FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION IN RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANKE LGA
FARMERS-HERDSMEN CONFLICT AND ITS IMPLICATION ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BOKKOS LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF PLATEAU STATE
This study examined the farmers-herdsmen conflict and its implication on the administration of secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau State. The survey research design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of all the secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area. The sample of the study were 100 teachers from 10 selected secondary schools. The purposive sampling technique was adopted in selecting the sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. The method of data analysis was the mean score. The findings of the study indicated that the causes of farmers-herdsmen conflict in Bokkos Local Government Area include land dispute, religious intolerance and fanatism, poor governance, destruction of farm crops of the farmers by the herds of cattle reared by the herders, contamination of the drinking water sources of communities by the cattle, rape of women on the farm by herdsmen, conflict over indigenship is a cause, killing and theft of the cattle by the farmers or natives and competition over scarce resources. Furthermore, the farmers/herdsmen conflicts affect administration of secondary schools in Bokkos because some schools are deserted as a result of the Gunmen attacks, parents are afraid of sending their children to school for fear of the unknown gunmen, students don’t concentrate in class because the psychological trauma caused by gunmen attacks, some of the students are absent from school because they are in the IDP camps, school administrators are afraid of coming to school due to fear of attacks by herdsmen, children of school age whose parents are displaced have difficulties in acquiring education, lack of adequate funds to run and maintain the school as a result of low population in the case of private schools, lack of funds to rebuilt vandalised schools and cost of employing security for schools in flash point areas.Therefore, it was concluded that farmers-herders conflict has a lot of implications on the administration of secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau State. In line with the conclusion, it was recommended that religious intolerance and fanatism should be discourage among individuals where farmers-herders conflict is rampant, government should provide resources for schools that are affected by the famers-herders conflicts.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Over the last few years, the threat of the Boko Haram insurgency in north east Nigeria has gradually waned, yet a deadlier and far-reaching conflict has emerged. Over 10,000 people across three states (Benue, Kogi and Plateau) in north central region have been killed by suspected herdsmen. Attacks later became incessant and brutal. In February 2016, over 300 people died in a single attack on a community in central state of Benue, from the herders commonly called the “gunmen”. In the same state, hundreds of people have been killed in several attacks since then. The conflict is an old one but one that has suddenly spiralled out of control. The nomadic herdsmen have cattle but declining space to feed them on. Farmers accuse the herdsmen of using their land to graze their cattle and infringing on their rights. Herdsmen have complained that the land available to graze has decline, in part, blaming communities for restricting the land available to them (Akinwotu, 2016:1).
Geo-politically, Nigeria is made up of six geopolitical zones with the North-Central Region having six states which include: Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states. Nigeria`s Federal Capital Territory Abuja is also located in the region of the country. The region lies completely in the central portion of Nigeria. And its central location account for part of the reasons why it is often called the Middle Belt region of Nigeria. The region is a combination of two vegetation belts. Half portion of this region fall within the Sudan savannah while the remaining half within the Guinea savannah (GohChe Leong & Adeleke, 2014:112). The vegetation of the region is a wonderful blessing to the people of the area-for it being bestowed on them, a fertile soil conducive for serious agricultural production. Grasses in this region which are green and fresh throughout the seasons provide one of the best foliages for animal consumption in the whole of Nigeria and sub-Saharan region of Africa. Grassland in the Benue and Niger rivers provide the best grazing site in the country and the whole of western Sudan. The agricultural potentials of the region ahead of other parts of the country is glaring and Benue in particular with food production capacity sound enough to feed the whole of West African sub-region is code named the “Food Basket of the Nigerian Nation”. Nigeria`s two major rivers (Rivers Benue and Niger) flow across the region and this additional reason make the region richly endowed in water resources and fertile land suitable for crop and animal production. Niger State within the region boast of three gigantic Dams (Kainji, Shiroro and Gurara Dams) providing Hydro Electricity Power to all the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria.
However, the Fulani herders in most cases settled in fertile areas to rear their cattle and when the migration continued to be dictated by economic and socio-political factors, increased trends of conflicts between the herders and their host communities (farmers) escalated. Many Nigerians lost their lives, properties/ farmlands or crops every year to Fulani herders. The conflicts between Gunmen and farmers came into existence as a result of encroachment of farmlands by the Fulani herders.
Nigeria is under a severe internal and security threat as the threat has political, economic and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has critically affected the stability of the nation and can be traced to many factors in which the Fulani-herdsmen appear to be major factor. Most worrisome in the present development is the raping, killing and kidnapping by the Gunmen. Stories are found in the national dailies on daily basis of how these shepherds strategically attack several communities and houses, with sophisticated weapon: AK-47.
Farmers have their crops to protect and Herdsmen their livestock to protect. This simply implies that value of land for both crop and animal production is increasing across Nigeria. But then, Herdsmen have been present to varying degree in all the thirty-six states across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria including Abuja the nation`s Federal Capital Territory. And in all these regions, conflict between them and farmers have been reported on several and different occasions. But the occurrence of such confrontation in the north central region of the country surpassed that of the other regions of Nigeria put together. The pressure on land is increasing the movement of herdsmen from the Sahel region of the country to the vast grassland in the central area of the country. This increase in movement is often accompanied with pressure on available land in the central region of the country. The scale of deaths incurred have always created tensions on how a seemingly previously contained conflict could lead to massacres that today stands as one of the major threats to national security, peace and unity in Nigeria. Investigating alternative measures that can be adopted to avoid future re-occurrence of the conflict is the task which the Researcher intend to achieve in this research.
This research is carried out in order to investigate the influence of Fulani-Herdsmen attack on educational institutions in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau State. The research covers all districts of Bokkos Local Government Area which are known for farmers-herders conflict. This research will be done through interview with various people of the area to find out the influence of Fulani-herdsmen attack on educational institutions in Bokkos Local Government Area.
Education is crucial to the development of individual and the nation. Its continuous growth and quality improvement depend on a number of factors; some of these factors are provision of infrastructures, quality of teachers, payment of teachers’ salary on time, provision and constant revision of the curriculum and provision of adequate funds for infrastructures (Ogbonnaya, 2013). The factors mentioned above are paramount and can bring the desired growth where they are pursued and provided. On the other hand, where there is any inhibition and they are not pursued, it stifles growth and slows down the education process. Apart from the factors mentioned above, there are some other factors that could stifle the process of growth in the education industry, these factors are incidental factors identified by the researcher. Incidental factors in the context of this work include natural disaster, insurgencies, and crises from the Gunmen. When there is natural disaster in an area, it affect enrolment because many people will run from their place of abode to a safer place, when there is insurgencies for instance, Boko Haram in Nigeria or the Gunmen crises, many people will flee the area for safety, these affect the population of the area generally, school enrolment and the quality of educational improvement.
There have been public outcry and expression of worry over the declining school enrolment in Nigeria and Bokkos local government in particular. These inturn affect educational quality improvement in the area. School enrolment has been an area of discourse neglected by researchers, but which has now become a force to be reckoned with as far as growth in the education sector is concerned. In most rural area across the country, for over two decades, there has been a steady decline in school enrolment (Obi, 2001). This decline in school enrolment is further worsened by some of the incidental factors mentioned above. In Bokkos local government, Nigeria, for over three years now, the researcher have observed that there has been a steady decline in school enrolment as a result of fear of Farmers/herdsmen conflicts in Bokkos local government area, some of the major towns and commercial cities in the local government area were attacked and people fled for their lives. These attacks have affected school enrolment, the quality of teaching and educational quality improvement advocated for all in this millennium. The Federal government of Nigeria and authorities of Bokkos Local Government have made attempts to ensure that peace returned to the Local Government area and that the internally displaced persons return from camps to their homes, but this seems not to have yielded meaningful results as most people are yet to return. This in turn affects the population of the area and school enrolment. The need for normalcy in Bokkos local government of Nigeria for improved school enrolment necessitates this study.
It is in the light of the above discussion that the researcher saw the necessity to embark on this research which is to investigate the Impact of farmers/herdsmen conflicts on the academic performance of students in Bokkos LGA
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The reports about Farmers/herdsmen conflicts all over the country are horrifying and many Nigerians now see them as Enemies of the Nigerian citizens. A report published by the Small Business Ecosystem (SMB Intelligence), a mining and research firm on the attacks of the herdsmen in the north central region of the country accused the federal government of carelessness through unhealthy silence on the terror against farmers. The report maintains that the attacks were not only on life and property but agriculture as well. The attacks on Benue, Nasarawa and Plateau states left many dead and thousands displaced. The report which saw the herdsmen menace as bigger problem than the Boko Haram insurgency said 2500 people were killed annually by the sect while the herdsmen killed 2000 in north central region alone in 2015. The report also said that, “Because the government has failed to respond adequately by protecting lives and property of the citizens in the region, the herdsmen have grown bolder, and their perceived attempt to wipe out the native ethnic groups has gradually grown into low intensity warfare. Even where the traditional rulers have attempted to call the herdsmen to peace meetings, the herdsmen routinely take advantage of these occasions to perform reconnaissance for future attacks.”(Ibekwe, 2015: 3)
The reports making the rounds say the herdsmen not only kill, maim and rape women; they also deploy their herds into host communities’ farms. The law prohibiting the use of unlicensed arms is not obeyed by the herdsmen who wield sophisticated weapons and use them openly. The activities of the herdsmen appear to be organized and serial in nature and happening in all the geo-political zones of the country. The Tivs are forever locked up in battle with them. The same can be said of Berom, Tarok, Irigwe, Mwaghavul and ron in Plateau state where the people have been made to flee their communities.
The menace of Fulani-herdsmen in our society cannot be over-emphasized. It is highly plaguing in the sense that it makes both teachers and students feel insecure within the confines of the classroom thereby affecting their concentration levels. Looking at the statistics, from 2017, 2018 and part of 2019 schools in Yelwa, Kwatas, Daffo and other parts of Bokkos were deserted by most of the students as a result of herders/farmers crises. A school of 1,000 students was reduced to a few hundreds. This goes further to affect students’ performance academically and in some cases it results to the absence of both teachers and students from school which in turn leads to the incompletion of syllabus; thus affecting teaching and learning in general. With Fulani-herdsmen attack in place, there is a high tendency for unserious students to be tempted to participate in such violent retaliation which in turn can lead to the loss of lives. Another problem associated with Fulani-herdsmen attack is the absence of government support in terms of provision of infrastructures and teaching and learning facilities which in turn also affects the process of teaching and learning.
This goes further to affect students performance academically and in some cases it results to the absence of both teachers and students from school which in turn leads to the incompletion of syllabus; thus affecting teaching and learning in general. With conflict in place, there is high tendency for unserious students to be tempted to participate in such conflicts which in turn can lead to the loss of lives. Another problem associated with conflict is the absence of government support in terms of provision of infrastructures and teaching and learning facilities which in turn also affects the process of teaching and learning. Education is disrupted once there is Farmers/herdsmen conflict in the community. In Bokkos Local Government Area, attacks on the community has serious effect on education. These effects include: the absence of students
It is in light of this that this research investigates the Impact of farmers/herdsmen conflicts on the academic performance of students in Bokkos LGA
1.3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The broad aim of this study is to examine famers/herders conflict and its implication on the administration of secondary schools in Bokkos LGA. Other specific objectives include the following:
- To find out the causes of Fulani-herdsmen attacks on Bokkos Local government Area.
- To determine how farmers/herdsmen conflicts affect school administration.
- To proffer possible solutions to Farmers/herdsmen conflicts on educational institutions in Bokkos Local Government Area?
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to serve as a guide to the researcher, the following research questions have been formulated: answers will be provided to the following questions at the end of the research:
- What are the causes of Fulani-herdsmen attacks on Bokkos Local government Area?
- How do Farmers/herdsmen conflicts affect administration of secondary schools in Bokkos?
- What are the possible solutions to Farmers/herdsmen conflicts on educational institutions in Bokkos Local Government Area?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study cannot be overemphasized especially now that the attacks of Fulani-herdsmen are prevalent in the country, especially in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau State. In the light of this, the study is essentially aimed at unveiling the influence of farmers/herdsmen crises on educational institutions in the selected local government. The study therefore will be of benefit to stakeholders which are students, teachers, parents, school administrators, government, well-wishers and future researchers as well.
Students will benefit from this study because it will identify best possible ways through which students can cover-up for those periods of time they have been absent from school due to incidence of fleeing from Farmers/herdsmen conflicts.
Teachers will benefit from this study as they will come to understand the emotional and psychological trauma the students go through as a result of fear of herdsmen attacks in their communities, therefore, they will adopt measures and strategies which will make learning more effective.
The study will as well be beneficial to parents as it intends to unravel best possible ways in which parents can inculcate in their children the positive attitude of peace promotion and avoidance of indulgence in criminal activities.
School administrators will also benefit from this study as they will understand the various implications of farmers/herders conflicts. Therefore they will bring security personnel who will make the students feel safe. They will also encourage students to attend counselling sessions so as to deal with the trauma the students are going through.
To the general public will benefit from this study in the sense that they will see the havoc caused by farmers/herders, therefore, they will choose peaceful co-existence.
Government at all levels will ensure the promotion of peace within communities and the best possible ways through which conflict can be prevented. It will also bring a lasting peace to Bokkos Local Government so that students and teachers will not be afraid to attend school anymore.
When this study is completed, it will serve as a reference material to future researchers who would want to carry out further studies under the same topic. It will also add to the already existing body of research on farmers/herders conflict in Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study covers the Impact of farmers/herdsmen conflicts on the administration of secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Education Area Directorate of Plateau State in which five (5) schools were selected. However, despite the fact that the study is restricted to Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau State, its findings, can be generic that is, it can be generalised to other parts of the country as well.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Implication: something that is implied or involved as a natural consequence of something else.
Students: Is a person studying at a school, college, or university
Influence: a change or changed state occurring as a direct result of action by somebody or something else
Academic performance: This is one’s ability in academic work which may either be excellent, good, fair or poor in performance.
- Format: ms-word (doc)
- Chapter 1 to 5
- With abstract reference and questionnaire
- Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below
This Complete Project Material is Available for Instant Download Immediately After Payment of ₦3000.
Bank Name: United Bank of Africa (UBA)
Account Name: chianen kenter
Account Number: 2056899630
Account Type: savings
TO DOWNLOAD FULL DOCUMENTS CLICK ON THE CHAT BUTTON BELOW FOR YOUR REQUEST.