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Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration page – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – viii

1.0. Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.1. Background of the Study – – – – – – 2
1.2. Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 5
1.3. Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.4. Research Questions – – – – – – – 6
1.5. Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 6
1.6. Significance of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.7. Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 7

2.1 Student-Teacher Relationships – – – – – – 9
2.2 Models of Teacher-Students Relationship – – – – 16
2.3 Effects of Good Student-Teacher Relationship – – – 19
2.4 Solution to poor Teacher-Student Relationship – – – 21

3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 23
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 23
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study – – – – – 23
3.3 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – 24
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 25
3.4.1 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument – – – – 25
3.5 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 25
3.6 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 26

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – – 27
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – – 31
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 32

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 36
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 37
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 37
References – – – – – – – – 39
Appendixes – – – – – – – – 46




This project was carried out in order to determine the Effects of Teacher-Students’ Relationship on the Academic Performance of Students in Secondary Schools in Pankshin Local Government Area. The survey research design was used. The population of the study consisted of all the students and teachers in ten(10) selected secondary schools in Pankshin. The sample of the study consisted of 200 respondents. The simple random sampling technique was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. The simple mean score was used to analyse the questionnaire and chi-square for test of hypothesis. The findings indicated that the teachers in most of the secondary schools in the local government beat their students whenever they commit an offence, some of the teachers are harsh to the students in the classroom especially when they ask questions in the course of a lesson, cordial relationship between teachers and the students enhances better academic performance from the students, the class is more interesting when the teacher jokes and make them laugh. In line with the findings, the following recommendations were made: Teachers should try to be patient with students when they are in the class, school authorities should always emphasis on gentleness and leniency with the students, school of authorities should place consequences for those teachers who beat their students in the class just because they ask questions in the class, teachers should praise the students when they perform better in the class, students should try not to provoke the teachers in the class so that they will not incurthe wrath of the teacher, teachers school should be discouraged from beating their students

1.0. Introduction
It is true that from the first day of school, a child is expected to, and must, rely on teachers to provide them with understanding and necessary support needed for them to get the most out of their classrooms daily interactions. It is also a fact that children who form strong relationship bonds with teachers enjoy school and can get along with their peers better as they are able to play and work on their own in confidence knowing well that they can turn to their teachers in the case of any difficulty.
Despite the efforts of researchers, school administrators, and educators to attest to the importance of this fact and the need to develop and maintain a good teacher-students’ relationship, it cannot be denied that this has not been achieved as evidences of the poor teacher-student relationship and its effects abound. But what would have still been the militating factors against a positive teacher-student relationship? There is no doubt that certain factors are responsible for these happenings and its prevailing effects on the students’ and teachers, the school, the parents and the entire education system. It is therefore the focus of this research work to fetch out some of their causes and its effects on the child’s academic performance and to also find out and proffer possible ways by which the teacher-student relationship can be improved and help in the discharge of their duties smoothly in order to also help achieve the educational goals as contended in the National Policy on Education (NPE), 2004.

1.1. Background of the Study
It is now common place that the quality of students produced from schools is disheartening. Relationship which is as old as creation itself is one major facto responsible for this. The quality of relationship obtained between teachers and their students these days is poor (Nzeneri, 2008). This bond that fades away by the day had enormous effect on the society, family, education and institutions and the students. But what could be responsible for this breakdown of relationship line between teachers and students? A teacher is not just measured by his levels of commitment, competence and technical know-how or by knowledge but also by how much he builds and maintains relationship bonds with students. Morzano (2003) in his study of the practices of effective teachers, determined that “An effective teacher-student relationship may be the keystone that allows the aspects to work well”. Relationships that teachers develop with their students have an important role to play in a student’s academic growth or performance. Hallinan (2008) in his study writes that “learning is a process that involves cognitive and social psychological dimensions, and both processes should be considered if academic achievement is to be maximized”. The social relationship that exists between the teacher and student is as essential as water is to life. For education to see out her aims, the corner stone is a positive teacher-students relationship.
Nzeneri, (2008) sees education as a life-long process of renewing or updating one’s knowledge to ensure job security, effective social, political and economic participation, continuous individual growth and development. Education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its cultural heritage through institutions such as schools, colleges, and universities. It also prepares a person to perform justly, skilfully and magnanimously in war or in peace on the basis of acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes. Education is the process of remarking experiences; giving it more socialized value through increased individual experience by giving the individual better control over his own powers (Ozochi, 2009). Mark (2003) explores the meaning of education and suggests that it is the process of inviting truth and possibility. It can be defined as the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life. Education as a social process is not just a preparation for future living but, a process of living.
It is surprising that so many education policy makers have been seduced to believing and thinking that simple quantitative measures like test scores can be used to hold schools accountable for achieving complex educational outcomes (Rothstein, Jacobsen, and Wilder; 2005). Other researchers discussed these findings illustrating the importance of students and teachers emotions as a major instrument during instructional interactions. Meyer and Turner (2002) determined that “through studying student-teacher interactions, our conceptualization of what constitutes motivation to learn increasingly has involved emotions as essential to learning and teaching.” It is their study results which provide support for further study of the inclusion of interpersonal relationships in the instructional setting and to what extent or degree those relationships between a student and the teacher will result in a greater degree of learning in the classroom according to Downey, (2008). The establishment of social relationships can really impact effective teaching and learning. Mohrman (2003) asserts that “lasing change does not result from plans, blueprint, and events; rather change occurs through interaction of participants”. Baker (2006) said that strong teacher-student relationship may be one of the most important environmental factors in changing a child’s educational path.According to NPE (2004), the following are the aims and objectives of education:
i. The inculcation of the national consciousness – national unity
ii. The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for survival of the individual and the Nigerian society.
iii. The training of the mind in the understanding of the world, and
iv. The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physically as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society. Better human relationships, self realization, individual and national unity are other achievements expected from education in national development.
According to Olumba (2003), these aims can never be actualized if there are poor relationships existing between the teacher and his students in the educational system because good education requires trained and committed teachers who will carry the students along with them to achieve the educational goals.The purpose of introducing this study is to improve the teacher-students relationships among teachers and their students in discharging their respective duties in order to achieve the aims of National Policy on Education.
It is believed that teaching in every respect is a serious business that should be seen as such. As a banker is governed by certain principles that distinguish him so is the teacher governed by certain principles which makes him distinct. Teaching is the process of inculcating in the learners the desirable knowledge, culture, skills, values and norms which will make him to be useful to himself and the society at large. Therefore, to promote the relationship between the teacher and the students, the teacher must determine the best sufficient and effective method of teaching, the selected materials to create conducive learning experiences that will utilize the content associated with each objective.
In view of the above background, the researchers are challenged to find out the possible causes and effects of poor teacher-students relationship on academic achievement of students in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The schools in Plateau State have been associated with formation of bad gangs by students, generalhatred for teachers, neglect of some subjects which then gives rise to serious problems for the realization of educational objectives. Research has shown that students who have teachers that care and joke with them do better in their academic pursuits. Therefore, it is safe to say that teacher-students relationship affects the performance of the students. This is because when a teacher is harsh to his/her students, they tend to develop hatred for the teacher and hence: poor attention in the classroom. It is unfortunate that a good number of students have lost virtues of good behaviour since their teachers no longer show the love, care and affection students crave for. It is in the light of these that the researchers therefore intend to carry out this study in order to emerge with some data on the extent to which poor teacher-students relationship has contributed to the non-effective academic performance of students in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.3. Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the causes of poor teacher-students relationship and the extent to which it has affected or influenced the academic performance of children in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. The researchers intends to:
1. Determine the causes of poor relationship among teachers and students.
2. To find out the effects of poor relationship between students and teachers.
3. To discover how cordial relationship be created between teachers and students?
1.4. Research Questions
The following questions were formulated to serve as a guide to the study:
1. What are the causes of poor relationship among teachers and students?
2. What are the effects of poor relationship between students and teachers?
3. How can there be cordial relationship between teachers and students?
1.5. Hypothesis
Ha: There is a significant relationship between teacher-students relationship and academic performance of the children.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between teacher-students relationship and academic performance of the children.

1.6. Significance of the Study
The research work is carried out in order to find out the causes and effects of poor teacher-students relationship on the academic performance of children in Pankshin. This study will go a long way to help all stakeholders of in education which include: teachers, students, parents, and the entire system of education.
The work will be of benefit to teachers as it will serve as sense of direction to them by helping them to understand and know the reasons children perform below standard in Pankshin.
Students will also benefit as they are exposed to knowledge which thereby changes the academic performance from negative to positive based on the improvement in their relationship with them.
1.7. Scope of the Study
The study covers teacher-students’ relationship and its effects on students’ academic performance of students in Christian Religious Studies. The researcherss limit this study to a defined geographical zone which is secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, the findings of the study will be generic s it can be generalized to other parts of the country as well.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
To understand the research, the following definitions of terms will be made clear as used in the research. These definitions are based on Wikipedia (2018):
Cause: It can be seen as the basis or platform for life occurrences. It is that thing which gives rise to a happening or occurrence. Cause can be said to be the producer of an effect.
Effect: An effect can be seen as the physical, visible outcome or the scar of a cause. It is also the results or fruits of or the yields of a cause.
Poor: Poor is not good, bad or not good enough. It is when what is expected is not what it is. Below standard is poor.
Teacher: A teacher is one who through formal or informal ways, or methods pass unto others the acquired values, norms and or knowledge to help them grow to cope up with the environment and also be of help. It is one who undergoes training in a formal setting mostly colleges and universities to be an agent through which norms and values are passed to the students in the classrooms.
Students: A student is a child in school especially under the care of a teacher in the secondary schools.
Relationship: This is seen as a level of intimacy between two or more people mostly intended to yield a positive result. It is the emotional attachment that portrays or determines the behaviour or social behaviour between two or more people.
Academic Performance: This is seen as the extent to which a student, teacher or an institution has achieved their educational goals. It is also seen as the effectiveness, efficiency, commitment of teacher, student and school environment to achieve the set up educational goals. It is the extent to which a student progresses positively in their educational or academic pursuits.
Children: They are those human beings found between the ages of birth and adolescent thereby making them vulnerable. A child is a vulnerable human being who is affected negatively or positively by all activities which go on around him or her.


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