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  • Background to the Study

Students’ overall learning experiences and academic outcomes are profoundly influenced by the instructional strategies that are used in the classroom. The demonstration method is one of the many accessible approaches, and it has garnered a significant amount of acclaim for its usefulness in fostering active learning and boosting comprehension. According to Adams (2015) it is generally agreed that English is the lingua franca of the global community. It is used as a language of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange all over the world. Instruction in the English language is frequently included as part of the curriculum in secondary schools. This is done with the intention of providing students with the necessary linguistic abilities for continued development in their academic careers, as well as in their personal lives. The English language is widely recognized as the global lingua franca, serving as a means of communication, business, and cultural exchange worldwide. In many countries, including secondary schools, English is taught as a second or foreign language to equip students with essential linguistic skills for academic, professional, and personal growth.

Verbs present students with their own unique set of obstacles when it comes to the study of language. A complete strategy that actively engages students, improves learning, and encourages practical application is required for students to fully comprehend the various forms and usages of verbs as well as their tenses.

The demonstration technique, sometimes known as the “show and tell” approach, is a teaching strategy that involves delivering information, skills, or concepts by means of live demonstrations or multimedia aids. Another name for this method is the “show and tell” method. This strategy gives educators the ability to clearly clarify abstract ideas and include students in experiential, hands-on learning opportunities. Demonstration method refers to the type of teaching method in which the teacher is the principal actor while the learners watch with the intention to act later. Here the teacher does whatever the learners are expected to do at the end of the lesson by showing them how to do it and explaining the step-by-step process to them (Ameh, Daniel and Akus, 2007). Mundi (2006) described it as a display or an exhibition usually done by the teacher while the students watch with keen interest. He further added that, it involves showing how something works or the steps involved in the process. Some of the advantages of this method as outlined by Olaitan (1984) and Mundi (2006) include: – It saves time and facilitate material economy; the method is an attention inducer and a powerful motivator in lesson delivery; students receive feedback immediately through their own products; it gives a real-life situation of course of study as students acquire skills in real-life situations using tools and materials; it help to motivate students when carried out by skilled teachers and it is good in showing the appropriate ways of doing things.

When it comes to teaching verbs, the demonstration approach has a number of benefits, one of the most significant of which is its capacity to offer possibilities for visual and hands-on learning. Instead of depending exclusively on theoretical explanations, teachers can show verb usage in context by using real-life situations, objects, or multimedia resources. A teacher might, for instance, physically act out different verb acts or utilise movies and visuals to portray distinct verb forms and the meanings that correlate to them. Students are able to more effectively learn the subtleties of verb usage thanks to this interaction that is both visual and experiential.

            In addition, the demonstrative approach fosters both active participation and student engagement in the learning process. Teachers are able to pique the students’ interest and inspire them to gain a deeper understanding of verb usage when they involve the students in the learning process. Students are encouraged to take an active role in the learning process by actively observing, questioning, and participating in activities that involve the functional use of verbs. This technique encourages analytical and deductive reasoning as well as problem-solving abilities, in addition to fostering a more profound comprehension of verb usage. In teaching through demonstration, students are set up to potentially conceptualize class material more effectively, which specifically focuses on English language demonstrations presented by teachers. Demonstrations often occur when students have a hard time connecting theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand application of theories.

Teaching methods play a vital role in shaping the learning experience and academic outcomes of students. Among the various approaches, the demonstration method has gained significant recognition for its effectiveness in facilitating active learning and enhancing comprehension. This introduction aims to provide an extensive overview of the impact of the demonstration method in teaching verbs in the English language, focusing on selected secondary schools.

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

            The learning of verbs in the English language is an essential component in the process of language acquisition and the growth of linguistic competence among students in secondary education. Grammar ideas are much easier for students to comprehend and remember when they are taught using instructional strategies that are both engaging and effective. One such strategy is called the demonstration method, and it is designed to improve students’ understanding of verbs as well as their ability to apply them in real-world contexts through the use of visual aids, real-world examples, and interactive exercises. The problem this study seeks to investigate and evaluate is the influence that the demonstration technique has on the teaching of verbs in the English language within a selection of secondary schools.

            The task at hand is to investigate whether or not certain secondary schools in Pankshin are successfully utilising the demonstration technique to educate students about verbs in the English language. The specific influence that this teaching method has on verb acquisition and understanding is still relatively underexplored, despite the fact that it has garnered attention as a method that has the capacity to interest students and improve the outcomes of learning.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of demonstration method in teaching verbs n English language in selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area. Other specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Evaluate the academic achievement of students who received instruction through the demonstration method compared to those who did not, focusing on vocal skills.
  2. Assess the academic performance of students exposed to the demonstration method versus those who were not, with a particular emphasis on mood.
  3. Analyze the academic outcomes of students who experienced the demonstration method in relation to those who did not, considering the impact on person and number skills.
  4. Examine the academic attainment of students who were exposed to the demonstration method and those who were not, specifically investigating the effects on tense comprehension.
  • Research Questions

            The following research questions were formulated based on the purpose of the study:

  1. What is the difference in academic performance between students who were exposed to the demonstration method and those who were not, specifically in terms of their vocal skills?
  2. How does the academic achievement of students who were exposed to the demonstration method compare to those who were not, particularly in relation to their mood?
  3. What are the variations in academic performance between students who were exposed to the demonstration method and those who were not, with respect to their skills in person and number?
  4. To what extent does the academic performance of students differ when they are exposed to the demonstration method compared to those who were not, specifically in their understanding of tense?

1.5. Significance of the Study

            The findings of this research will be of immense benefit to the following:

The study will directly benefit students. By examining the effectiveness of this teaching method, students can experience improved learning outcomes and a better understanding of verb usage in English. The demonstration method involves visual aids, practical examples, and hands-on activities, making it more engaging and interactive for students. It can enhance their comprehension, retention, and application of verb concepts, ultimately leading to improved language proficiency and communication skills.

English language teachers will benefit from this study by gaining insights into the effectiveness of the demonstration method for teaching verbs. They can enhance their teaching strategies by incorporating visual aids, demonstrations, and practical examples, making their lessons more engaging and effective. Understanding the impact of this teaching method will empower teachers to employ innovative approaches that cater to diverse learning styles and enhance student engagement and understanding.

School administrators can benefit from the study findings as they can make informed decisions regarding the adoption or modification of teaching methods in the English language curriculum. The study can guide them in allocating resources, providing professional development opportunities, and improving teaching standards in their schools. Administrators can also use the study findings to promote effective teaching practices within their institutions and enhance the overall quality of education.

Parents or guardians can benefit from this study by gaining awareness of effective teaching methods used in their children’s English language education. They can understand the benefits of the demonstration method and advocate for its implementation in schools. By being informed about innovative teaching practices, parents can support their children’s learning at home and engage in meaningful discussions with teachers and school administrators to ensure the best possible education for their children.

Educational policymakers can utilize the study findings to make evidence-based decisions regarding curriculum development, teacher training programs, and resource allocation. The study can provide insights into the effectiveness of the demonstration method in teaching verbs and assist policymakers in shaping educational policies that promote student-centered learning, enhance teaching practices, and improve overall language education outcomes in the local government area.

The study can contribute to the existing body of research in language education by providing evidence on the impact of the demonstration method in teaching verbs. Researchers and academics can draw upon the findings to further investigate and explore effective teaching strategies, instructional design, and the integration of technology in language classrooms. The study can inspire further research, publications, and academic discourse in the field.

Curriculum developers and educators involved in designing English language teaching materials: The study findings can guide curriculum developers and educators in designing effective teaching materials for the English language. Understanding the impact of the demonstration method can influence the development of textbooks, workbooks, digital resources, and other instructional materials that align with this teaching approach. It can lead to the creation of engaging and interactive materials that enhance students’ verb acquisition and language proficiency.

Teacher training institutions can incorporate the study findings into their programs, ensuring that future English language teachers are equipped with the knowledge and skills to effectively use the demonstration method in their classrooms. Professional development workshops and courses can be designed based on the study, providing educators with practical strategies and techniques to enhance their teaching effectiveness.

The study can provide valuable insights to the Ministry of Education or Department of Education in Pankshin Local Government Area for policymaking, curriculum revision, and educational reforms. The findings can inform decision-making processes, leading to the implementation of evidence-based practices and improvement in the quality of English language education across schools in the area.

Community members and local organizations invested in education can benefit from the study by gaining awareness of effective teaching methods and their impact on language education. They can support initiatives that promote the demonstration method in teaching verbs and advocate for improved educational practices within their community. The study findings can foster collaboration between schools, parents, and local organizations to enhance the quality of English language education in Pankshin Local Government Area.

1.6. Scope and Delimitation of Study

This research work is primarily concerned with the impact of demonstration method in teaching verbs in English language in some selected schools in Pankshin Local Government. Hence the study is restricted to the teaching of verbs, with major concern to some selected secondary schools in the Area. The population will be evenly distributed between teachers and students to avoid any form of bias.

1.7 Theoretical Framework

            One possible theoretical framework that can be used for this topic is Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by Albert Bandura. Social Cognitive Theory emphasizes the reciprocal relationship between individuals, their environment, and their cognitive processes. It posits that learning occurs through observational learning, where individuals acquire knowledge and skills by observing others and imitating their behavior. The key concepts of Social Cognitive Theory that can be applied to the study are:

  1. Observational Learning: According to SCT, individuals learn through observing others and imitating their actions. In the context of the study, students can observe the instructor’s demonstration of verb usage, and through observation and imitation, they can acquire and enhance their own verb-related skills.
  2. Self-Efficacy: Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in their ability to perform a specific task or achieve a desired outcome. In the study, the demonstration method can influence students’ self-efficacy by providing them with visual and experiential demonstrations of verb usage, boosting their confidence in their own abilities to use verbs effectively.
  3. Reinforcement: SCT emphasizes the role of reinforcement in learning. Positive reinforcement, such as praise and recognition, can motivate students and reinforce their learning when they successfully apply the demonstrated verb skills. This can further strengthen their motivation and self-efficacy, leading to improved learning outcomes.

By employing Social Cognitive Theory as the theoretical framework for the study, researchers can examine how the demonstration method influences students’ observational learning, self-efficacy beliefs, and the role of reinforcement in enhancing their verb-related skills. The theory provides a comprehensive framework to understand the cognitive and social processes involved in the impact of the demonstration method on verb learning in the selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area.

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

Demonstration Method: In this study, the demonstration method refers to a teaching approach where the instructor showcases or models the use of verbs in the English language through practical examples, actions, or visual aids. It involves actively engaging students in observing and imitating the demonstrated language skills to enhance their understanding and proficiency in using verbs.

Teaching Verbs: Teaching verbs in the English language refers to the process of instructing and facilitating students’ learning of verb forms, functions, and usage conventions in the English language. This includes teaching students the different tenses, conjugation patterns, subject-verb agreement, and other grammatical aspects related to verbs.

Impact: The impact in this study refers to the measurable effects or changes observed in students’ academic performance and learning outcomes as a result of being taught using the demonstration method. It includes improvements in areas such as vocal skills, mood, skills in person and number, and understanding of tense.

Academic Performance: Academic performance refers to the level of achievement or success demonstrated by students in relation to specific learning objectives or educational standards. In this study, academic performance is assessed through measures such as post-test achievement mean scores and mean gains in the areas of vocal skills, mood skills in person and number, and understanding of tense.

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