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  • Background to the Study

Education is the foundation upon which an individual’s development is built. As a result, the importance of education for every citizen should not be underestimated. In order to increase the student’s performance in both external and internal tests, it is important to encourage effective teaching and learning practices. Secondary education is a very important level of education in Nigeria since it provides a firm foundation for further education and a productive way of life. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2013), secondary education is a form of learning that learners get following basic school but before completing their tertiary education requirements. In particular, secondary education should provide an increasing number of primary school students with the opportunity to pursue a higher level of education, regardless of their gender, social, religious, or cultural background or circumstances. Other objectives include respecting the opinions and feelings of others, recognizing the dignity of labor, and being grateful for the ideals outlined in our broad national objectives, as well as living as responsible citizens.

In order to achieve those objectives, it is necessary to put to productive use the human, mental, and physical resources available at the school. Over the years, there has been a slow but significant degradation in the pedagogical infrastructure of secondary schools (Anadi, 2008). As a result, when subjected to empirical testing, secondary school leavers do not fare well in the long run. Teachers at secondary schools, according to Eneasator (2010), are not taking a challenging approach to teaching in their various schools, which is contributing to the decline in the caliber of education. According to the author, the low level of enthusiasm for teaching can be traced back to the inadequate supervision and supervisory skills exhibited by school administrators. Secondary school administrators are burdened with a slew of responsibilities in the administration of their institutions. When it comes to secondary school administration, the position of school administrator is considered to be the most senior position in the chain of command of power. This position is occupied by a person who is responsible for the planning, controlling and coordinating of all human, material, financial, and time resources in order to facilitate the achievement of the school’s goals and objectives. It is the job of the school principal, in his or her capacity as instructional leader, to ensure that high-quality instruction is delivered to students by providing sufficient supervision to teachers. According to Ugboka (2012), school principals are the management, and it is their responsibility to provide a diversity of administrative supervisory skills to teachers in order for them to recognize the need for change, plan for change, and practice new behavior in order to provide effective teaching and learning.

Administrator’s supervision skills are acts made in order to mentor and monitor subordinates or teachers, as well as to create a supportive and conducive environment for the improvement of the instructional process. In order to ensure the successful implementation of the formal or informal curriculum in the school, it is necessary to design and conduct systematic monitoring of subordinates, as well as to provide professional guidance and help to them. A further point to mention is that, despite significant advancements in technology in all areas of education, including the production of instructional materials such as television and computer projectors of various types, the teacher remains an indispensably important factor in motivating and imparting knowledge to students at every level of education. The amount to which teachers succeed in this critical role of knowledge transfer is dependent on their ability to perform their jobs efficiently and effectively.

The activities that a teacher engages in to produce the desired effects on students are included in the job performance of the instructor. It describes how actively a teacher participates in the general operation of a school in order to attain the anticipated objectives and aims of the institution. In other terms, performance is defined as the achievement of educational objectives. Affianmagbon (2007), on the other hand, has seen a lack of professionalism on the part of teachers. According to him, many teachers are simply staying on the job in order to hunt for better opportunities elsewhere. He expressed his dissatisfaction with the high rates of absenteeism, chronic tardiness to school, irregular and illegal movement from duty post, and indiscipline in secondary schools, alleging that these pose a significant obstacle to the achievement of educational objectives. Thus, Adetula (2005: 34) has drawn attention to the state of affairs in our secondary schools, where he describes “a totally unwholesome and non-professional behavior of teachers, such as absenteeism, tardiness, malingering, trading, and a general low level of commitment to duty, which appears to be indicators of lack of supervision in school administration,” among other things. Given this situation at the school, it is the principal’s responsibility to organize such activities through strong supervising abilities, without which successful teaching may be difficult to achieve.

Supervision of instruction has grown increasingly important in recent years, as a result of the significance placed on education and the aim to raise the overall quality of education available. The provision of professional help and guidance to teachers and students in order to realize the goal of successful teaching and learning in the school, according to Osakwe(2010). Providing professional guidance to teachers in order to increase their competences for effective teaching processes in order to enhance the learning and progress of pupils is the responsibility of the principal as a supervisor. In carrying out their responsibilities, the school principal assists the teachers in performing effectively in the areas of lesson planning and lesson notes prior to lesson delivery, effective use of instructional methods and teaching aids, keeping and maintaining school records, and classroom management, among other things. Because of the supervision provided by the principal, educators receive valuable feedback and direction that can have a significant impact on the learning that takes place in the classroom.

As a result of these findings, it has become critical that principals’ supervising tactics be appropriately directed in order to ensure that teachers accomplish their jobs effectively and efficiently. This can only be accomplished through the application of appropriate supervision procedures. According to Fritz and Miller (2001), the task of ensuring that effective teaching and learning take place, as well as the amount to which instructional supervisors carry out their responsibilities, is met by adopting a variety of approaches to improve instructors’ job performance. As a result, Obi (2004) has suggested a number of tactics that supervisors can use to assist instructors in improving their performance on the job, as well as to support successful instruction in schools. In addition to self-appraisal method, micro-teaching, classroom visitation (including clinical supervision), workshop (including demonstration method), and other strategies, there are others. Moreover, these strategies assist teachers in providing feedback to students on the various learning outcomes of the educational system while also assisting them in achieving the objectives of teaching and learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage of workshop tactics by principals, classroom visiting, and teachers’ overall job performance.

  • Statement of the Problem

The extent to which secondary schools will achieve their goals and objectives will be determined by the willingness of instructors to work together as a group and share resources. This is due to the fact that it is the teacher’s responsibility to carry out the actual task of pedagogy and to ensure the achievement of educational outcomes. Some teachers, on the other hand, are unable to do their duties properly unless they are properly supervised to ensure that their performance meets the appropriate standard. Teachers in Pankshin secondary schools are responsible for preparing lesson plans, instructing students, and evaluating students’ performance throughout the term and at the end of the term. The amount to which teachers carry out these responsibilities is determined by the effectiveness with which their principals perform their instructional supervision responsibilities. Checking on things like teachers’ lesson notes, a scheme of work, students’ attendance registers, lesson delivery observation, and other things fall under this category. It has been found in the research region that teachers are less than diligent in their discharge of their professional responsibilities. The majority of instances of laxity are observed in public schools. Many teachers are simply remaining on the job in order to hunt for better opportunities elsewhere. The high rates of absenteeism, persistent tardiness to school, irregular and unauthorized movement from duty post, and other types of indiscipline in secondary schools pose a significant barrier to the achievement of educational objectives. It is as a result of these and other connected issues that his author feels compelled to express himself.

  • Purpose of the Study

With this study, the primary goal is to assess the impact of administrative supervision on teachers’ work performance in secondary schools within Pankshin Local Government Area in Plateau State. Other specific objectives of the research include the following:

  1. To find out whether the principals come into the classroom when teachers are teaching
  2. To find out to what extent the administrators have planned a program for teacher development.
  3. To investigate whether principals or their delegated personnel go over instructors’ records, such as lesson notes, awards for good performance, scheme of work, and so on.
  4. To analyze how an administrator’s supervision affects instructors’ performance in terms of timely production of lesson notes, classroom management, and progress in teaching abilities.
    • Research Questions

The following research questions were posed to serve as a guide for the investigation:

  1. To what extent does the principals come in to observe?
  2. To what extent does the administrator have a plan for the professional development of teachers?
  • To what extent are teachers’ records, such as class notes, rewards of work, scheme of work, and other information, checked by principals or their assigned personnel?
  1. How effective is administrative supervision in terms of improving teacher performance in terms of timely production of lesson notes, classroom management, and progress in teaching skills?
    • Hypotheses Testing

H01: There is no significant differences between instructors being in classroom under the supervision of the principal and instructors being in the classroom without the supervision of the principal.

H02: There is no significant difference between the plans the administrator has for the professional development of the teachers the plans he does not have for the teachers.

H03: There is no significant differences between the supervision of teachers’ record by the principal to improve teacher’s job performance and the lack of supervision of teachers’ records by the principal.

H04: There is no significant differences between the effectiveness of administrative supervision in improving teacher performance in terms of timely production of lesson notes, classroom management, and progress in teaching skills.

  • Significance of Study

It is impossible to overstate the importance of this research. As a result, the following educational stakeholders will benefit from this research: administrators, teachers, students, and future researchers.

Those in charge of administration who benefit from this research will gain an understanding of other supervisory abilities that they may be overlooking, as well as an appreciation of the impact of these supervisory skills on the performance of teachers in their respective positions. Because of this, they will utilize all of their supervisory abilities in order to improve the job performance of instructors in secondary schools.

In terms of job performance, teachers will profit from this study since the supervisory skills utilized by principals will bring out the best in them, which will improve their overall job performance. The adoption of administrative supervisory skills will also help them understand that the goal is not to victimize or harass them, but rather to keep them on their toes by keeping them on their toes.

Students will receive the finest possible instruction from their teachers, resulting in improved academic performance for students, particularly in public schools.

The study will also be beneficial to future researchers because it will act as a reference material for anyone who wish to conduct additional research in this area after it is completed.

  • Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The purpose of the current study is to assess the impact of administrative supervisory skills on the job performance of secondary school teachers. A small number of secondary schools in the Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State are participating in the exercise. Despite the fact that the study is restricted to a small number of schools and a single local government area, the conclusions will be applicable to other schools, towns, and even the entire country in general.

  • Definition of Terms

The following terminology are defined in order to provide a better grasp of the subject matter:

School Administrator: A secondary school administrator is the principal of a secondary school who is tasked with the overall management of the school; he or she is also responsible for the professional development of the instructors.

Professional Development: The process of preparing instructors with competence, skills, information, and the proper attitude that will result in increased job efficiency is referred to as professional development (PD).

Role: The principal’s role relates to the administrative and managerial obligations that he or she has in relation to the development of his or her teachers.

Secondary School: Secondary school is defined as an educational institution that runs to provide formal instruction to young people for a period of six years or less in the context of the Nigerian educational system.

Administrative Supervisory Skills: This refers to the activities that school principals engage in with their teachers in order to provide specialized help and support in order to make instructors more effective in improving the teaching and learning environment. Administrative Supervisory Skills:

Teacher: A person who educates and oversees all connected teaching activities in secondary schools, and who is directly under the control of the school’s administrative staff.

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  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
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