary school, which according to FRN, (2004:13) “is the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage” needs teacher supplies which consist of all types of equipment for academic and non-academic activities. Other supplies needed by secondary schools teachers instructional materials, good writing materials, textbooks/reference materials, refresher courses/workshops, etc. It is believed that, without such supplies, the empty buildings, no matter how attractive they are cannot be effectively used by the teacher.

Recently, the Nigerian secondary schools students’ academic performance is generally poor going by the existing records, (Adesina, 2021); He posited that, there was persistent mass failure of students in senior secondary school examinations (SSCE), especially in public schools, conducted by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC). The observed poor academic performance of secondary students may not be unconnected with seemingly poor teacher supply in most Nigerian public secondary schools. The high level of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional supplies such as writing boards, teaching aid, ICT tools, etc, are structurally defective. Enumerating the factors that could be responsible for intra and inter-school academic achievements, acute scarcity of instructional resources which according to him attributed constrain of educational systems from responding more fully to new demands.

Teacher supplies constitute major determining factor toward ensuring quality education. It is one of the yardsticks for measuring the level of educational growth and development. It implies substantial cost of the school system for their establishment, if not properly managed and maintained, it will affect the academic performance of students. teacher supply is the process of ensuring that equipments and tools meant to be used by teachers for teaching and learning are adequate. Ajayi (2009) described teacher supplies as the practice of co-ordinating physical supplies for the teacher.

Students’ academic performance can be measured in many ways but the commonly used method is the result of students in public examinations, which is used to pass judgment on the schools and teachers. Students’ academic performance is the final grade which students get after a systematic and comprehensive measurement and evaluation of the individual student in a school setting for the purpose of making decision or judgment on his/her cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The researcher viewed academic performance as the educational outcome of students as measure by school examination.

Bullock (2007) studied the relationship between teacher supplies and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools. The study examined the relationships that exist between students’ academic performance and teacher supply. School administrators must be concerned with the structural and cosmetic conditions of teacher supplies as well as students’ academic performance, the combination of existing teacher supplies, leadership decision, and the financial ability of the schools. Bullock found that students perform better in schools that were stuck with teacher supplies than in schools without them.

It is a common experience to see some schools today, where the supplies, equipment and tools meant to be used by the teacher are far from being conducive for learning; where classroom spaces are inadequate, for most children are found to be compacted in classrooms, especially public institutions. In some cases learning take place under trees. Some schools are generally in a poor state of repair. Teachers’ effectiveness and students’ learning may be limited by inadequate teacher supplies.

            It is in the light of the above discussion that this study seeks to determine the examine teacher supply and academic performance of public secondary school students in Ondo State.

  • Statement of the Problem

Mass failure in public secondary schools has risen relatively to an alarming proportion in the last few years. The outcome of our educational system has fallen below the minimal for our educational objectives and this means that there is a failure in our curriculum, facility provision, our teachers and teaching method or our evaluation system. There is need, therefore, to utilize and maintain the limited teacher supplies available in public schools for quality teaching and learning effectiveness. Teacher supplies that are deteriorated and inadequate may result in reduced learning time, alienated students, inability to provide specialized curriculum, low staff morale, lack of technology proficiency, safety hazards, high rates of teacher attrition, and a reduced ability to meet special needs.

Therefore, this scenario of poor performance among students has motivated the researcher to determine whether there is a relationship between teacher supply and academic performance of students in public secondary schools or otherwise.

  • Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this research is to examine teacher supply and academic performance of public secondary school students in Ondo State. In the light of this, the specific objectives of the research include:

  1. To determine the teacher supply which are available in public secondary schools in Ondo State
  2. To examine the impact of teacher supply teacher supplies on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ondo State
    • Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide this study.

  1. What are the teacher supply which are available in public secondary schools in Ondo State?
  2. What are the impact of teacher supplies on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ondo State?
    • Significance of the study

It is believed that the life wire of any educational system is the extent of availability of teacher supplies (in terms of quality and quantity) which occupies a crucial place in the realization of its goals. However, the result of the findings in this research work shall assist every stakeholder (policy makers, school administrators, teachers, government and the students) in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through the provision of a conducive learning environment.

First, policy makers will be well equipped with reliable and factual information which serves as an input for effective law making on issues relating to allocation of funds, timely released period and the legal framework guiding its activities.

Secondly, it will provide an extensive knowledge of teacher supplies to the school administrators to initiate, sustain and put to use.

Furthermore, teachers as major stakeholders in the school system, who play an intermediate role, seek to work harmoniously with the school in encouraging them to use the teacher supplies. It will also place a great burden on the government to provide adequate funding to the school system, equip the inspectorate unit to carry out its functions effectively.

Finally, when this study is completed, it will serve as a reference material to future researchers who will want to carry out similar studies on teacher supply. It will further afford them to look into grey areas not covered in the present study and seek ways of improving over it. And it will add to the already existing literature on teacher supply.

  • Delimitation of the Study

This study covers the impact of teacher supply on the academic performance of public secondary school students. The study is limited to public secondary schools in Ondo State. Few schools in Ondo State were studied. This will be made up of the combination of government schools. However, despite the fact that the study is limited to the selected local government area, its findings can be generalized to other parts of the state as well as the country at large.

  • Operational Definition of Terms

Teacher Supply: This refers to facilities and equipment provided for the teaching for effective teaching. These teacher supplies include instructional materials, reference materials/textbooks, motivation, etc.

Teaching: Is the act, practice or profession of a teacher which shapes one’s thought and action through giving instructions and or performing practices.

Learning: Learning is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviours, skills and values or it is a skill or knowledge acquired by instruction or study.

Impact: This is the likely effect of teacher supplies on the students’ academic performance.

Students’ Academic Performance: This is the outcome or achievements of students after being subjected to the use of teaching supplies.

  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
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