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Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration page – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – x

1.1. Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Brief History of Mangu LGA – – – – – – 3
1.3 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 4
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 7

2.1 Review of Related Literature – – – – – – 9

3.0 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 15
3.1 Population – – – – – – – 16
3.2 Sampling Technique – – – – – – 16
3.3 Instrument – – – – – – – 16
3.4 Administration ¬ – – – – – – – 16

4.1 Data Analysis – – – – – – – 17

5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 28
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 28
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 29
Bibliography – – – – – – – 31
Appendixes – – – – – – – 32

The main purpose of this work is to investigate perceived poor participation of women in supporting activities in some selected district of Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau state. Sport has become part of this country’s culture as well as other countries of the world. The causes found, they exist are lack of qualified coaches which contributed to perceive poor participation of women in sporting activities. The problem of religion which has over the years generated problems in many states of the federation also contributes to perceive poor participation of women in sporting activities. It was also discouraged that parents’ attitudes towards sports is highly negative to the extent that the women are restricted to domestic work alone. Most schools’ principal has shown no interest in sports and so when student goes for any competition and happens to fail, he is asked to either repeat or withdraw because of poor academic attainment. It has also been noted that the state ministry of education do render any service as regards sporting activities. Other problems found to exist include: lack of facilities and equipment, lack of interest by the students (especially female) because of fear of failure in exams the fact that women have problem with their menstruation period also affect the performance in sporting activities. Because of these problems, we therefore believed that women high participation in sporting activities is affected.

1.2. Background to the Study
In the past the cities of Greece, Athens and Sparta, had difference in religion, politics and administration but had sport as unifying factors among them. In Nigeria, the introduction of the national festival in 1973 immediately after the civil war has many objectives. This was emphasized in the address delivered by the former Military Head of State in a government white paper, General Yakubu Gowon during the opening ceremony of the First national sports Festival held in Lagos in 1973. General Gowon enumerated the aims and objectives of the national sports festival which included self actualization. Social interaction and friendliness among states, to get talented sports men and women to represent Nigeria in international sports competitions. Also declaring open 5th Plateau state sport festival in Jos in September, 1981. Mr Solomon Lar left no stone unturned in emphasizing the objectives of sports. He started that the festival was intended to create a greater awareness and friendliness among our sports men and women. From all indications, we can see that unity and understanding is being emphasized.
Sport is highly an ambiguous term having different meanings. Some people refer to sport as athletic competition, whereas some refer too sport as organizational and financial status of a team.
John Loy (1994) stated that sports should be considered on different planes of discourse to understand its nature. He perceived sports as a game, occurrence, as an institutionalized game social institution and as a social situation.
Ikalayo (1990) saw sports as the exhibition of sequence of skillful performance characterized by good timing, elegance, flow, precision and executed with a little outplay of efforts.
Bodemosi (1987) defined sports as amusement, fun and a form of particular activity.
Importance of sporting activity
Daughtery and lewis (1973) outlined five importance of sporting activities as:
1. To develop a basic understanding and appreciation of human movement.
2. To develop and maintain optimal individual muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardio vascular endurance.
3. To develop skills, knowledge and attitudes essential to satisfying, enjoyable, physical recreation experiences engaged in voluntarily throughout one’s life time.
4. To develop movement potentialities to the optimal level for each individual.
5. To develop socially acceptable and personality rewarding behavior through participation in movement activities.
Women participation in sporting activities generally the tempo of participation of women in sport has relatively lower than that of the men. The women have not always being given the same opportunities as their men counterparts. The discrimination of sport had persisted for a very long time until the amendment of an educational act in 1972 by US congress.
The amended legislation stipulated that “No person in the US shall on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program receiving federal assistance” (Bucher 1979).
Although this legislation gradually culminated in the end of sex discrimination in sport in the US and in the world at large, the Nigeria women are yet to assume their proper place in sport. In typical African society, there is a culture of not giving the women what they deserve. Certain jobs, appointments and privileges are the exclusive reserve of the men folk. There is monopoly of sports equipment and facilities by the men folks to the decrement of the women folks. (Bucher 1979) there is also lack of interest among the women folks in the country. Furthermore, the wrong conception that active participation of women from participating in sports. There is acute shortage of trained female coaches to give the women the necessary encouragement.
In spite of the aforementioned factors, a glimpse of hope is in head sight, the Nigerian women are gradually coming up in sports.
There are several women in this country who are actively engaged in one sporting activities or the other some of the sporting activities include football, handball, volleyball, table tennis and athletics, etc many women now belong to one sport club or the other, only last few years 92010) the Nigerian female national football team performed well at the Africa women score competition, some of the female clubs includes:
The flying Angels of Lagos, Kakanfo of Abeokuta and Kada babes and host others numerous to mention.
In handball we have the Desert Queens, Katsina Plateau Tigress of Jos and several others of international reputation similarly, in athletics we have outstanding athlete such as Faith Ikidi, Joy Udoh, Eniola Aluko, Blessing Okagbare, and Brouse Athletic federation of Nig. Check athletes., Chioma Ajunwa, the heroine of the Nigerian mobile classic track and field events and has brought honour and glory to this country. This goes to prove that what a man can do a woman can do better.

1.2 Brief History of Mangu LGA
Mangu local Government Area is one of the seventeen Local Governments that make up Plateau state. Presently, it was for several years part of the defunct Pankshin division before it was carved out in June 1976 under the leadership of late Joseph Deshi Gomwalk. It is located in the central zone of the state, 77km South-east of the capital city Jos.
The local government covers an area of 1.578sqkm, 6% of Plateau state total land mass with the population of over 300,520. Mangu is within latitude 9.47’N and longitude 9.15’ and 9.15’E.
The climate is semi-temperature with an average rainfall of 1.400m. The local Government is also bounded in the North by Bauchi state, North west by Barkin Ladi Local Government, east by Pankshin local government, West by Bokkos local government and South by Quanpan local government area.
Mangu local government was created with eleven districts namely: Mangu, Chakfem, Jipal, Gindiri and Langai districts in 2003. Three additional districts were created under the leadership of Chief Joshua C. Dariye which include Bwai, Bungha and Chanso totaling 14 districts. The major twons of the local government includes: Mangu, where the secretariat is sited Panyam, Pushit, Kerang, Ampang-west and Mangun. White major settlement include Halle, Kombun, Bwai, Mper, Daika, Kopal, Bwonpe, Nyemdung, Mwar, Katul, Chanso, Badni, Pyemgij, Langai, Kadunu and Janaret.
The people of Mangu local government are known to be very peaceful and hospitable which make the local government area another “Garden of Eden”.
Though the people are in the fore front in term of education yet large number of them are agrarians which earned the local government area the name “food basket of the nation”. Mangu is blessed with wide varieties of cultural festivities which span across all the districts of the local government area.
The local government area is endowed with different varieties of mineral resources which includes laterites, marble, granite, columbite just to mention a few.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The researcher is aware of the fact that most if not all women in Mangu local government area have the assumption that sporting activities are meant for men alone and therefore, the researcher proposes a study in order to find out the general aims of sporting activities. The researcher also wishes to find out the importance of sport to women in Mangu local government area.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The topic under “Perceived Poor Participation among Women in Sporting activities in some selected Districts of Mangu Local Government Area” is aimed at pointing out remedies to the problems. This piece of work will help the indigenes of Mangu Local Government especially women to develop interest in sports participation that sports are not meant for men alone.
The research will not only be important to the researcher alone rather, it would help other students of Physical and Health Education Department colleges of Education in Plateau state at large for their further findings. Furthermore, the researcher intends to contribute his own quota towards the total development of sports in Mangu Local Government Area, especially the women who are so sedentary.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to outline reasons why there is perceived poor participation among women in sporting activities in some selected districts of Mangu Local Government Area. The researcher therefore assumed that:
1. Lack of enough equipment and facilities lead to poor participation of women in sports in the area.
2. The absence of scientific and modern methods of coaching discourages women from participating in sporting activities in the Local Government.
3. Lack of adequate encouragement by the Local Government and the school administrators made women to be reluctant in terms of sports participation in the Local Government area.
4. The existence of religious beliefs that women should not be allowed to take part in sports of any kind for fear of exposing their body.
5. Women believed that sports are meant for men alone and that it is a waste of time and economy.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
Mangu Local Government Area is made up of sixteen (16) districts out of elevn (11). The researcher randomly selected six (6) districts out of these number to achieve the purpose of this study. The randomly selected districts were:
I. Mangu
II. Gindiri
III. Pushit
IV. Kerang
V. Ampang west
VI. Mangun
The subject for this study include students, teachers, men, women, parents, school, administrators.
In the course of this study, the researcher encounter eats of problem which were both manmade and natural.
Among these are;
Some of the respondents were based in the provision of information in both the interview and filling of questionnaire. According to them, the researcher was going to use the responses in tarnishing their images and as well as respond them to the authorities concerned.
There was also the problem of communication link between respondents and the researcher. This was because some of them could not speak Hausa nor English.
Financially the researcher scholar was handicapped and therefore, could not afford to transport himself from the local government head quarters to all the discrete of all the local government area, that is why the selected just few area in the local government area to administer the questionnaire.
Other problem include lack of post records, which to the researcher scholar resulted from “ careless” and “ I don’t care” attitudes of school administrations and traditional leaders as well as coactions.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Facilities: Facilities are permanently fixed quality which make earning or doing things easy.
Equipment: These are materials or objects that are movable which make learning or doing things easy.
Spare: This means to refrain from hurting, damaging or destroying, show mercy to.
Incentives: That which arouse or encourages a person to work harder, especially to take part in games to promote your locality, community, states and country at large
Participation: This mean to have a share to take part in any activities.
Poor: This means not having the ability to gate the necessaries of life or simate in quality low in quality and lacking in spirit.
Activities: This is to be done either outside or inside.
Sport: amusement, fun, the release at base cricket, football, hockey engage in especially for fun and exercise for device coping an individual all round the aspect device comment.
Culminate: this means to put efforts reach the highest point
Glimpse: this means to put have a short look or have a quick, imperfect view.
Hindsight: the perception of an accent after its occurrence.

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