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The changing world and its complexities demand frequent adaptations on the part of the individual whether big or small, rich or poor. Our growing children are confronted with different problems or situations that need help whether as a group or individual. This is where the guidance and counselling services are found worthy to be employed by the secondary schools through the guidance counsellor to provide the necessary assistance to students. Guidance and counselling are just like twins or a coin with two different sides. Opinions differ as to the definition of guidance and counselling but no matter how they are defined they remain part and parcel of one another.

The counsellors are expected to render counselling services which according to Ifelunni (2015) and Afia (2015) include counselling, orientation, information appraisal, placement, referral, fellowship and evaluation. The services are not only to ensure quality in education, but also to help individuals acquire the knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to identify opinions, explore alternatives and succeed in life. No doubt, Nwaokolo (2016) noted that when counsellors perform their expected duties in the school setting, then the students will be satisfied as their different academic, vocational, social and personal life aspirations are fulfilled.

According to Olowu (2018) Therapeutic group counseling is a form of counseling where a small group of people meet regularly to discuss, interact, and explore problems with each other and the group leader. Therapeutic group counseling seeks to give students a safe and comfortable place on campus where they can work out problems and emotional concerns. Members gain insight into their own thoughts and be­havior, and offer suggestions and support to others. In addition, people who have a difficult time with interpersonal relationships can benefit from the social interactions that are a basic part of the Therapeutic group counseling experience. Most groups composed of students of differing ages, backgrounds and ex­periences. This helps to provide additional perspectives. To Ofordile (2012) group guidance is a service made available by guidance personnel to a large or small group. Group guidance provides beneficial information to a number of people at once, instead of repeatedly explaining the concept to each person individually. … It also allows individuals the opportunity to interact with others facing issues similar to their own.

The definition of a study habit is the practise of setting out time in one’s calendar that is solely devoted to learning and is free from distractions. Without it, a person cannot mature and would eventually become self-limiting in their life. The way someone studies reveals how much information they are willing to learn, how far they want to travel, and how much money they want to make. All of these things may be determined with the assistance of one’s approach to studying throughout their entire life. According to Stella and Purtshothaman (2013), the researchers have analysed the pupils’ achievements with reference to the classification of high, average, and low achievers. In this conventional classification, the point of reference is in the average score of group or a standard norm. However, study habits differ from person to person; therefore, in an effort to assist the learners in progressing by developing suitable study habits, we require a different set of parameters that takes into account individual differences.

According to Issa and colleagues (2012), the reading activities that children participate in on a daily basis have an impact on the students’ ability to study and their subsequent academic success. One might gain an appreciation for the link between healthy reading habits and the overall academic achievement of pupils when one takes a more general perspective on the topic. Singh (2011) investigated the academic accomplishments of higher secondary pupils as well as their study habits. One hundred students from higher secondary schools were selected at random for participation in the study, which was carried out on those pupils. The findings suggest that girls and boys have very different study habits, as well as dramatically different levels of academic accomplishment.

Study habits are approaches applied to learning, centering on an individual’s efforts, with a view to taking action, based on a mode of occurrence or growth. These approaches lead people to study easily, naturally with growing skill and certainty. Study habits (approaches applied to learning) have to do with: study methods, study skill and study habit.  They enable students to work personally and privately. They are techniques that facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and development of skills which result in achieving success and becoming productive. Study habits are very important to enhancing the proper development and attainment of an individual. Study habits are very important, because they enhance every learning process of all students, males and females alike. Findings on gender differences in study habits arouse interest and curiosity. Ossai (2012), for example, shows significant differences in the study habits of students on the basis of age and gender. Whereas the studies by Kagu (2005) and Ossai (2011) found no significant differences in the study habits of male and female students. Aluja and Blanch (2004) found that girls scored higher on a study habit measure than boys.

  It is needful therefore that students start with the conscious awareness of the availability/relevance of study habits, such as: approach to studying matters; having the right habit to studying; when to study; peak study times, teacher consultation relationship; setting goals for studying; time management, organizing the study area; concentration in studying; creating study tools, self-motivation and how to read and study textbooks, among others. Study habits also include students’ ability to manifest skills like: review strategy, note-taking/making strategies, self-discipline, memorization, organization and determination to succeed. However, the present study will focus on two study skills: Review Strategy and Note-taking Strategy. They are part of the effective study skills that enhance students’ academic behaviour. Effective teaching of study habits, study methods and reading to students will curtail students’ failure rate in school (Oyetunde, 2000). Good study habits also serve as means of widening intellectual horizons.  They help in developing more stable and matured personality.  Good study skills lead to better acquisition of knowledge as well as adjustment to life, through sharing other people’s experiences, joy, sorrows and insights.

It is against the above discussion that this study aims to investigate the effect of Therapeutic group counselling on the habits of students towards study in Senior Secondary Schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.


The rate of academic failure among students at the senior secondary school level has become a source of concern to all education stakeholders which include: parents, teachers, government and students as well. This rate of failure according to Dele (2012) can be attributed to the negative habits of students towards study. The need for senior secondary school’s counselling services in Nigeria including Plateau State cannot be overemphasized. This is because it renders assistance to children early in life which in turn helps to combat behavioural problems including negative habits to study in life. Students have a host of emotional and psychological problems for which they need counselling support in order to enable them go through educational life.

Research evidence have shown that defective study habits such as lack of study tools, ordanised study area,low self-motivation, poor note taking among others and their consequences, could be a key factor to this situation. Defective study habits result in the failure to cope with expected volume of work which leads to low academic behaviour. Graduating with poor result does not make for good professional output in practical work life, as the case with the teaching profession. This explains the worrisome state of rampant reports in the news-television, radio and newspapers of quackery in the education sector of the economy.

The problems associated with study habits might have a major impact on student’s academic behavior and by extension, performances, it is believed that everyone has a different study habit and it is important to find out the best personal way to study. Studying with friends has a long way to go in student’s study habits, it has a positive influence in which they discuss what have been read together but also has a negative effect in which they might not read but discuss throughout the stipulated time for reading which boils down to time wastage. A very good and conducive environment encourages students study habit and might have positive impact of their academic behaviour but students reading in an unfavorable environment might find it difficult to study which might affect their academic behaviour.

It is against this background that this study therefore intends to examine the effect of group guidance and habits of students towards study in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.


The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of Therapeutic group counselling and students’ habits to study in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, the specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. impact of students’ study habits before they were exposed to therapeutic group counselling on the study habits of senior secondary school students in Pankshin LGA.
  2. gender differences in the study habits of senior secondary school students in Pankshin.
  3. impact of students’ study habits after they were exposed to therapeutic group counselling of senior secondary school students in Pankshin LGA.

            The following hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance:

H01: there is no significant difference in the study habits of secondary school students who were exposed to therapeutic group counselling and those who were not exposed to the treatment.

H02: there is no significant difference in the study habits of boys and girls who were exposed to therapeutic group counselling in secondary schools in Pankshin

H03: there is no significant difference in the study habits of boys who were exposed to therapeutic group counselling and those who were not exposed to the treatment.


The study is on effect of Therapeutic group counselling and the students’ habits to study in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State.

The findings of this research will be of benefit to the following Stakeholders: Students, Teachers, Researchers, Professional Counsellors, Parents and the Government. 

Students will be able to access counselling from Therapeutic group counselling or professional Counsellors which will bring about the development of good study habits that may result in an excellent academic achievements and eventual excellent professional expertise, this excellent output will result in the provision of accurate and reliable information to students.

Teachers in secondary schools will also benefit from the findings of this study. They will be equipped with skills to encourage, train and guide students on effective study habits, especially review strategy and note-taking strategy. They will also find the study useful in guiding students to review their note-taking systematically in order to boost comprehension and retrieval of information, as well as how to have effective note-taking strategies.

The findings of this study will be of value to government and all policy-makers that will be furnished with information about effective study habits, these will then enhance students’ academic performance. As such, policy-makers will make use of this study to promote and sponsor  teachers and students on using study habits to improve learning.

Parents and publishers will benefit from the findings of this study. Parents will be able to  value the importance of study habits and so encourage their children to acquire effective study habits. Publishers will find the study helpful by encouraging authors to publish books and journals that will promote study habits.

The study will also provide vital information to education planners which can be used to come up with a policy on how to strengthen group guidance and counselling programmes in secondary schools – through provision of adequate resources besides organizing seminars and workshops for guidance and counselling teachers.

The results from this study can also assist education administrators to understand the need for having trained teacher-counsellors as well as the need to support guidance and counselling programmes in secondary schools.

Finally, counsellors and other researchers will benefit from this study. Counsellors will be able to counsel their clients with learning difficulties and poor study habits. Other researchers can also replicate this study by following the procedure used in the present study or can extend the study to other levels of education.

Finally, the findings will contribute to the already existing knowledge on the important role of group guidance and counselling in educational institutions with particular reference to senior secondary schools in Plateau State and Nigeria as a whole.


This study will examine the effect of Therapeutic group counselling and students’ habits to study in senior secondary schools. The study is delimited to the senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, despite the fact that the study is limited to the selected local government, its findings can be generic – it can be generalised to other parts of the state and the country at large.


Counselling: An intensive helping relationship/process intended to assist an individual to solve her/his social, psychological or academic problems.

Guidance: advice or counsel, especially one given to students on academic matters.

Services: Guidance and counselling help that is given to those who need it.

Study Habit Counselling: This phrase denotes a deliberate effort by an academic counsellor, to sensitize NCE II Social Studies students to become aware and apply effective study strategies with the view of comprehending, synthesizing, analyzing and applying principles learnt from the strategies when faced with examinations and learning challenges.

 Study Habits:  The usage of this concept in this research implies the application of effective studying approaches such as regular and punctual attendance to lectures, note-taking during lectures, summarizing during personal studies, reviewing, being organized, observing regular study time. Study habits are approaches applied to learning centering on an individual effort with a view of taking action, base on a mode of occurrence or growth.

Review Strategy: This phrase denote a recall of leant material easier. It is important technigue that enables students to check comprehension and prevent forgetting. It serves as a good test of a student’s comprehension of material received during lecture.

Note-taking: It helps students to listen actively in class and take note on the word from the lecture delivery. it helps them to be focus during lessons/lectures, therefore, helps their concentration, retention and understanding, and make them active participant rather than passive day dreamers.

Defective Study Habits: The usage of this concept in this research implies the negation, by all action/practice, of every aspect listed above under effective study habits. This situation may result in failure in Council examination, leading to re-writing the examination several times before succeeding by the students.


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