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Cover Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration Page- – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication Page – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – viii

1.1. Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 6
1.3. Purpose of The Study – – – – – – – 7
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – – 8
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.6. Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 10

2.1 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – – 11
2.2 School Facilities – – – – – – – – 11
2.3 Components of School Facilities – – – – – 14
2.4 Importance of School Facilities – – – – – – 15
2.5 School Performance – – – – – – – 19
2.6 Teaching Facilities – – – – – – – 19
2.7 Impact of Teaching Facilities on Students’ Academic Performance – 20
2.8 Learning Facilities – – – – – – – 27
2.9 Impact of Learning Facilities on Students’ Academic Performances – 28
2.10 Health Facilities – – – – – – – – 35
2.11 Sport Facilities – – – – – – – – 35
2.12 Recreational Facilities – – – – – – – 36

3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 37
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Population and Sample – – – – – – – 37
3.3 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – 38
3.4 Instruments for Data Collection – – – – – 39
3.5.1 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument – – – – 39
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – – 40
3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 41

4.1 Results – – – – – – – – – 43
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis – – – – – – – 47
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 48

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 50
5.2 Conclusions – – – – – – – – 51
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 51
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies – – – – – 52
References – – – – – – – – 53
Appendixes – – – – – – – – 58

This research was carried out to find out the impact of educational facilities on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. This research employed the survey research design. The population of the study comprised of all the secondary school teachers in all the secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State with a population of 3,100 registered teachers. The sample of the study consisted of the ten (10) selected senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area with 10 respondents from each school making a total of 100 respondents. The random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The questionnaire was used to collect data. The instrument for data analysis was simple table percentage, mean and chi-square for testing hypothesis. The findings indicated that the adequacy of teaching facilities such as projectors, VCD, chalkboard, flip chart, specimen, , and public address system have great impact on the students, hence increases their understanding and academic performance; the supply of learning facilities such as library, computers/internet, chairs, tables, bulletin board, classrooms, and microscope have impact on the students, as it improves their reading and learning habits hence increase their performance in secondary schools in Mangu. In the light of the findings, it was recommended that School administrators and government urgently need to upgrade teaching facilities to meet up with modern demands of secondary school education, effort should be made my alumni to support the school with some learning facilities such as laboratory, workshop, and furniture among others.

1.4. Background to the Study
School facilities constitute major determining factor toward ensuring quality education. It is one of the yardsticks for measuring the level of educational growth and development. It implies substantial cost of the school system for their establishment, if not properly managed and maintained, it will affect the academic performance of students. School facility is the process of ensures that buildings and other technical systems support the operations of an organization. Bello (2006) described school facilities as the practice of co-ordination of the physical workplace with the people and the work of the organization; it integrates the principles of school administration, architecture and the behavioural and engineering sciences.
Students’ academic performance can be measured in many ways but the commonly used method is the result of students in public examinations, which is used to pass judgment on the schools and teachers. Students’ academic performance is the final grade which students get after a systematic and comprehensive measurement and evaluation of the individual student in a school setting for the purpose of making decision or judgment on his/her cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The researcher viewed academic performance as the educational outcome of students as measure by Senior School Certificate Examination (Asaolu, 2003).
Bullock (2007) studied the relationship between school facilities and students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools. The study examined the relationships that exist between students’ academic performance and the overall, structural and cosmetic building conditions. School administrators must be concerned with the structural and cosmetic conditions of school facilities as well as students’ academic performance, the combination of existing school facilities, leadership decision, and the financial ability of the schools. He founds that students’ perform better in school that were new or renovated recently than in older schools. The overall building condition, the school age of the building, and the windows in the instructional areas were positively related to students performance.
An effective school facility is responsive to the changing programs of educational delivery, and at a minimum should provide a physical environment that is comfortable, safe, secure, accessible, well illuminated, well ventilated, and aesthetically pleasing. The school facility consists of not only the physical structure and the variety of building systems, such as mechanical, plumbing, electrical and power, telecommunications, security, and fire suppression systems. The facility also includes furnishings, materials and supplies, equipment and information technology, as well as various aspects of the building grounds, namely, athletic fields, playgrounds, areas for outdoor learning, and vehicular access and parking.
The subject of school facilities had received great attention from the public as well as educators in recent times. According to Building educational success Together (BEST, 2005), it was reported that the responsibility of every administrator is to ensure that every child had access to quality education in school facilities that provide an educational setting that was suited for teaching and learning. Also, implementing educational policies that resulted in high quality, high performance, and well designed and maintained school facilities had a direct and indirect impact on the teaching and learning process (BEST, 2005). Effective facilities management therefore contributes to the success of every student in any school. In a study carried out by Hale (2002) reveals that students in class rooms with large windows, natural lighting and well-designed skylights were found to perform well from 19 to 25% better than their peers in classroom without these features. Not only environmental conditions in schools affect the students but also the staff as observed by (Hunter, 2006) which include the inoperative heating system, inadequate ventilation and poor lighting system. The overall building condition, the age of the building, and the windows as well as the instructional areas were positively related to students achievement in learning (Bullock, 2007).
It is evident in their contributions (Broome, 2005; Hughes, 2005; Lyons, 2001) that students‘ achievement depends upon the physical school facility, its age, the design and the condition of the school. School facilities played a significant role in directing the task of teaching and that of shaping students learning process in and out of school. No doubt, school building as a tool for instituting an effective teaching and learning process constituted sizeable investment of public funds over its development and maintenance by the administrators.
Today, most of the school facilities which are supposed to promote and enhanced teaching, learning and extra-curricular activities in secondary education are absolute and thereby, creating serious challenges to the 21st century educational needs of the learners.
Others are dilapidated and not suitable to motivate secondary students to learn. School/Educational facilities are otherwise referred to as school facilities. The school facilities are the physical facilities provided for in the school, such as the school site, the buildings and equipment. These facilities are likened to capital in any industrial settings. In understanding the national goal of developing the educational system so as to provide a satisfactory flow of men and women, capable of acquiring the skills necessary to exploit to the fullest, the natural resources of the country makes it imperative for facilities to be abundantly available in schools. Buildings are needed to shelter staff and students, sports/games facilities are needed to develop the mental, social and physical aspects of the students.
School facilities are made up of the school land all the physical structure on it. It refers to the school building, the play grounds, the equipment and other material resources provided in the school for effective teaching and learning operations, (Onuorah,2004).The school facilities is the space interpretation of the school curriculum (Mgbodile, 2000).Similarly, it was defined according to Ani (2007), that School facilities include the fixed and mobile structure and materials in the school such as the classroom buildings, laboratory equipment, the furniture, the chalkboard, audio and visual aids. School facilities mean all facilities and equipment within the school, which are used by the members of the school community (Abraham, 2003).
It was asserted that no matter the strength of manpower resources in the system, educational processes must require conducive physical accommodation, libraries, furniture‘s and playground (Nwaogu,1985). When these instructional facilities are lacking, it can affect negatively the productivity of the teachers. Learning takes place better and faster in a school environment with high level of buildings, accommodations, furniture‘s, and equipment, than in an environment where all these items are lacking. Adesina and Ogunsanji (1984) in their recognition of the need for a well-equipped school noted that for effective teaching and learning situations, physical facilities and educational goals should be viewed as being closely interwoven and inter-dependent. Apart from protecting students from sun, rain, heat and cold, the school building represents a learning environment which has a tremendous impact on the learners. Therefore, in order to facilitate this high level of teaching and learning process, there is need for well-planned and organized school facilities. A conducive teaching and learning environment is important to the quality of teachers engaged in the inculcation of desired attributes to the students. Stressing further, the impact of environment on teaching and learning to be effective, the school building and its surroundings must be free from threats, hostility and frustration. He suggested the following materials should be made available for teacher‘s use to enhance learning which are, textbook, programmed materials and devices, newspaper and magazines, and other library material, pictures, slides, film strips ,maps, globes ,charts, motion pictures, radio, television, chalkboards and chalks, specimens to concretize the ideas and stimulates imagination.
Undoubtedly, if the physical facilities and equipment are not adequate or in good state in secondary schools, the planning of the Programmes would be hampered. In the light of the above discussion, this study sets out to determine the impact of educational facilities on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State with the aim of finding a lasting solution to the identified problem.
1.5. Statement of the Problem
For any school to function effectively, the school facilities must be in good condition. Thus the general public has expressed concern over the insufficiency of school facilities in Mangu Local Government. To many, the condition of facilities in the school is a major criterion for selecting school for their children. In spite of this concern and demand for a change, it appears that the management of physical facilities in state schools leaves much to be desired.
It is not uncommon these days to see some classrooms full of potholes on the floor comparable to the scenes on the roads. Children scarcely find space to sit or move about. Lack of ceilings makes classrooms extremely hot for learning activities in hot weather. Some buildings have sagging roofs on them. When facilities are not maintained, they constitute health hazards to the users of the facilities. Teachers on their own will not perform effectively without facilities. The Students’ academic performance will be negatively affected; the tone of the school will be at its lowest ebb and human and material resources.
Secondary schools in Nigeria require adequate teaching, learning, welfare/health sport and recreational facilities such as classroom, chalkboard, computer, internet/ICT, microscope, video CD player, audio CD player, textbooks, projectors, hostel accommodation, laboratories, security, libraries, sports and others recreational facilities to improve students‘ academic performances. The quality of education that our students receive bears direct relevance to the adequacy of school facilities and overall environment in which learning takes place. In other words, educational programmes and processes are greatly influenced by the school facilities.
It is in view of the importance of school facilities to the attainment of educational objectives that the study investigated such activities in school, since the importance of school facilities is not in doubt and since it is in a very deplorable condition in Mangu Local Government Area, a change for the better needs not be over emphasized.
1.6. Purpose of The Study
The major purpose of this research is to find out the impact of educational facilities on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. In the light of this, the specific objectives are to:
1. Determine the impact of teaching facilities on student academic performances in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area
2. Examine the impact of learning facilities on students‘ academic performance in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area
3. Proffer possible solutions where necessary.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide this study.
1. What is the impact of teaching facilities on students‘ academic performance in public secondary school in Mangu Local Government Area?
2. How do learning facilities impact the academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no significant relationship between teaching facilities and students’ academic performance in public secondary school in Mangu Local Government Area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is believed that the life wire of any educational system is the extent of availability of school facilities (in terms of quality and quantity) which occupies a crucial place in the realization of its goals. However, the result of the findings in this research work shall assist every stakeholder (policy makers, school administrators, teachers, government and the students) in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through the provision of a conducive learning environment.
First, policy makers will be well equipped with reliable and factual information which serves as an input for effective law making on issues relating to allocation of funds, timely released period and the legal framework guiding its activities.
Secondly, it will provide an extensive knowledge of school facilities to the school administrators to initiate, sustain and put to use. It will afford other researchers to look into grey areas not covered in the present study and seek ways of improving over it.
Furthermore, teachers as major stakeholders in the school system, who play an intermediate role, seek to work harmoniously with the school in encouraging the students to use the facilities. This could be to solve assignments, observe practical knowledge and in the acquisition of essential skills. It will also place a great burden on the government to provide adequate funding to the school system, equipped the inspectorate unit to carry out its functions effectively.
1.7. Delimitation of the Study
This study covers the impact of instructional materials on the performance of students in social studies in senior secondary schools. The study is limited to junior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. Few schools in Mangu Local Government Area were studied. This will be made up of the combination of government and private schools. The government schools include G.S.S. Kerang, G.S.S. Ampang West, while the private schools include M.C.S.S Kerang and COCIN Comprehensive Academy, Kerang. However, despite the fact that the study is limited to the selected local government area, its findings can be generalized to other parts of the state as well as the country at large.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
Teaching: Is the act, practice or profession of a teacher which shapes one’s thought and action through giving instructions and or performing practices.
Learning: Learning is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviours, skills and values or it is a skill or knowledge acquired by instruction or study.
Impact: This is the likely effect of school facilities on the students‘ academic performance.
Students’ Academic Performance: This is the outcome or achievements of students after being subjected to the use of teaching, learning, health, sport and recreational facilities.



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