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Cover Page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration Page – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication Page – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – ix

1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 6
1.3. Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.4. Research Questions – – – – – – – 7
1.5. Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.6. Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 8
1.7. Definition of Operational Terms – – – – – – 8

2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 10
2.2 Police Force in Nigeria – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Police and Community Policing – – – – – – 13
2.3.1 Strategies of Community Policing – – – – – 14
2.3.2 Prospects of Community Policing in Nigeria – – – – 16
2.3.3 Challenges of Community Policing in Nigeria – – – – 17
2.4 The concept of Insecurity – – – – – – – 20
2.4.1 Sources of Insecurity in Nigeria- – – – – – 22
2.5 The Concept of Counselling – – – – – – 23
2.5.1Approaches to Counselling- – – – – – – 25
2.6 Counselling Psychology Services and Workplace Counselling- – 27
2.6.1 Benefits of Counselling: Dealing with Stress, Anxiety and Depression in
Police Services – – – – – – – – 30
2.7 Application of Counselling Services in Police Service – – – 36
2.8 Summary of Literature Review – – – – – – 39

3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 41
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – – 41
3.3 Population and Sample of the Study – – – – – 41
3.4 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – 42
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 43
3.6.1 Description of the Instrument- – – – – – 43
3.6.2 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument- – – – – 43
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – – 44
3.8 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 45

4.1 Personal Data of Respondents – – – – – – 46
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions – – – – – – 48
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 51

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 53
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 54
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 54
References – – – – – – – – 56
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 63

This project was carried out in order to determine the influence of community policing on insecurity in Nigeria: counselling implications with particular attention to Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. The research adopted a survey research design. The population of this study comprised of all 21 vigilante stations in Mangu which has a total of 2,321 personnel. The sample for the study consisted of 100 Community Police personnel from ten stations. The method of sampling was the purposive sampling technique. The instrument adopted for the collection of data was the questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by the supervisor and an expert in Research Statistics. A pilot study was carried out in order to determine the reliability of the instrument. The method of data analysis was mean score. The findings of the study indicated that there are challenges confronting community policing services in the course of discharging their duties which include people refusing to cooperate with them, accusation of involvement in crime conspiracy; the influence of community police include helping a lot in terms of crime prevention and control, safeguarding lives and properties; counselling criminals with psychological problems which require counselling is a need in community policing. In the light of the findings, the following were recommended among others: practitioners (counsellors, clinical psychologists, psychologists and social workers) supporting police services must therefore be recruited, nominated and appointed based on the standard of spiritual, academic and professional considerations.

1.1. Background to the Study
For any country or nation that seeks to develop, insecurity challenges must be tackled so that investors and the citizens will feel safe. One of the greatest threats to development of Nigeria today is insecurity. The concept of insecurity would be best understood by first presenting the concept of security. In the view of Akin (2008) security refers to the situation that exists as a result of the establishment of measures for the protection of persons, information and property against hostile persons, influences and actions. It is the existence of conditions within which people in a society can go about their normal daily activities without any threats to their lives or properties. It embraces all measures designed to protect and safeguard the citizenry and the resources of individuals, groups, businesses and the nation against sabotage or violent occurrence, it demands safety from chronic threats and protection from harmful disruption.
Nigeria, in recent times, has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. This has made threats to national security a major issue for the federal, state and local governments and has prompted huge allocations of the national budget to security. In order to ameliorate the incidence of crime, the federal government has embarked on the criminalization of terrorism by passing the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2011, installation of Computer-based Closed-Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance, investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at deterring or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in the mass media (Azazi, 2011). Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in the country is still high. In addition, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2018) signifying a worsened state of insecurity in the country. Hence, Adagbaet. al. (2012), Uhunmwuangho and Aluforo (2011) are of the view that the effort of the federal government has not yielded enough positive result.
With the lingering security challenges and the inability of the security apparatus of the government to guarantee safety and security in the country, the question that bothers everyone in Nigeria today is that “can there be security?” Is security of lives and properties achievable? Apparently, the security situation in Nigeria appears or at least have remained insurmountable and many people have argued that government at all levels has not done enough by not confronting the situation head-on and dealing with it decisively, others have argued that the situation has a political undertone or inclination calculated to serve the interest of certain political gods who have been dissatisfied and disgruntled about the political manifestations in the country.
Over the years, societies all over the world have been threatened by perpetrators of crime and terrorism in the society. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, major categories of crime in 2018 are cybercrime, drug trafficking, firearms, falsified medical products, HIV and AIDS, trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants, maritime crime and piracy, money-laundering, organized crime terrorism, wildlife and forest crimes (Kunnen, 2018).
Although the above are broad categories of crime in the world, each country has had its fair share of crime right down to the local government, district, town and community. Mangu Local Government of Plateau State has its own fair share of experience when it comes to criminals terrorizing the town. Some of these crimes perpetrated are motor cycle theft, money laundry, etc. Some of the reasons why crime persists in the society are because of the following identified factors according to Agu (2018): Poverty and Unemployment, Family Conditions, Peer Pressure, Illegal Substances, Politics, Regionalism, etc
Community Policing has many perspectives but one and the same goal. According to Ferreira (1996) “Community policing is a philosophy of full service personalized policing, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems”. Everbridge (2018) sees Community Policing as a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies that support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder and fear of crime.” Also, Mulugeta & Mekuriaw (2017, p. 1) see Community Policing as “a paradigm shift established at the bedrock of community partnership in creating a safe and secure environment for all. It is policing whereby the people take active part in their own affairs; the police are not seen as a problem or stranger whose presence stands for danger but as partners in development and those members of the community are co-producers of justice and quality police service”. It is an approach to policing that recognizes the independence and shared responsibility of the Police and the Community in ensuring a safe and secure environment for all citizens. It aims at establishing an active and equal partnership between the Police and the public through which crime and community safety issues can jointly be discussed and solutions determined and implemented (Kenya Police Service, 2019).
Community policing involves collaboration between police and community members characterized by problem-solving partnerships to enhance public safety. Community policing was adopted widely among law enforcement agencies in the 1990s, with a view toward improving trust between community members and police and leveraging police resources through voluntary assistance by community members in public safety measures (Schanzer, Kurzman, Toliver, & Miller, 2016).
The central goal of community policing is for the police to build relationships with the community through interactions with local agencies and members of the public, creating partnerships and strategies for reducing crime and disorder.
At the bottom of the above discussion, guidance and counselling flourish. According to Chiiran (2016) the role of Guidance and Counselling in society today is a vital tool for the empowerment and liberation of the youths. Guidance, as a term, has been described based on its origin as “the assistance made available by qualified and trained persons to an individual of any age to help him to manage his own life activities, develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carryon his own burdens” (Barki & Mukhopadhyay, 1989, p. 35).In their definition of Counseling,
While Guidance, which is a relatively more comprehensive process includes counselling as its most specialised function. Counselling is a process of enabling the individual to know himself and his present and possible future situations in order that he may make substantial contributions to the society and to solve his own problems through a face to face relationship with the counselor (Barki & Mukhopadhyay, 1989, p. 38).
Before the individuals of any society can thrive, it must have all and more of the above listed types of guidance and in relation to this study, Social Guidance is important because it is the closest that relates to the internal mechanism that establishes and maintains cohesion, peace and stability. Without Social Guidance, the society could deteriorate in to anarchy.
The above solutions can be improved via Guidance and Counselling but because no society is 100% safe or full-proof from crime and criminality, social institutions like the police, military, the judiciary, among other formal structures and informal structures like Alternative Dispute Resolution and community policing, are avenues to ensure the prevention and punishment of crime and criminal activities in the society. It is in the light of this that this research seeks to investigate the influence of community policing on insecurity in Nigeria and its implication on counseling with particular attention to Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Guidance and Counselling has been established to be an important tool of empowerment and liberation (Chiiran, 2016). The aspect of social guidance and counselling is imperative for the growth and development of the society where individuals team up to achieve societal and communal goals (Barki & Mukhopadhyay, 1989) by solving individual and collective problems like crime and criminality in the society perpetrated by the same members of the society. In Nigeria, the major crimes of kidnapping, economic and financial crimes, robbery, sexual assault, bribery and corruption are some of the identified crimes that a common in the society. Some reasons for these crimes have been put forward as poverty, peer pressure, politics, religion and regionalism (Agu, 2018). Community Policing is a predominant practice in Nigeria where the Nigerian Police have planned programmes and policies to involve the individuals in the community in the policing and security of lives and properties. This study seeks to understand if counselling is part of the planned programmes of community policing in Nigeria whereby individuals in the society are counselled on the dangers of crime as a preventive measure to deescalate crime in the society.
1.8. Purpose of the Study
The objectives of the study are to:
The influence of community policing on insecurity in Nigeria and its implication on counseling with particular attention to Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.
i. To determine the challenges faced by community policing personnel in the course of discharging their duties.
ii. To evaluate the influence of community policing on crime prevention and control in Mangu Local Government Area
iii. To determine aspects where counselling can be of influence to the community police personnel.
iv. To find out if Counselling is part and parcel of the Community Policing Programme in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria.
1.9. Research Questions
The research questions of the study are:
i. Is there a Community Policing programme in Mangu Local government Area of Plateau State Nigeria?
ii. What are the challenges faced by community policing personnel as a result of insecurity?
iii. To what extent is Counselling a part and parcel of the Community Policing Programme in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria?
iv. To what extent have residents of Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State noticed the impact of Counselling as a Community Policing strategy to reduce insecurity in the society?
1.10. Significance of the Study
The importance of this study cannot be underemphasized especially now that the society is moving towards damnation as a result of insecurity. Therefore, the study will be of importance to government, counselors, the society and its contribution to the general body of knowledge in the fields of community policing and counselling.
1.11. Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the influence of community policing on insecurity challenges in Nigeria with its implication on counselling. The geographical scope of this study will be conducted in Mangu Local government of Plateau State. The residents and personnel of the community policing group of some selected districts in Mangu will serve as respondents. However, it is to be noted that despite the restriction of the study to the selected local government area of the State, its findings, will become generic or generalized to other parts of the state and country at large.
1.12. Definition of Operational Terms
i. Community Policing: For this study, Community Policing means programmes by the Nigerian Police that engages the residents of a certain community with the sole aim of partnering with them in stemming insecurity in the community. It also means training of youths, organized vigilante groups, hunters, paramilitary agencies like the Civil Defense and Immigration to effectively learn how to curb insecurity in the society.
ii. Vigilante Groups: For this study, vigilante groups are legally recognized groups certified by the Nigerian Police and Civil Defense and the local government to carry out security watch in the community. They are to report suspicious events to the Police and provide assistance to the Police as at when due.
iii. Insecurity: For this study, insecurity means any form of crime that has the propensity of creating chaos in the society. Insecurity means robbery, sexual assault, terrorism, riots, violent protests, Fulani/herdsmen clashes and other crimes peculiar to Mangu Local Government.
iv. Counselling: For this study, counseling means the orientation of individuals in a society against preventive crime measures, teaching individuals to be security conscious, how to react in distress, and other preventive and reactive measures that will curb insecurity in the society.




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