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1.1 Background to the study

A clarion call was made to ascertain the types of leadership suitable for educational development and productivity, but all the calls make no avail. One widely held aim of leadership is to equip teachers with knowledge, skills, attitudes and competences that enable them to render useful services to themselves and the school at large. Since teachers have different cultural backgrounds, come from different socio-economic groups and have different personalities, it is important to realise that each will have his/her own way of teaching. Principals on their side need to keep this in mind when employing leadership styles to get the most out of their teachers, and to enhance the performance of the teachers.

Secondary schools all over the world, including Nigeria, are important institutions in the achievement of the educational policy of the state. As a formal organisation, it has a bureaucratic administrative structure with established rules and regulations, aimed at providing the needed opportunities for the education and development of the learners and staff of the schools, and usually under the leadership of the principal. In the views of Ochoyi and Danladi (2009) described education as a vital tool in the development of the learners, through the transmission of worthwhile values such as skills, knowledge and planned activities that can develop the learners’ potentials for the benefit of the society. Education, thus provides for the development of the citizens, and is achieved through the implementation of the necessary school curricula and education policy of the state. In Nigeria, the national policy on education (2004) anchors on five cardinal objectives, basically a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant nation; a great and dynamic economy; a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens. In addition, Olatunji (2015), stated that Nigeria’s philosophy of education is a complex one that requires adequate administrative procedure to ensure its practical achievement in the state. The desirability of achieving the Nigerian education policy and philosophy of education requires effective leadership in all educational institutions in Nigeria, including the secondary schools. Secondary schools provide institutional resources for the secondary education level and needs effective leadership of the principal to ensure the achievement of its objectives.

Leadership is the central process of an organization. Oboegbulem and Onwurah (2011) defined leadership as a process of influencing, directing, acquiring normative personal characteristics and power, and coordinating group activities to make individuals in an organization strive willingly towards the attainment of organizational goals. Ade (2003) defined leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational objectives.

In another development, Borman and Motowidlo (1993) explained that job satisfaction implies task performance involving individual activities that contribute to the organisational value, and could be direct or indirect based on the status of the staff involved in the organisational activities under the directive of the leader. Every job in the secondary school system is carried out by the school staff, either by the academic or non-academic staff, and staff job satisfaction is assessed based on the staff activities in the school as directed by the principal. The implication is that the action of the Principal determines the staff activities, directly or indirectly, and accounts for staff job satisfaction in the school. The Principal identifies the basic areas of staff needs and attends to them accordingly to attain the staff performance target in the school.

Leadership styles exhibited by the school principal affect school climate, learning situations and levels of professional and job satisfactions among teachers (Ingolo, 1991). According to Clerk, (2000) leadership style is the manner and approach in which a leader provides direction, implements plans and motivates people so as to meet organizational goals. Adwella (2014) saw leadership as the operational tool in influencing people to strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of the organisational goals, including secondary schools. Aghenta (2001) explained leadership as a process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in an effort towards the attainment of the organisational goal. Leadership involves the act of getting things done with the cooperation and assistance of other people. Leadership is therefore an important instrument in the initiation and implementation of the organisational policies, including educational policies and philosophy of the secondary schools in the State, and the leadership style and traits so applied by the leader influences the job satisfaction of the staff in the organisation (Yahaya, Osman, Mohammed, Gibrilla, and Issah, 2014).

Wetherell (2002) attempts to answer what kind of leadership style is best suited to employ in the field of education: directive, supportive, participative or achievement-oriented or a combination of these. He defines three common leadership styles, namely authoritarian, participative and laissez-faire. According to Wetherell (2002), a leader that uses an authoritarian style or a directive leadership style as it is also referred to specifically tell teachers what and how to perform a task. Bogler (2001) indicates that a principal who employs a participative leadership style invites teachers to participate in decision making regarding what has to be done and how it can be done. A laissez-faire style leader allows the teachers to make the decisions. Wetherell (2002) finds that a good leader uses all the styles mentioned above, depending on the situation and the teachers.

According to Enueme and Egwunyenga (2008), an appropriate leadership style provides leadership that enables teachers to make a maximum contribution to the quality of education. It is also important in terms of the programme for staff improvement that principals are expected to implement. The activities of a principal depends on his/her leadership style through which he/she is recognised as a leader of the organisation. It is also believed by many researchers that good leadership is the most important factor in coordinating educational plans, school programmes, and support of staff and facilities with the aim of fostering the progress and success of the school (Adegbesaw, 2012).

It is in line with the above discussion that this study seeks to examine the impact of principals’ leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers in selected public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The current global upsurge towards the acquisition of quality education has created anxiety in the hearts of stakeholders in the education sector on the types of leadership styles suitable for school administrators/principals to adopt for effective and efficient implementation of national curriculum which would pave way for high educational output. This quest for the Golden Fleece had seen many wealthy and literate Nigerians ‘catapulting’ their wards and/or children out of the country to acquire the best quality education money can buy.

            There is no gain saying the fact that academic performance of students is determined by many factors, such as principals’ leadership style, teachers’ competency, among others plays a very significant role in the quality of education delivery. The issue of teachers’ job satisfaction have been the concern, this due to outcry of stakeholders about students’ poor performance. Uncountable factors are responsible for the decline in the students output, these factors cannot be mention without pointing on how principals as educational leaders operate. The question of how principals’ leadership styles influence teachers to put in their best was left unattained to. It could be that teachers poor performance was acclimatize to principals leadership styles, and if it is so; how and what types of leadership style is best suitable for secondary schools principals to exhibit in order to enhance teachers job satisfaction, since there is no single leadership style suitable for the high productivity of teachers.

     It is quite understood that personality plays a significant roles on teachers’ job satisfaction, but when it comes to the issue of which leadership style the principal exhibits become the question left unanswered. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether the leadership styles of principals affect or enhance teachers’ job satisfaction. How can the principal improve students’ academic performance? He needs the knowledge on leadership styles and ways of motivating teachers and students to learn. This study therefore, focuses on principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job satisfactions in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose of this study is to examine the principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job satisfactions in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area. The specific objectives include;

  1. To determine the leadership styles adopted by the public secondary schools principals
  2. To examine the effects of principal’s leadership styles on staff job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of plateau State
  3. To identify the leadership challenges principals’ face in the discharge of their leadership roles in secondary schools in the area.
  4. To recommend the leadership styles suitable for enhancing teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools

1.4 Research Questions

            Based on the above objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated

  1. What are the leadership styles adopted by the public secondary schools principals?
  2. What are the effects of principal’s leadership styles on staff job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of plateau State?
  3. What are the leadership challenges principals’ face in the discharge of their leadership roles in secondary schools in the area?
  4. What are the suitable leadership styles that enhance teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between leadership styles adopted by the public secondary schools principals and teachers job satisfaction.
  2. The principals’ leadership styles have no significant effects on teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Mangu local government.

1.6 Significance of the Study

            This study will be beneficial to school principals, teachers, society, ministry of education, and the future researchers

            Principals: The findings derived from this study can also be useful with regard to improving school principals’ leadership styles and their effect on teachers’ performance. Moreover, it will strive to determine whether the directive, supportive, participative and achievement oriented styles or a combination of these leadership styles have a greater effect on the performance of teachers

            Teachers: Teachers will come to realize the leadership styles suitable and put on their best despite the challenges of the principals leadership styles exhibited

The society: This study could be of great importance in diverse ways. This research of principals’ leadership styles on teacher job satisfaction of secondary school would help the society insight unique model for leaders and that in turn boost the teachers job satisfaction. The model purpose in the research will hopefully, facilitate and simplify the practitioner’s implementation process for the leadership styles not only in the educational industry but also in the world at large

The ministry of education will also benefit from the research as it will expose the type of leadership principals exhibit. By so doing they will organize leadership training to enhance principals current leadership styles.

The Government: help the Government to promote good school leadership in order to improve the students’ education. It could benefit the educational leaders by helping them to know the appropriate leadership style to employ in a given situation. When the appropriate leadership style is used in an institution, the teacher moral to work will be boosted and in turn will make teachers to provide at least optimal skills if not maximal to students and parents and in turn more students’ academic achievement in WAEC/NECO obtainable.

Future researchers will also benefit from this study as it will serve as reference materials.

1.7       Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study is an examination of principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area. The content covers leadership, types of leadership and impact of leadership on teachers’ job satisfaction. The study therefore, delimit its scope to some selected public secondary schools in Mangu.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

            Following the content of this study, the following are the operational definition of term: principal, leadership, leadership style, teachers’ job satisfaction, examination, public secondary schools.

Principal: Principal is a person with the highest authority or most important position in a secondary school. Principal is the chief or head of the secondary school. He is the overall person in charge in the secondary school setting.

Leadership: Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual within a group in its effort towards goal achievement in a given situation. It is a total of activities and processes encompassing all the leaders skills and competencies geared toward motivating and influencing followers to accomplish a given organizational objectives.

Leadership Styles: Leadership styles is the manner and approach of providing direction, implement planned, and motivating people. These are the ways principals (managers) handled subordinates to achieve their goals or target in the secondary school and this are seen/observable practically.

Teachers job satisfaction: Teachers job satisfaction encompasses the full range of activities that could characterize in school as being successful in terms of achieving high productivity

Examination: This is an instrument use in testing students’ level of understanding, before or after instructional process. Examination in secondary school usually comes at the end of every academic term.

Public secondary school: These are schools own by government of the state or federal which has less or tuition free.

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