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Writing is a multifaceted and essential form of human communication that encompasses the expression of thoughts, ideas, and information through the medium of written language. It serves as a powerful tool for capturing and preserving knowledge, documenting history, sharing experiences, and fostering meaningful connections between individuals and societies. To Samson (2019) writing involves the deliberate arrangement of words, sentences, and paragraphs to convey meaning and evoke emotions. It enables individuals to articulate complex concepts, engage in critical thinking, and explore their creativity. Writing can take various forms, including academic essays, creative literature, professional reports, persuasive arguments, and personal reflections. It requires a blend of technical skills, such as grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure, as well as the ability to organize thoughts coherently and tailor the message to the intended audience. Effective writing not only conveys information accurately but also engages and captivates the reader through compelling storytelling, persuasive reasoning, and vivid descriptions. It encourages self-expression, self-reflection, and the development of a unique writing voice. In the opinion of Adamu (2020) writing is a process that involves brainstorming, outlining, drafting, revising, and editing, allowing writers to refine their ideas and refine their message over time. It also necessitates careful attention to clarity, coherence, and precision to ensure that the intended meaning is accurately conveyed. In the digital age, writing has evolved to encompass various platforms, including blogs, social media, emails, and online publications, expanding its reach and influence.

Essay writing is a structured and analytical form of written communication that allows individuals to explore and present ideas, arguments, and information in a cohesive and persuasive manner. Essays serve as a fundamental genre of academic and intellectual discourse, requiring a thoughtful and systematic approach to research, analysis, and organization. According to Paul (2021) the process of essay writing involves several key components, including selecting a topic, conducting research, formulating a thesis statement, developing an outline, drafting the essay, revising and editing for clarity and coherence, and finally, presenting a well-crafted and cohesive piece of writing. Essays provide an opportunity for individuals to demonstrate their understanding of a subject, critically evaluate different perspectives, and engage with relevant literature and evidence. They require the integration of personal insights with scholarly sources and the application of logical reasoning to support the main arguments or claims. Effective essay writing involves clear and concise writing style, proper use of grammar and punctuation, and adherence to the specific formatting and citation guidelines of the chosen academic or professional discipline. Essays can take various forms, such as argumentative, persuasive, descriptive, expository, or narrative, each with its own purpose and structure. In the opinion of Joel (2018) successful essays not only present coherent and well-supported arguments but also demonstrate an understanding of the topic’s broader context and implications. Essay writing cultivates critical thinking skills, encourages intellectual curiosity, and fosters the ability to communicate complex ideas effectively. It promotes the development of research skills, the evaluation of evidence, and the synthesis of information from diverse sources. Moreover, essays serve as a means for individuals to express their unique perspectives, creativity, and voice, allowing for personal and intellectual growth. In academia, essays play a crucial role in assessing students’ knowledge, comprehension, and analytical skills, while in professional settings, they are utilized to communicate ideas, propose solutions, and contribute to meaningful discussions.

Essay writing performance among students in Nigeria has shown significant variations over the years. According to a study conducted by Ogunniyi and Ogundipe (2017), there has been a decline in the quality of essay writing among Nigerian students. They found that students often struggle with organizing their thoughts, using appropriate grammar and vocabulary, and structuring their essays effectively. This decline in performance has been attributed to a variety of factors, such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teacher training, lack of access to quality educational resources, and limited exposure to good writing models. Similarly, a study by Adedoja, Bamgbose, and Owolabi (2019) revealed that students’ poor performance in essay writing can be attributed to deficiencies in critical thinking skills, limited exposure to diverse reading materials, and the absence of a writing culture in Nigerian schools. However, there have been efforts to improve students’ essay writing skills. It is important to incorporate writing workshops and peer assessment in classroom practices to enhance students’ writing abilities. Furthermore, the introduction of new curriculum guidelines by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) in 2018 aimed to improve students’ writing skills by emphasizing critical thinking, creativity, and effective communication. Despite these efforts, it is evident that more needs to be done to address the challenges students face in essay writing and to foster a culture of effective writing in Nigerian schools.

The causes of failure in essay writing among secondary school students in Nigeria can be attributed to various factors. Firstly, limited language proficiency and vocabulary skills pose significant challenges. Many students struggle with basic grammar, syntax, and spelling, which hampers their ability to express their thoughts clearly and coherently. Secondly, inadequate understanding of essay structure and organization contributes to poor performance. Students often lack knowledge of how to effectively introduce a topic, develop arguments, and conclude their essays, resulting in disorganized and disjointed writing. Thirdly, a lack of critical thinking skills and analytical abilities inhibits students’ capacity to generate original ideas and arguments. Instead, they rely on rote memorization and regurgitation of information, leading to superficial and repetitive essays (Adewoyin, 2016). Additionally, time management issues play a role in failure. Students may fail to allocate sufficient time for pre-writing activities such as brainstorming and outlining, leading to rushed and poorly developed essays. Furthermore, limited exposure to diverse reading materials and a lack of research skills restrict students’ access to relevant and reliable sources of information, limiting the depth and quality of their essays. Motivational factors such as a lack of interest in the topic, low self-confidence, and a fear of making mistakes can demotivate students, leading to a lack of effort and investment in the writing process. Addressing these causes requires a comprehensive approach and adequate teaching methods.

Teaching essay writing involves a range of effective methods that can help students develop their writing skills. Firstly, providing explicit instruction on essay structure and organization is crucial. Teachers can introduce students to the components of a well-structured essay, such as the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion, and teach them how to create a clear thesis statement and topic sentences. Secondly, modeling and demonstrating the writing process can be helpful (Adewoyin, 2016). Teachers can showcase the step-by-step process of brainstorming ideas, outlining, drafting, revising, and editing. This allows students to observe effective writing strategies in action and understand the importance of multiple drafts and revisions. Thirdly, incorporating peer collaboration and feedback into the writing process is valuable. Group discussions, peer editing, and peer review sessions enable students to receive constructive criticism, exchange ideas, and improve their writing through collaborative learning. Fourthly, integrating technology can enhance essay writing instruction. Online resources, writing software, and interactive writing platforms can provide students with immediate feedback, grammar and spell-check tools, and visual aids to support their learning. Fifthly, promoting extensive reading can improve students’ vocabulary, language skills, and exposure to different writing styles and genres, which in turn can enhance their essay writing abilities. Providing regular practice and opportunities for writing, both in-class and as homework assignments, is essential.

One of the benefits of multimodal composition is that it allows students to use multiple modes to communicate their ideas. According to Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001), each mode has its own affordances and constraints, which can be used strategically to create meaning. For instance, images can be used to illustrate complex concepts, while sounds can create emotional impact. Moreover, multimodal composition can enhance students’ motivation and engagement in writing. According to Coiro (2008), multimodal composition offers students a range of creative and expressive activities that can help them connect with the topic and the audience. By using different modes, students can experiment with different forms of expression and engage in self-expression, which can lead to a deeper understanding of the topic and a sense of ownership over their writing. Research also suggests that multimodal composition can enhance students’ critical thinking skills. For instance, Alvermann (2013) found that students who engaged in multimodal composition were more likely to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information from different sources. This suggests that multimodal composition can help students develop a more complex understanding of the topic and make more informed decisions. Multimodal composition is a promising approach to improve students’ expository writing skills. By using multiple modes, students can engage in creative and expressive activities that enhance their motivation, engagement, and critical thinking skills.

Multimodal composition is a method of creating and communicating meaning using a combination of multiple modes, including text, image, sound, and video. The use of multimodal composition has been associated with several potential benefits, including improved engagement, better communication, and increased creativity (Williams, 2020). Despite these benefits, however, there is a lack of research on the effectiveness of multimodal composition for improving expository writing skills among senior secondary school students in Nigeria.

Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of multimodal composition strategy on the expository writing of senior secondary school students in Jos North Local Government Area.


Many senior secondary school students in Jos North Local Government Area struggle with their expository writing skills. Their compositions often lack coherence, organization, and clarity, leading to poor academic performance in language-related subjects. Additionally, this deficiency in expository writing skills can hinder their future academic and professional success.

Recognizing the importance of effective expository writing for students’ academic and career development, there is a pressing need to investigate and address this issue. It is crucial to determine whether implementing a multimodal composition strategy can significantly improve the expository writing skills of senior secondary school students in Jos North Local Government Area. This research aims to find a solution to enhance students’ writing abilities and overall educational outcomes.

While various writing strategies and techniques have been explored in educational research, there is a gap in knowledge concerning the specific impact of a multimodal composition strategy on the expository writing of senior secondary school students in this particular geographical area. Previous studies have predominantly focused on traditional writing methods, and there is a lack of research on how multimodal approaches can be effectively employed to address this specific issue.

It is because of these identified challenges and the potential benefits of implementing a multimodal composition strategy that this research seeks to investigate its impact on the expository writing skills of senior secondary school students in Jos North Local Government Area. The ultimate goal is to provide educators and policymakers with valuable insights and recommendations to improve the quality of education and enhance students’ writing abilities in this region.


            The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of multimodal composition strategy on the expository writing of senior secondary school students in Jos North LGA. Other specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. To determine the difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups in organizing essay writing.
  2. To examine the difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups in accurate punctuation writing skills.
  3. To assess the difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups in organizing ideas in writing.


            The following research questions guide the study:

  1. What is the difference in the performance of experimental and control group in organisation of essay writing?
  2. What is the difference in the performance of experimental and control group in accurate punctuation writing skills?
  3. What is the difference in the performance of experimental and control group in ideas organisations of writing skills?




The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized especially now that educators are looking for technological driven strategies as means of teaching English language, especially writing as a skill.

The study is significant to students as it could potentially help identify effective teaching techniques that can improve their writing skills. The study can also benefit students by improving their expository writing skills and preparing them for future academic and professional pursuits. It can also help them to better understand and appreciate the value of multimodal composition strategies in communication. This is important as good writing skills are crucial for academic success and can improve their overall performance in school. With improved writing skills, students can effectively express their thoughts, ideas and opinions in a clear and concise manner.

Teachers will come to know the effectiveness of multimodal composition strategy. Therefore, they will teach students using this strategy to encourage them to think critically and creatively, enabling them to analyze information from different perspectives, evaluate it and develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter. The findings of the study can provide useful insights for teachers on how to effectively use multimodal composition strategies in their teaching of expository writing. This can help them to improve the writing skills of their students and promote a more engaging and interactive learning environment in their classrooms.

The study can inform government policies and initiatives aimed at improving the quality of education in the country. It can help policymakers to identify effective teaching methods and strategies for improving writing skills in secondary schools, which can lead to better educational outcomes.

The study can also provide useful insights for curriculum planners on how to integrate multimodal composition strategies into the existing curriculum to improve the quality of education. It can help them to design more effective learning materials and resources that take into account the diverse learning styles and needs of students.

The study has the potential to contribute to the advancement of pedagogical practices in the field of writing instruction. The findings could help teachers identify effective strategies for teaching writing skills to students, leading to better learning outcomes. With more effective pedagogical practices, teachers can create an engaging and interactive learning environment that promotes student learning and success.

Finally, the study can provide a valuable foundation for future research on the use of multimodal composition strategies in education. It can serve as a starting point for further studies exploring the effectiveness of different teaching methods and strategies for improving writing skills in different contexts and settings.

The study will contribute to educational research by adding to the existing body of knowledge on the effectiveness of multimodal composition strategy in teaching writing skills to senior secondary school students. By expanding the existing research on this topic, the study could help to establish more evidence-based teaching practices and improve the quality of education in the region. Furthermore, the results of this study could provide a basis for future research in the area of writing instruction, contributing to the ongoing advancement of educational research.


            This study focuses on evaluating the impact of multimodal composition strategy on the expository writing of senior secondary school students in Jos North. Specifically, it examines the areas of punctuation, organization. However, certain delimitations should be acknowledged. Firstly, the findings may not be generalized to other geographical locations due to potential variations in educational systems, curricula, and student populations. Additionally, the study is limited to senior secondary level students, and the effects of reflective writing strategies on students at other educational levels are not explored. The research concentrates solely on descriptive essay writing, excluding other writing genres such as narrative, argumentative, or expository essays.


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