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The study investigated the influence of entry qualification of direct entry students on their performance in B.Sc. Ed Integrated Science Program: A case study of FCE Pankshin. The population of the study comprises of thirty four (34) students admitted into B.Sc. Ed Integrated Science Program in Federal College of Education Pankshin during the year 2014/2015 (UTME 100 level) and 2015/2016 (Direct Entry 200 level) academic session. The study employed ex-post- facto as the researcher did not have control over some of the variables in their natural settings. Two research questions and one research hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The two research questions were entered and analyzed using the SPSS statistical package while the chi-square was used to test the research hypothesis in order to establish the significant difference in the academic achievement of Integrated Science UTME students and Direct-Entry (DE) of the Federal College of Education, Pankshin. The results of the study revealed that there was significant difference in the type of graduating class of the two modes of entry qualifications on the type of class at graduation among Final Year B.Sc. (Ed) Integrated Science students for 2018/2019 Academic Session. This is because both the UTME and Direct Entry students performed in different level differently. The difference notices could be due to various factors such as study habits, self concept and the I.Q of the individual rather than their mode of admission. The difference is also ascribed to effort put in by the students rather than their mode of admission into the college. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that the mode of admission or entry qualification into the college could be one of the predictor of the final or graduating CGPA of students in different field of study. The study recommends among others that, admission of Direct Entry Integrated science students should be enhanced so as to boost enrollment thereby increasing the number of qualified Degree Integrated science teachers.












1.1       Background of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem    –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.3       Purpose of the Study            –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.4       Research Questions –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.5       Research Hypotheses            –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.6       Significance of the Study      –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.7       Scope and Delimitation of the Study           –           –           –           –           9

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms     –           –           –           –           –           9







3.0       Introduction   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

3.1       Design of the Study   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

3.2       Population of the Study        –           –           –           –           –           –           35

3.3       Sample and Sampling Techniques  –           –           –           –           –           36

3.4       Method of Data Collection   –           –           –           –           –           –           37

3.5       Method of Data Analysis      –           –           –           –           –           –           37






4.0       Introduction   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

4.1       Results            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

4.2       Hypotheses Testing   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

4.3       Discussion of the Findings   –           –           –           –           –           –           44




5.1       Summary of the Findings     –           –           –           –           –           –           46

5.2       Conclusion     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

  •  Recommendation     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47

5.4       Suggestions for Further Studies      –           –           –           –           –           48

REFERENCE –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

APPENDIX 1  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           53

APPENDIX 2              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           55











1.1       Background of the Study

The realization that education is an instrument for national development has compelled the Federal Government of Nigeria to make education at the primary school level free to every Nigerian irrespective of the socio-economic status. With the recognition of education as a veritable key to individual and national development, the rate at which people tend to clamour for education especially tertiary education has increased. A sizeable number of candidates applying for admission into tertiary education continue to increase every academic session. However, only a small percentage are securing admission due to lack of enough spaces and or failure to meet given admission requirements (Quadri & Olowo, 2013).

According to National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE, 2009), eligible candidates for admission into NCE one in the colleges of education must possess five credits passes in not more than two sitting at West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) or the National Examination Council (NECO). English Language and Mathematics must be passed at credit level, and two credits must be in the areas of candidates’ specialization. These are the students who were admitted into the NCE one programme of the college after possessing the prerequisite qualifications as stipulated by the college and NCCE considered as direct entry students. In view of the constant deficiencies recorded by students in ordinary level examinations, diploma as well as NCE programme, and high demand for qualified science teachers, direct entry (DE) programme was introduced by National University Commission (NUC) in an effort to improve admission rate into Nigerian Universities. The Direct Entry Students are those who possess 5 credits in WAEC/NECO examination as pre-request and meet the eight (8) points cut-off mark in their Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE).

Akinbote (2007) asserted that those who enroll to train as teachers are usually not the best materials. They further said that students, who enroll to train to become Teachers, do so because they cannot cope with other courses. It is against this background that the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) approved the mounting of DE programme to take care of those students who fall below the admission requirement for science, technical and language education course with a view to meeting the admission quota and ascertain continuous manpower flow into the stream of the teaching profession in these specialized field that are pertinent to national growth and technological advancement.

Academic achievement has been viewed as a scholastic performance of individual tested during (Formulae) or after (Summative) a particular programme of study. The Nigerian public is disenchanted with the teacher’s performance. Not only the public, but even educators also had little faith in the kind of academic performance and achievement by Nigerian students (Okebukola, 2007).

At this point, the need for qualified science teachers at the primary and junior secondary school cannot be overemphasized. As a matter of fact, without qualified science teachers specifically those with Bachelor of Science Education in Integrated Science program to provide sound foundation for science education, the national desire of becoming scientifically developed country cannot be achieved. The shortage of qualified integrated science teachers at all levels of our educational system has become a major concern for the country. The introduction of direct entry (DE) Science programme has boosted the enrollment of science students and thereby increasing the production of more qualified teachers for schools in Nigeria.

The process of gaining admission into Nigerian universities starts with the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) for Ordinary (O) level candidates and Direct Entry (DE) for Advanced (A) level candidates. Both UTME and DE admission procedures are handled by the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB). UTME is for candidates that possess only the Senior Secondary School Certificate (SSSC). Upon passing the UTME, candidates stand the chance to be admitted into 100 level of the bachelor degree programme. Meanwhile DE is for candidates who possess both O’ level and A’ level entry requirements like Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND), Interim Joint Matriculation Board Examination (IJMBE) and sometimes bachelor degree in related discipline. DE candidates if found suitable, are admitted into the university at 200 level for a bachelor degree course as specified in JAMB admission guidelines.

However, universities and college of education became dissatisfied with JAMB and started conducting post-UTME aptitude test at individual university level for successful UTME candidates due to ineffectiveness of the program compare to direct entry. Emaikwu (2012) reported that despite the establishment of the JAMB as Nigeria’s official higher education entrance examination board aimed at regulating admission process; it is argued that the incompetence of Nigerian universities’ graduates is due to JAMB’s selection procedure, which quantity and quality of candidates being admitted. So, after this university-based entrance examination, successful applicants are admitted into either a choice-course or a non-choice-course. Besides the UTME candidates, successful DE candidates also gain admission placement into either a choice-course or a non-choice-course at 200 level.

Entry qualification and admission placement refers to the qualification or requirements posses by candidates as well as the act of accepting a prospective student on meeting the basic requirements to study a course at any level of education; and giving such candidate the opportunity to run a programme of his/her choice or another related programme as deemed fit by the admission authority concerned. According to Habila, Wajiga and Zirra (2014), in Nigerian universities and colleges of education, admission placement of candidates into Departments is based on candidates’ choice if requirements are met; otherwise candidates will be assigned alternative courses. However, Kanyip (2013); Andy, Peter, Kalu and Chris (2014); and Adesulu (2018) argued that factors behind admission crises in Nigerian colleges of education and universities are multifaceted such that even some of the qualified candidates’ choices are disregarded once the approved admission quota is filled. Tremblay (2013) advised that holistic approach to admissions decisions should involve not only the candidates’ academic achievements but also take into consideration other relevant criteria. The fact is that only about 25% of the candidates seeking admission into Nigerian tertiary institutions via JAMB secure it (Adesulu, 2018; Premium Times, 2019). Worse still, many of these seemly lucky ones are offered courses other than their choices due to systemic factors. Thus, admission into the university could be either choice-course or non-choice-course placement.

Interest in course of study (B. Sc. Ed Integrated Science) refers to undergraduates’ feeling, curiosity, willingness, or persuasion of wanting to know about the course and the longing or readiness to be actively involved in its learning. Danjuma (2015) stated that interest is an important aspect in the learning process. This is because it helps in sustaining concentration, purpose, commitment and co-operation with the teacher in the teaching/learning processes. Ardodo and Gbore (2012) stressed that interest possesses the strongest strength for predicting performance.

Meanwhile academic performance here refers to B.Sc. Ed Integrated Science undergraduates’ level of scholarly accomplishment; where Cumulative Grade Point Averages (CGPAs) indicate good and poor performance based on class of degree. The most dominant factor of value in any education system, according to Ndioho (2007), is performance. This implies that the whole system of education revolves round academic performance and the effective application of gained knowledge in real life situation for personal, immediate community and national development.

Mlambo (2011) analyzed some factors affecting students’ academic performance in an introductory Biochemistry course in the University of the West Indies and found that different entry qualifications, which are the results of previous academic performance and interest affect future academic choice, interest and performance among learners. It is obvious that tertiary institutions all over the world, including Nigeria, use prior academic performance in terms of admission points or entry qualifications as a basis for admission placement. This finding supported Bratti and Staffolani (2006) who maintained that students’ prior academic performance is the most important indicator of their future academic performance. Similarly, Agada (2008), Osborne (2008); Bukhari, Khan, Shahzadi and Khalid (2014) revealed that learners’ interest in science as a key factor, which influences the rate and success of learning. In Jayanthi, Balakrishnan, Ching, Abdullateef and Nasirudeen (2014) study on “factors contributing to academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in Singapore” discovered among other factors that interest affected academic scores. That is why Adeyemi and Adeyemi (2014) rightly noted that when students lose interest in their studies, failure rate will become higher. Okpilike (2011) investigated the mode of admission of education undergraduates and their academic performance in a Nigerian University, using the students’ scores in the two semesters of the 2006/2007 academic session revealed that education undergraduates who gained admission through the pre-degree programme performed significantly better than their counterparts who were admitted through the JAMB in all courses combined in education. Nonetheless, variables of interest in course of study based on choice and non-choice course admission placement were not treated, thus, it is vital to study this. Emaikwu (2012) also assessed the impact of students’ mode of admission into university and their academic achievement in Nigeria using ex post facto research design with a sample of 253 students selected from two universities in Benue State and discovered that there was no significant difference in the mean academic achievement of students who were admitted into the university through UTME, DE and remedial programme. However, the study was not concerned about choice course and non-choice course admission placement. Hence, the need for the current study.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The academic achievement of students admitted into the colleges of education and universities has been of great concern to all who has interest in the education industry in Nigeria. The decay in the educational system calls for solution and hence the search for the most desirable and best way to select candidates into Nigerian colleges of education and Universities for best results. For some years, the graduating students’ results had been fascinating because of the type of the class grades students come out with. The problem is that Nigerians attach a high premium on University education. So, most people who have the potential for University education show desperation in their efforts to gain admissions into the limited spaces available. This preference for University education as against other degree awarding institutions has placed enormous pressure on admission placement in Nigerian Universities and colleges of education in times of entry qualification, which could hardly be met.

Consequently, candidates’ choices are hardly regarded in placement and thus, their original academic dreams/interests are most times impeded. As a result, many candidates change their minds and accept the fate of university admission placement just to make progress in life after several efforts of seeking admission over the years with similar experiences. Could this entry qualification influence students’ level of interest and academic performance in the courses being read? It is against this background that influence of entry qualification of direct entry student on their performance in B.Sc. Ed Integrated Science Program: A case study of FCE Pankshin was studied.


1.3       Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the influence of entry qualification of direct entry students on their performance in B.Sc. Ed Integrated Science Program: A case study of FCE Pankshin. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Compare the progression of direct entry academic performance and that of UTME students
  2. Compare the academic achievements of students admitted through UTME and Direct Entry into programmes in Integrated Science Education program

1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the progression of direct entry academic performance and that of UTME students?
  2. Do the Direct Entry students perform better academically at the point of graduation than the UTME?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guided the conduct of the study:

HO: There is no significant difference in the progression of direct entry academic performance and that of UTME students.

Ha: There is no significant difference in the performance of direct entry students in B.Sc. Ed integrated science program from that of UTME students at point of graduation.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The significance of the study includes the followings:

The results from this study will help to provide clear evidence on the performance if (any) of the Direct Entry (DE) students compare to the UTME students.

The results will aid or assist policymakers in making a decision about DE program and admission issues on the training of teachers.

The result from this study will provide information for the policy maker on admission policy at the colleges of education and universities.

1.7       Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The researcher has limited the study to the influence of entry qualification of direct entry students on their performance in B.Sc. Ed integrated science program of FCE Pankshin in Nigeria.

The school was used on the fact that literatures review shows that no much such study has been carried out in this area. Direct entry and UTME students in the department of integrated science will be used in the study.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

Terms that are related to the study are defined below in order to remove somatic ambiguity in their usage.

Entry Qualification: The qualifications and conditions required to join an organization,  school, or club.

Direct entry (DE):  Literally, direct entry means a person who has the education and/or vocational training or past work/school experience to enter a program or a job without further formal training beyond basic orientation. In this study, it refers to those that already possess a Nigerian certificate in Education (NCE) and wishes to go for a degree programme in the university. Normally, those who gained admission into the university via direct entry to start from part 2 or 200 level in university of choice in Nigeria provided they were offered admission.

Student: It refers to a person who is studying in schools or other place of higher education

B.Sc. Ed Integrated Science: It is a class of degree holder in education that centers on the physical and applied sciences and it is designed to equip the degree holder with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in a theoretical and practical teaching of science and the applied sciences in the basic, secondary and post-secondary schools.

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