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  • Background to the Study

For students to work hard and pass their exams, they need a place to stay that is pleasant. Hostel accommodation was created with the intention of improving the academic environment for students. Because of this, many of the first-generation colleges and universities built beautiful hostels that reflected the image of undergraduates and postgraduates. The student body’s size was under control at the time. In some hostels, just two or three students shared a room at a time. Students are supposed to be housed in one room at a time. Karsten (2008) found that sharing a room with two or more students can lead to conflict. Life at a tertiary institution can serve as a strong indicator of a student’s academic and social development, as well as his or her ability to achieve personal goals. A significant number of educational researchers have focused on this area in order to better understand students’ current academic, social, and psychological well-being before attempting to pinpoint the obstacles they face in achieving their goals.

There has been little or no attention paid in Nigeria to the provision of adequate accommodation in these higher institutions to deal with the growing student population. Government accommodation provision for students falls short of demand, according to statistics from the Nigerian University Commission (NUC) (NUC, 2004). The rate at which the government provides student accommodation is decreasing as the number of students grows. University hostelitories are a valuable educational resource for on-campus students of all majors. When a student is accepted to a university, he or she begins to have doubts or concerns about where they should live in order to focus and keep up with all of the academic activities they will encounter. The researcher noted that students’ hostels are among the most important facilities that students take into account when deciding on a school to attend, along with other factors (Odilumuo, 2020).

In every social setting, accommodation is a fundamental human need and the second most important for the physical survival of man after food. As a result, the hostel system has played an important role in today’s educational system, providing students with low-cost accommodation and a social setting that allows them to interact academically with their peers (Clark & Meave, 2012). Academic literature has not taken into account the many issues that affect the management of students’ hostels, particularly in Nigeria, despite the fact that hostels are beneficial for students’ quality of learning. When used in a broad sense, the word “hostel” can refer to a variety of establishments that provide inexpensive lodging and meals for travelers on a tight budget. However, the Oxford English Dictionary’s 6th edition (2000) defines a hostel as “a building in which cheap food and lodging are provided for students.” As a result, it serves as a temporary shelter and refuge for the students, providing them with a bed and, in some cases, meals. Management of hostels incorporates the provision of and control over cheap accommodation and its related facilities like a television set, mattress, water supply and toilet facilities as well as reading tables and chairs in order to ensure proper care and attention to every student in order to enhance their academic learning process comfort and focus on their studies. Hostels that are well-managed have these facilities in working order, as well as regular updates to obsolete equipment and regular repair or replacement of defaulted equipment. Because of this, students who live in university hostels are more likely to succeed academically as a result of their increased comfort. This suggests that students are at risk of being poorly acclimated to their living arrangements, which could lead to poor academic performance if student hostels are not adequately maintained. As a result, it is imperative that the management of students’ hostels be addressed seriously and with suitable policy measures in place. However, this may not be the situation in the current study area’s students’ hostels, as is the case in certain other universities in Nigeria and other neighboring African countries. A straight copy of the British education system, the Nigerian system of education does not match up in all respects with the British one. Before students are admitted to any British institution, they are often given the opportunity to live in a hostel with all of the amenities they will need to succeed in their studies.

However, the existing practice in Nigerian education cannot be claimed about. The bad management system in Nigerian educational institutions, which inevitably affects its sub-sectors such as hostel management, may be a contributing factor. Based on that, it’s safe to say that university hostel management in Nigeria are dealing with enormous difficulties, making student accommodation a major headache. The scholarly literature, however, has not adequately documented these issues so that they may be used to influence the development of policies to solve them. Hostel management is a big problem in developing countries like Nigeria, where several studies have looked at the problem holistically and compared it to other countries’ difficulties. Some of these factors include, but are not limited to: a lack of a planned maintenance program, inadequate maintenance funds, re-active maintenance, statutory non-compliance, a lack of sustainability, low budgets, and the use of quacks. Poor maintenance culture is one of these factors.

Majority of students are forced to squat with friends in the hostel for lack of money, for convenience, for affinity sake, etc. Arisukwu, (2013) states that hostel squatting is not limited to its prevalence but also it is also extended to its widespread and increasing social acceptance and implication on individual wellbeing and academic performance. This study, therefore, examines the link between females squatting in the hostel and academic performance in FCE Pankshin. Ekpenyong (2002) identifies the major reasons for student squatting to include reduction of cost of living. He stated further that asserted that over quarter of today’s tertiary institution students squat with friends or aquiantances. Therefore, inability of the tertiary institutions to manage the increasing student population through the provision of adequate hostel accommodation, have led to hostel squatting among tertiary students in some tertiary institutions

Indeed, many students are involved in hostel squatting because they do not understand the repercussion of squatting on their academic performance because it may mar their studies. Yet, thousands of both students tend to squat and are still practicing it because they have freedom from control of their parents or guardians but at the end the day they may become sorrowful because it is possible that many students could not be able to complete their studies. Similarly, thousands of students performed woefully because they squatted while they studied. Even many students end their studies with lower grades or ordinary passed which cannot be used for further education while others may expel a year or two years after they have been admitted because of their inability to spend their time on reading (Elechi, 2008). Basically, there are many challenges which affect successful completion of many students who have been squatting in tertiary institutions in Nigeria such as lack of concentration because once they are squatting it may be difficult for them to face their education anymore as they will procrastinate their studies. similarly, the students involve always loose concentration and this lead to the mass failure among students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Spread of diseases is another effect of hostel squatting as many students in higher institutions in Nigeria today contact diseases such as turbaclosis, hepatitis, infections, HIV and other communicable diseases through hostel squatting. For instance, two female students of university of Ife and four university of Lagos contracted different type of diseases which led to the end of their studies through hostel squatting. According to Alex (2018) anti-social behaviour is another effect in which many students join bad gangs because of squatting with bad friends. For instance, one female lost her life in university of Benin in 2015, because she was squatting with friends who were cultists. Even, many students become of drugs addicts in tertiary institutions in Nigeria through hostel squatting and this affected their academic performance.

In line with these discussions, this study is going to examine the influence of hostel squatting on the academic performance of female students in Federal College of Education, Pankshin.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Federal College of Education, Pankshin students share hostel rooms on campus, with a large number of students in one room. The way they treat one another often leads to a series of disagreements. Socially deviant students, some of whom squat with their friends or family members without informing their roommates, some practice their religion to offend other roommates and often end up in conflict in their rooms. In certain cases, roommates don’t pay their share of the rent, steal and use other roommate property without permission, and sell drugs in the room.

The issue that prompted the investigation involved modifications to the college’s programme and the enrollment of students. Increased social demand for university education has resulted in a rising need for a more quantitative and qualitative learning environment. Despite the fact that the problem persists, the most alarming issue is the lack of student accommodation at Nigerian colleges. The National Commission of Colleges of Education (NCCE), whose objective is to ensure that the College system offers students a high-quality, globally competitive education, outlined a set of baseline requirements. Most of the time, governments focus on providing education to students without paying as much attention to providing student accommodation that is cheap. Students’ health and education are seriously harmed as a result of the scarcity of hostels. It is becoming increasingly difficult for these students to achieve their educational goals. It is for these reasons that the present researcher is interested in conducting this research on the influence of hostel squatting on the academic performance of female students in Federal College of Education Pankshin.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of hostel squatting on the academic performance of female students in Federal College of Education Pankshin. The study’s other objectives include:

  1. To find out why female students at the Federal College of Education, Pankshin, are squatting in their hostel rooms.
  2. To examine the harmful effects of hostel squatting in Federal College of Education, Pankshin
  3. To investigate whether female students at the Federal College of Education, Pankshin, benefit academically from hostel squatting.
  4. To examine the difficulties experienced by female students who squat in hostels in Federal College of Education Pankshin.

1.4 Research Questions

Research questions posed to guide the study included the following:

  1. What are the causes of female hostel squatting at the Federal College of Education, Pankshin, are squatting in their hostel rooms?
  2. What are the harmful effects of hostel squatting in Federal College of Education, Pankshin?
  • To what extent does female students at the Federal College of Education, Pankshin, benefit academically from hostel squatting?
  1. What are the difficulties experienced by female students who squat in hostels in Federal College of Education Pankshin?

1.5. Significance of the Study

The importance of this research cannot be overstated, especially in light of the fact that educators and researchers are doing everything they can to discover problems that threaten female students’ academic success. Accordingly, the findings will benefit college administrators, parents of female students, and planners, in addition to researchers.

The college’s administration will become aware of the obstacles that female students face in the classroom. As a result, they’ll take steps to limit the difficulties they face.

Parents will realize the advantages of students staying in the hostel rather than off-campus, as well. Rather than have them live off campus, they will urge them to stay in the hostels.

As a result of the findings of this study, female students will realize the importance of staying in the school’s hostel, where they will be safe and able to concentrate on their studies. As a result, they will do better in school.

Finally, when this study is completed, it will serve as a reference material to already existing body of literature on hostel squatting and academic performance of female students in tertiary institutions.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study focuses on how female students’ academic performance is affected by squatting in hostels. The female’s hostels at the Federal College of Education, Pankshin, are the only ones being studied. It will look at how female students’ academic performance is affected or influenced by hostel squatting. A generalization can be made, even though the study is only focused on one college, to other parts of the state and country as a whole.

1.7. Operational Definitions of Terms

Operational terms are defined in this section thus.

Academic Performance: The degree to which a student has met his or her educational objectives is what we call an educational outcome.

Hostel: a place where students can stay while they attend school apart from their families. Students: Students who are currently enrolled in a tertiary institution are the focus of this study.

Performance: A person’s performance is the result of their efforts. In the event that schooling is beneficial to students academically.

Roommate: One who shares a living space, such as a room with another person is referred to as a roommate. Hostel mate, suitemate, housemate, or flat mate are all phrases that can be used interchangeably.

Squatting: Squatting is the practice of sharing a living space with another person without their consent or payment.

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