0813 406 9676 kenterpro1@gmail.com




Title page                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                 ii

Approval page                                                                                             iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                          vi

Abstract                                                                                                      ix



1.1     Background of the study                                                                    1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                                   6

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                         8

1.4     Research Questions                                                                           9

1.5     Hypothesis                                                                                       10

1.6     Significance of the Study                                                                   10

1.7     Scope of the Study                                                                             11

1.8     Operational Definition of Terms                                                         11



2.1 Concept of Resources                                                                             12

2.2 Types of Resource in Education                                                             14

2.3 Importance of Resource in Education                                                     32

2.4     Sources of Resource in Education                                                     34

2.5     Impact of Resources Utilization on Students’ Academic

          Performance                                                                                      35

2.6     Influence of Availability of Teaching and Learning

          Resources on Students’ Academic Performance                                  39

2.7     Resources Utilization in Education, Physical, Material and Human      41

2.8     Problems militating against utilization and maintenance                     

           of school facility                                                                               43

2.9     Strategies/Techniques Application in Resource                                   44     

2.9 Concept of Academic Performances                                                       50

2.11 Summary of Reviewed of Literature                                                     52



3.1     Research Design                                                                                55

3.2     Population and sample of the Study                                                    56

3.3     Sampling Techniques                                                                         56

3.4     Instrument for Data Collection                                                           58

3.5     Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                                 59

3.6     Procedure for Data Collection                                                            60

3.7     Method of Data Analysis                                                                   60




4.1     Demographic Presentation                                                                 62

4.2     Analysis of Research Questions                                                          65

4.3     Hypothesis Testing                                                                            77

4.4     Discussion of Findings                                                                       78



5.1     Summary of Major Findings                                                              85

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                        86

5.3     Recommendations                                                                             87

5.4     Suggestions for Further Studies                                                          89

          References                                                                                         90

          Appendices                                                                                       94


The study focused on impact of resource utilization on students’ academic performance in secondary school in Langtang North Local Government Area of Plateau state. Four research questions and two hypotheses were used for the study. The study employed four research questions and two hypotheses were used for the study. A descriptive survey research design was employed; Stratified sampling techniques was used to arrive at 120 respondents out of the population 4,078 teachers. A self-design questionnaire was employed to collect data from the targeted respondents; the instrument was validated by the project supervisor and two experts from test and measurement department. A mean statistical tool was used to answered research questions and chi-square to test the stated hypothesis. The findings revealed that most students in secondary school mis-handle the available learning resources in school, teachers do not use the available instructional material (resource) during teaching and learning process, students always used their library for their academic work, that inability of teachers to adequately utilized the available resources contribute to poor performance of students, there is an under-utilization of resources in most secondary schools, government does not provide adequate resources yearly to most secondary schools, most government secondary schools do not have functional library/laboratory. The research recommended that Teachers should be trained and/or retrained on the use of school facilities to ensure their adequacy in using them, government should allocate more funds to equip physical facilities in schools which are either inadequate or completely lacking, head teachers should involve all education stakeholders to aid in school development programmes and projects. The study concluded that there is need for proper management of resources by managers, head-teachers and principals in secondary schools in order to enhance teaching and learning.






  • Background of the Study

 The primary purpose of education is to bring about desirable change in behavior through acquisition of skills, attitudes, competencies, critical and creative thinking. Teaching is a complex and demanding task that requires highly specialized skills, knowledge, and resources to impact significantly on student learning. Availability and utilization of resources in school is important in achievement of its goals and objectives of education. Students learning outcome is influenced by appropriate management of school resources. Investing in educational resources is the key to ensuring that schools become institutions where students work together, learn from each other and benefit from a supportive school environment, and consequently maximize student learning so that all students achieve their full learning potential (Mugure, 2012).

According to Neill (2001) student learning outcomes in schools is largely dependent on availability and appropriate utilization of resources, because the students acquire the required skills using these resources. These resources include physical facilities such as spacious and well ventilated classrooms, adequately equipped laboratories and technical workshops, well-stocked libraries, assembly halls, recreational ground, farm land, gymnasia, health centers, counseling units, staff offices and conveniently placed urinals and latrines. The material resources are made up of items of furniture, laboratory materials (consumable and non-consumable), motor vehicles, instructional tools, books and other stationery items as well as utilities such as electric power, gas and water in the schools. Facilities play an important role in the actualization of educational goals and objectives by satisfying the physical and emotional needs of the staff and students. Neill further categorizes educational resource as Human and Non-Human Resource.

Asiyai (2006) defined resources as the entire school plant or educational facilities such as blocks of classrooms, staffroom, laboratories, workshops, libraries, aids, electricity, water, desks, chairs, tables, stationery, playgrounds, storage space and others, which the school harness, allocate and utilize by administrators, teachers and students, for the main objective of bringing about effective and purposeful teaching and learning experiences. The availability or non-availability and utilization of these materials in secondary schools in Langtang-north local government are likely to affect the academic performance of the students. Akinwumiju and Orimoloye (2014) pointed out that educational institutions from Nursery to University require basic structure for their effective operations. These include classrooms, offices, assembly halls, laboratories, staff quarters, library and general examination hall. Within the basic structure, it was suggested that there should be fixtures and fittings to make them usable. These resources are not only to be adequate in number but should be in good condition for the school to function properly.

Other factors which need prompt attention, raised by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council, quoted in Akinfolarin (2008) before good qualities can be attained during expansion include; the creation of adequate physical facilities such as well-equipped library and teaching aids, the education and training of the necessary cadres of teachers with adequate knowledge of what to teach and the methodology to be used. To realize these objectives however, it will depend largely on availability, quality and effective utilization of educational resources. Utilization of resources are crucial to the realization of educational objectives. For this reasons, both government and private operators of the education industry strive towards achieving goals and objective of education through prompt provision of essential resources and its judicious used in achieving literacy in the society. Ehinola (2014) submitted that the utilization of resources are essential inputs required in ensuring the attainment of goals and the satisfaction of human needs; education is probably not excluded from this fact. Adeogun (1999) examined the effect of resources provision and students’ academic performance in Lagos State Technical Colleges. In the study, it was discovered that physical and material resources were not adequate and the available ones were over utilized. It was established that students’ performance were not encouraging due to inadequate supply of these resources. The study finally concluded that adequate provision and utilization of resources for teaching and learning in Technical Education need to be provided for effectiveness. On this note, Bandele (2003) opined that quality in teaching is achieved when the instructional resources are available and used appropriately because, teachers cannot utilize resources that are not available. Levacic (2001) dealt on the impact of adequate provision of resources on learning outcome in school subjects. It was observed that students learning outcomes were easily attained and sustained when essential resources are provided to achieve stated educational goals. These resources according to this scholar can only be fully utilized when they are properly allocated in such a way that it is seen, felt and adequately utilized to ensure quality education.

However, quality education cannot be achieved without proper utilization of educational resources which play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives alongside students’ academic performances. According to Adeogun and Ofisila (2008), educational resources can be categorized into four groups that is human, material, physical and financial resources. Educational resources according to Usman (2007) are central to the educational process because they play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives since they facilitate teachers’ work and accelerate learning on the part of the student. Hallack (1990) emphasized that the availability and utilization of relevant educational resources contribute to academic achievement and that unattractive school buildings, crowded classrooms, non-availability of playing grounds and surroundings that have no aesthetic beauty can contribute to poor academic achievement. Further, Kembui (1995) in a study of relationship between educational resources and students’ academic performance noted a very strong positive significant relationship between instructional resources and academic performance. According to him, schools with more resources performed better than schools that are less endowed. This collaborated the findings of a study by Babayomi (1999) that private schools because of availability and adequacy of teaching and learning resources performed better than public schools.

            This study set to assess the impact of resources utilization and utilization of educational resources like textbooks, libraries and laboratories in influencing student’s performance in secondary schools in Langtang North LGA.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

            The massive examination mal-practices, professional mal-practices, corrupt practices and unaccountability among others too numerous problems to mention by students’ teachers, parents, stakeholders in educational administrators. Due to inability and improper utilization of the available schools facilities by the facilitators make most resource under-utilized.

            One great problem we encountered in Nigeria as far as resources in education are concerned is the unavailability of resource. It is therefore, necessary that schools head be equipped to know how to manage the little resource available in the system to avoid further depletion and wastage. According to Dang (2008) opined that disciplinary problem is common among staff in our schools include, habitual late coming, absenteeism, divided interest in staff, lack of cooperation, poor attitude to work, insolence superior, conspiracy with other staff and even students to make life unbearable for the head indecorous relationship with students, embezzlement of funds and others, are major setback toward human resource utilization in educational system.

            According to Ahupa (2012: 39) efficiency reflects the proper and judicious use of the available facilities and resources bring about education. Oke (2011) states that the demand of educational programme upon the school plant are in continual state of progress and change. New ideas and techniques are constantly introduced into the educational pictures-new concept or class size, self-content classroom, team teaching, teaching machines, television, longer school terms, special classes for gifted and handicapped students in the face of changes brought by contemporary educational experimentation, school plant management responsibilities for long-range utilization planning presents a dilemma.

            In examining the problems in education sector, as a preamble to the second national development plan 1970-1974, the federal government attributed most of the qualitative defects in the education sector to inadequate facilities (materials) and poor quality of financing. Other problem associated with resource management are

  1. Poor statistics to project the required needs, and this is normally characterized by underestimation
  2. Lack of fund to effect proper supply of resource
  • Proper utilization of available materials
  1. Lack of good orientation on the usage of educational resources available, such as students and teachers.

            Based on the above stated problem, the researcher deem it fit to investigate the impact of resources utilization on students’ academic performance in Langtang-north Local Government Area of Plateau state.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to assess impact of resources utilization on students’ academic performance; educational resources like textbooks, libraries and laboratories in influencing student’s performance in the context of secondary education in which the government provides funding for acquisition of educational resources. The specific Objective of the Study are to:

  1. Find out the level of teachers and students resource utilization in secondary schools in Langtang North Local Government Area.
  2. Determine how effectively students and teachers utilize the available textbooks, laboratories, and libraries in influencing students’ performance in Langtang north local government area.
  3. Determine to what extent government funding has contributed to availability of educational resources in secondary schools in Langtang north local government area.
  4. Examine the relationship between teachers’ utilization of school resources and academic achievement of student in Langtang North

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of teachers and students utilization of resources in secondary schools in Langtang north?
  2. How effectively do students and teachers utilize the available resources like textbooks, laboratories and libraries to influence students’ performance?
  3. To what extent has Government funding contributed to availability of educational resources in secondary schools?
  4. What is the relationship between teachers’ utilization of school resources and academic achievement of student in Langtang North.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation:

HO1: There is no significant relationship between teachers’ utilization of school resources and academic performance of student in secondary schools in Langtang north.

HO2: There is no significant relationship between level of teachers and students utilization of resources and students’ academic performance

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study was expected to be of great significance to various groups and individuals like the Ministry of Education, head teachers and teachers. The ministry of education would use this study to determine the status of educational resources and their utilization in secondary schools. Consequently, they would be able to determine to what extent government funding has enhanced equitable distribution of educational resources for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools.

The findings of this study would draw the attention of the head teachers and teachers who are the curriculum implementers to the importance of acquisition and utilization of educational resources for effective curriculum implementation. To the students, they have ideas and using the available resources to aid their learning, to the students researchers, it will serves are a reference materials for the purpose of findings.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The researcher dwell his work to some selected secondary schools in Langtang-north local government area alone but almost all secondary schools in Nigeria, have the problem in question improper utilization of resources on students’ academic performance

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Physical resources: Classrooms libraries, laboratories, workshops.

Utilization of resource: The act of putting into use the available educational resources.

Instructional resources: Physical and material, inputs in the teaching learning process

Academic performances: this is total outcome of academic success usually measured by assessment.

Impact: is a change which comes as a result or consequence of an action of other variables.

  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below

₦ 3,000

This Complete Project Material is Available for Instant Download Immediately After Payment of ₦3000.



Bank Name: United Bank of Africa (UBA)
Account Name: chianen kenter
Account Number: 2056899630
Account Type: savings
Amount: ₦3000