0813 406 9676 kenterpro1@gmail.com





  • Background to the Study

As at the year 2014, about 2.5 billion people in the world did not have access to improved sanitation with 1 billion practicing Open Defecation (WHO and UNICEF, 2014). This is a major cause of millions of deaths from water-related diseases such as diarrhoea among children under five years (WHO and UNICEF, 2010). Improved sanitation includes sanitation facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human contact whereas Open defecation refers to the practice of defecating in fields, forests, bushes, bodies of water or other open spaces(WHO and UNICEF, 2014). Open defecation is practiced in nearly all regions in the world. Open defecation is a practice whereby individuals pass faeces outside their homes in areas such as fields, farmlands, gutters or rails (Mehta, 2008). Worldwide, about 1.1 billion individuals defecate outdoors and this practice is said to be widespread in Asian and African countries (World Health Organisation, 2018). The practice of open defecation is a global developmental and health issue facing developing nations. This is an ancient practice where people excrete in bushes, rivers, lakes, streams and other open spaces outside the designated toilets. This can occur deliberately due to unwholesome cultural practices, superstitions, and personal unhygienic behaviours. It could also be as a result of unavailable or lack of access to modern toilet facilities (PM NEWS, 2017).

According to a report by WHO (2016), about 2.4 billion people all over the world do not have access to basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines. About 946 million of them still defecate openly in street gutters, behind bushes or into open bodies of water. This unsanitary practice has led to the upsurge in the transmission of communicable diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio. It also provides a fertile ground for several neglected tropical diseases like intestinal worms, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. This has also adversely contributed to increased cases of malnutrition in developing nations. In an attempt to address this prevailing global challenge, United Nations (UN) General Assembly on the 28 July 2010, through Resolution 64/292 declared clean and safe water, and sanitation a fundamental human right that are basically essential to the realisation and attainment of all human rights. As such, the Assembly called upon the various nation states and international organisations to provide the needed financial resources, help capacity-building and technology transfer as well as support to help developing countries improve and provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all and sundry (UNITED NATIONS, 2014).

Despite commendable improvements brought about as a result of the UN Resolution and Millennium Development Goal 2015 to address sanitation challenges, WHO (2016) observed a continuous existence of inequalities between and within countries and regions. At present, approximately 13% of global population are still practising open defecation. It is also observed that 9 out of 10 people who do this live in rural areas. Also, this unsanitary practice has gradually penetrated and is increasing in the urban areas due to growing population in these areas without accompanied adequate provision of sanitation facilities.

A study by Coffey, Gupta and Hathi(2014) lamented the high rate in the practice of open defecation in rural communities which remains stubbornly widespread with several dire consequences affecting the human health and environment alike. This barbaric practice kills babies, and impedes the physical and cognitive development of surviving children. It also has significant negative externalities and releases germs into the environment which pose serious harm to both the rich and the poor in the society.

The practice of open defecation is made worst in rural communities in Pankshin Local Government Area where it is tied to the culture, values, tradition and mores of the people. In some rural villages in Pankshin, people find delight in defecating openly in rivers and lakes where they have the source for drinking water, hence denying self of safe and clean water as well as sanitary environment. Most rural villages use woods and bamboos to construct open toilets for both men and women. These locally constructed toilets are often done without proper drainage system, as such, at a slightest rainfall, these faeces flow to the rivers and the living surrounding and thus exposing the inhabitants of those communities to grave dangers. This has continued unabated without recourse to the environmental and health hazards that will likely ensure as a result of this practice.

Adult education has crucial role to play in creating awareness, promoting and proffering solutions to developmental and health issues confronting the world today. This goes beyond the traditional function of educating adults to become independent people. As observed by Rimal & Lapinski (2009), most intervention efforts to achieve effective change in behaviours are usually targeted towards adults.

Public health intervention in developing countries often requires both demand and supply. Apart from building public health infrastructures and providing services, there is need to involve adult education interventions programmes in changing individual and social behaviour that may prevent the effective utilisation of these infrastructures in order to ensure that there is demand for public health services. This emphasises the important roles social and behaviour change communications play to address these demand-side barriers to public health (Tarraf, 2016).

It is in the light of the above discussion that this study seeks to determine the role of adult education in curbing open-defecation in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.

  • Statement of the Problem

A survey conducted in public schools across Nigeria revealed that about 14,000 schools do not have toilet facilities. The number is almost half the estimated 30,000 schools in Nigeria (WHO, 2016). The survey is evident in Pankshin Local Government Area.

The pressure involved in accessing these limited facilities has forced many residents to end up defecating openly and indiscriminately. The cost involved in accessing the facility has also forced many vulnerable women and children to end up defecating around their houses and sometime in the bush because they cannot afford a cost of a good toilet.

Most often, children and even adults become victims of snake bite and scorpion sting while defecating in the bush. Hence, the crux of this study is to determine the role of adult education in curbing open defecation in Pankshin Local Government Area.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the role of adult education in curbing open defecation in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.

Specifically, this study will:

  1. Find out the meaning/effects of open defecation on health and wellbeing of individuals.
  2. Determine the roles of adult education in curbing open defecation.
  3. Investigate into the factors that limit adult education in curbing open defecation.
    • Significance of the Study

The benefit of this study cannot underemphasized especially now that urbanization is closing in fast on Pankshin Local Government Area. the findings of this study shall be of benefit to the community leaders, the school management, the locales, the government, students and future researchers.

The students to know the needs of hygiene or health practices, because cleanliness in next to Godliness and also enable to have a sound health, if open defecation practice is curbed by adult education, sickness and diseases will be reduced.

To the school management: The findings will help the school management to provide adequate toilets and toilet facilities that will enable the students and staff to feel comfortable to use, instead of going to the bush.

Government:- The findings will help the government, to formulate policies that will enable the citizens to stay away from open defecation.

  • Scope of the Study

The researcher is aware of other lingering issues in the society like covid-19, corruption and so on. However, the present study covers roles of adult education in curbing open defecation. The study is restricted to selected districts in Pankshin local government area of plateau state. However, despite the fact that the study is restricted to the selected local government, the findings will be generalized to other parts of the state and country as a whole.

  • Research questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. What are the meaning/effects of open defecation on health and wellbeing of the individuals?
  2. What roles does adult education play in curbing open defecation?
  3. Which factors limit adult education in curbing open defecation?
    • Operational Definition of Terms

Adult Education: is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.

Curbing: This is controlling something or keeping within limits not to escalate.

Open Defecation: is the human practice of defecating outside (“in the open“) rather than into a toilet. People may choose fields, bushes, forests, ditches, streets, canals or other open space for defecation. They do so either because they do not have a toilet readily accessible or due to traditional cultural practices.


  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below

₦ 3,000

This Complete Project Material is Available for Instant Download Immediately After Payment of ₦3000.



Bank Name: United Bank of Africa (UBA)
Account Name: chianen kenter
Account Number: 2056899630
Account Type: savings
Amount: ₦3000