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Title Page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration Page – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – vii

1.1. Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems – – – – – – 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.4. Research Questions – – – – – – – 7
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 9
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 9

2.0. Introduction – – – – – – – – 11
2.1. Theoretical Framework of Dress Code – – – – 11
2.2 Causes of Students’ Indecent Dressing – – – – – 11
2.3 Influence of Indecent Dressing on Students’ Behaviour – – – 16
2.4 Influence of Indecent Dressing on Academic Performance of Students – 18
2.5 Cultural Beliefs on Decent Dressing – – – – – 20
2.6 Related Empirical Literature – – – – – – 23
2.7 Summary of Literature Review – – – – – – 27
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 29
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 29
3.2 Population of the Study – – – – – – – 29
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – – 30
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 31
3.4.1 Validation of Research Instrument – – – – – 32
3.6.2 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – 32
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – – 32
3.6 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 32

4.1 Personal Data Presentation of Respondents – – – – 34
4.2 Analysis of Questionnaires – – – – – – 36
4.3. Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 40

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 42
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 43
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 43
References – – – – – – – – 45
Appendixes – – – – – – – – 48
This project was carried out in order to determine the influence of dress code on students’ academic performance in Federal College of Education Pankshin. The study adopted the survey research design. The population of the study consisted of all the students in FCE Pankshin. The sample of the study consisted of 100 students from 4 selected schools in the college. The random sampling technique was used to draw out the sample. The instrument used for the collection of data was the questionnaire. The method of data analysis was the simple percentage for analysis of the respondents’ personal data while the mean score was used to analyse their responses to the questionnaire. The findings of the study indicated that the causes of indecent dressing include poor home training, pressure from peer group, social media, the environment and opposite sex are causes of indecent dressing; the negative effects of indecent dressing are that lecturers are distracted by students who dress indecently during lecturers, students spend money on dresses instead of buying handouts, students spending all their time on dressing indecently and conscious of their looks while neglecting their academics, inability to express one’s self as a result of indecent dress; indecent dressing is rampant in the college and students extort money from boyfriends and parents to buy indecent dresses, students in FCE Pankshin can still dress decently, students who are advised to abstain from indecent dressing will dress better, when awareness on indecent dressing is created, every student will be conscious of their dressing; dress code can be a possible solution to indecent dressing in Federal College of Education as students will be conscious of their dressing when there is a dress code, dress code can serve as a tool for checkmating indecent dressing and students will have no liberty to wear skimpy dresses and crazy clothes. The study concluded that there are a lot of instances of indecent dressing in Federal college of Education Pankshin which in turn affect the academics of these students who dress indecently therefore, dress code can be a tool in addressing indecent dressing in the college and other higher institutions in the country. In the light of the findings, it was recommended among others that Federal government and school management should enforce the use of dress code for higher institution in order to minimize or eliminate the cases of indecent dressing, there should be penalty for students who are found wanting in terms of indecent dressing, the security officers at the gate should be given the mandate to chase students who dress indecently from entering the school premises. This will be a deterent to other students, parents should checkmate the dresses their children were as it is rightly said: “Charity begins at home”, students should understand that their future is at stake and indecent dressing is a canker worm which is gradually but effective eating their academic performance away.

1.1. Background of the Study
Education is concerned with the development of total personality of students and positive changes in their behavioral patterns. The attainment of the lofty aims and objectives of education cannot be realized unless we have in our university an environment that is conducive for effective teaching and learning. Discipline is absolutely essential ingredient of such an enabling operational climate. The attitudes and values of students constitute the critical factor in the level of discipline in the higher institutions. There is need for students to be aided in clarifying their values and modifying their attitudes so as to be able to make rational decisions in socially, relevant acceptable way (Nwagwu, 2000).
A dress code is a set of rules governing what garment may be worn in a specific setting. For example, there are garments appropriate for going to church, some for spotting, some for going to parties, some for staying at home, some for going to lectures etc. It deals with a modest and good dressing in conformity with the environmental acceptable values. There is a saying that “YOU ARE ADDRESSED BY THE WAY YOU DRESSED’’.
Adams (2010) and Mcpherson (2011) have shown that a student’s conduct and performance are related to his or her clothing; therefore the Higher institution is concerned with the student’s clothing. A student’s clothing should not be a distraction or disruption to learning environment. Appearance should not distract classmates from important task of learning.
According to Rykrsmith (2012), what you wear affects others perception of you. The clothes we wear put us on a different mindset. It is therefore necessary to dress in the image one wants to portray oneself. Freeburg, Workman, and Lentz-Hee (2010), suggested that through dress code, the higher institutions of learning establish rules governing students’ appearance. Adebayo (2013), advised that the African society is founded on a moral heritage that must be preserved and so the dress code should be observed with sheer determination and moral will.
Dress Code has so many advantages some of them are: instilling discipline in the students; helping to preserve moral standard by lowering sexual abuse and harassment; creating less distraction to both the students and the lecturers; the much expected classroom order is made possible by helping the student to concentrate on their academic work; it shows sense of responsibility on the part of the students; Decency, reputation and character formation are other benefits of dress code; it is all about acceptable image and prepares the student for labor market by instilling in them the habit of good dressing. Students are taught what sort of dress will serve them best professionally and socially.
Many students copy the ghetto mode of dressing. They pull down their pants and skirts below the waist showing their inner boxers or pants. This is what they call sagging. Some males plait their hair, some wear earring on one ear. These students do not know that no professional will dress in that manner and it is very unprofessional. Students in the higher institution of learning are being prepared to be great future professionals. If the students’ indecent dressings are not checked, by the time he or she leaves the higher institution and goes into the labor market to look for job with one eared earring if you are a man or sagged trouser or bushy hair and unshaved mustache, such a person will find it difficult to get a job. The employers will see him/her as irresponsible.
Indecent dressing has become the order of the day in most higher institutions of learning. It is a state of being improperly dressed with the aim to seduce or draw unnecessary attention to one’s person. Omode (2011) emphasizes this that “indecent appearance has come to characterize the dress pattern of many students on campus of higher learning in Nigeria,” there is hardly any institution of higher learning in this country that is not being plagued with this nauseating problem. The manner of dressing adopted by these students especially the female ones leave much to be desired. The skimpy and tight fitted nature of these dresses reveals the sorry state of moral decadence among our students in Federal College of Education Pankshin. These dresses besides being stumpy and tight are also transparent and as a result revealing certain parts of the bodies that should have been covered under normal dressing pattern.
Both boys and girls are guilty of indecent dressing, they put dirty and unkempt hairs and dirty jeans having pockets of holes deliberately created around the knees and lower part of the trousers also the waist of these trouser are lowered and fastened tightly at the middle of the two bottoms to reveal their boxers (pants) and when they are walking they drag their legs and one of their hands particularly, the left one cupping their invisible scrotum as if they will fall to the ground if not supposed. Many of them because of how they dressed at one time or the other become victims of rapes, lured into prostitution, used for ritual purposes, unable to complete their education or training and also engaged in other auxiliary social and moral problems like cultism’s and lying to mention these few. Although there are not known universally acceptable way or ways of dressing, dresses are meant to serve some definable purpose, country or region.
Dresses are part of the people’s culture and are defined in their tribal or ethnic identity. Apart from dresses being a means for culture identity they are for ornamental or aesthetic purposes for protection of the body against harsh weather condition as well as covering the intimate part of the body. Those purposes are important especially as they form major aspects of a person’s personality. But as important as those purpose are they have been defeated by the Nigeria youths, their dress pattern are most time anti-African dress pattern invented. They usually dress in a manner that does not show especially that of Nigerian encourages modesty in appearance as do the Christian and Islamic religion where the larger population of these Youth claims to be worshiping God. This un-African dress pattern among the youths of this generation has generated a lot of concern and worry among the citizenry of the country. Religion institutions as well as institution of learning are not resting on their bars to watch this moral act being perpetuated but they speak against it. For instance Olori (2003: pg 7) reported that “at the University of Abuja rules were made that ’’any dress worn must cover intimate part of the body must not expose the breast stomach novel and bare chest’’. But on this Campus student still dress indecently.
In the same vein in Federal College of Education Pankshin, where this study is focused, it seems that the absence of a dress code in various departments was misinterpreted by the students to mean they should dress indecently. This is because what became obvious with students in this college after the introduction of this dress code was the alarming and arrant ways that they begin to dress indecently. One is not however surprised because what is typically of most Nigerian administrators is always a wide gap between policy and formulation and execution. Indecent even though is not accepted as it normally seems to be gaining ascendancy. One wonders what becomes of the society tomorrow with the caliber of students that are being trained.
Researchers like Gbedegbe & Quashie (2013) have revealed that these wrongful and improper dressings of Polytechnic students has a high tendency of impacting negatively on their academic performance as the output of male lecturers most especially can reduce when they concentrate on watching such provocative dressings during lectures. Female students on the other hand spend so much money in buying such useless dresses instead of spending them on their academic work. Their indecent dressing also makes them patronize discotheques, night clubs, brothels and hotels where they can have fun at the expense of their studies. There is also the possibility of some male lecturers or even female lecturers falling prey to such seductive dressings which may result in sexual favours between the lecturers on one hand and students on the other hand. This clearly will be a hindrance to quality education; as such students will not be able to perform up to the expectation of their prospective employers and consequently lead to loss of revenue to the state. Quite apart from that, poor performance of students as a result of indecent dressing can be linked to unemployment. This is so because students who dress indecently have divided attention for their studies and are therefore unable to receive adequate training which is a prerequisite for employment by most schools or companies. And because such companies are not ready to spend extra money training such partially groomed graduates, the latter find themselves joining the ‘Unemployed Graduate Association Nigeria.’
If rules are made for people, they are supposed to be adequately informed why such rules are made. It is for this very reason that this research attempts to counsel student about the cause, effect of dress code on their academic performance in Federal College of Education, Pankshin.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
The rate of indecent dressing among the Nigerian tertiary institution students is causing a lot of concern to education stakeholders. There has been increase in dropout of school, carryovers and outright failure among the students. Many factors have been alleged as the reasons for these. One of them is indecent dressing which many have complained that causes distractions and disruptions in teaching and learning.
Many unethical things have been attributed to indecent dressing. Some of these are:- cultism, student not focused, poor academic performance, constant breaking of rules and regulations, poor self image. These indecent dressings range from sagging of trousers (ass down), mini skirts, short trousers, exaggerated dressing and the likes. However, for the purpose of this research, attention is paid most on how indecent dressing affects the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions with a particular look at Federal College of Education Pankshin. Academic success can be achieved when indecent dressing among students is addressed. The tertiary institution is not a fashion ground where individuals come to show off the kind of dresses they have seen on the social media!
Institutional arrangements require certain norms known as code of conduct of dressing designed by the authorities to ensure strict adherence to good dressing habit. It is in the light of this that the researcher has seen the need to research on influence of dress code on students’ the academic performanc in Federal College of Education, Pankshin.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the influence of dress code on the academic performance of students in Federal College of Education, Pankshin.
Other specific objectives are:
1. To determine the causes of indecent dressing in Federal College of Education Pankshin
2. To determine the effect of indecent dressing on academic performance of students in FCE Pankshin.
3. To find out if students in Federal College of Education Pankshin can still dress decently.
4. To find out some of the possible solution to indecent dressing in Federal College of Education Pankshin.
1.4. Research Questions
In line with the specific objectives of the study, the following research questions are raised which will be answered by the end of the research:
1. What are the causes of indecent dressing in Federal College of Education Pankshin?
2. What are the effects of indecent dressing on academic performance of students in FCE Pankshin?
3. To what extent has dress code influence academic performance of students in Federal College of Education Pankshin?
4. What are the possible solution to indecent dressing in Federal College of Education Pankshin?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are general for the study:
H0: Dress Code is not a solution to indecent dressing in the Federal College of Education Pankshin
H0: There is no significant relationship between indecent dressing and academic performance of students in Federal College of Education Pankshin.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of the study will be of immense important to all and sundry particularly educational administrators, teachers and others who may be interested in the welfare, progress, educational upliftment and advancement of student’s.
This study is very beneficial to Nigerian government who will be encouraged at the efforts made in tertiary institutions like FCE Pankshin to ensure that the stated goals and objectives of the college are met.
FCE Pankshin will enjoy non-distractive environment in their pursuit of aims and objectives of the institution. It will be training teachers and students who would be worthy in knowledge and character when graduating.
The students would be more focused. The failure rate, drop-out rate and unethical practices would be lessened. There will be hope of improving on their self image and hope for gainful employment when they graduate. The stakeholders would be glad to see well dressed students as good role models for students and pupils in primary and secondary institutions. They will also be glad that African culture is exhibited in the students’ mode of dressing.
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to the influence of dress code on the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions. It is delimited to Federal College of Education, Pankshin with particular attention on some selected schools within the college. However, despite the fact that the study is delimited to the selected institution and local government, its findings can be generic: it can be generalized to other colleges as well as parts of the country.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The researcher defined the following terms as they are used in the research in the research work.
– Indecent Dressing: Is the improper way or provocative way of dressing relative to the society or culture in which it is being perpetuated.
– Decent Dressing: Is the proper way of dressing or the generally accepted way of dressing without exposing vital parts of the body.
– Cultism: Is a ritual practice that involved into the group of people, these policies, rituals and admission are kept secrets from the general public.
– Peer Groups: Is a force that gravitate friends together and most at times for evil or negative tendencies.
– Drug Abuse: Is a patterned used of a drug in which the user consumes the substances in amount or with method which are harmful to themselves or others.
– Sexual Harassment: Is a forceful act or attempt to have sex with someone out of the person wish.
– Prostitution: Is a business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment either money, goods, services or other benefits agreed upon by the transacting parties.





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