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1.1 Background to the study

            It is universally accepted, that education enables individuals to contribute to the development and improvement in the quality of life for themselves, their communities and the nation as a whole. Primary school is no doubt the foundation of education and has prominently been regarded as a fundamental human right. It is an essential component of human capital and it plays an important role in economic growth and development of a country. Primary education, therefore, remains an important area that should be carefully managed.

            The school environment refers to factors within the school that influence the teaching-learning process. The school environment includes classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers, among others variables that can affect the teaching–learning process (Ajayi, 2001). The extent to which pupils learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides to the learners and the teacher. It is believed that a well-planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching-learning process and academic performance of pupils. Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud and Turner (2008) quoting Marsden (2005) which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment, school facilities were significantly related to pupils academic achievement in schools. In developed countries like the United Kingdom and the Unites States of

America, teaching and learning may not be affected by similar challenges as in the developing countries. As the developing countries talk of awareness and wastage due to illiteracy of the parents, the developed countries have concentrated in funding their education without fear of any wastage or poor enrolment (MOEST: Report on Sector Review and Development, 2003).

            Environmental factor is often described as a necessity in considering students’ academic performance. According to Mick (2011), school environment means the extent to which school settings promote student safety and health, which may include topics such as the physical plant, the academic environment, available physical and mental health supports and services, and the fairness and adequacy of disciplinary procedures, as supported by relevant research and an assessment of validity. Environmental factors can impact on the developmental, social, emotional and physical health of students which may in turn influence their academic performances. The main components of environmental variables that influence academic performance include: location of school, school type and facilities. According to Chukwuemeka (2013), one of the factors that influence academic performance is school location/site of the school. The location of school plays a crucial role in evaluating the learning outcomes. That is, it has a tendency of influencing the academic performance of pupils. Some schools are located in urban areas while others are in rural areas. It is sometimes perceived that schools located in urban areas have more access to educational resources compared to those in rural areas; and this have a way of influencing the teaching and learning process. Chukwuemeka (2013) further stressed that a school that is sited in a noisy area like airport or in the heart of a city may have issues with academic performance. The school type may also have a role to play in students’ academic performance.

            In Nigeria, the government has put up measures to ensure all public primary schools have all the required physical facilities, instructional materials among others variables that may lead to effective teaching-learning process. Instructional materials are a major component in the process of teaching and learning and textbooks are often the most cost effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency of schools (Psachropoulous & Woodhall, 2016). In the developing countries, poor learning environments have always been identified as key factors that lead to poor performance in public primary schools (UNICEF, 2003). This is due to overstretching of the available resources due to increased enrolment. In Nigeria, physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on the teachers, pupils and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms and inconsistent temperatures make teaching-learning process difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among the pupils and higher absentee rates among pupils (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 & Ostendorf, 2001).

            Teaching means imparting knowledge or skills to someone as to how to do something or cause to learn or understand something by example or experience; while learning refers to acquiring new information. Puja, (2012) identified seven environmental factors that may affect the teaching- learning process this includes the road, pathway to school, classroom, textbook, equipment, school supplies, and other instructional materials. In the school and at the home, the conditions for learning must be favorable and adequate if teaching is to produce the desired results. It cannot be denied that the type and quality of instructional materials and equipment play an important role in the instructional efficiency of the school. It is difficult to do a good job of teaching in a poor environment and type of building without adequate equipment and instructional materials. Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on pupils’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities which creates uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for the teachers combined with frustrating behaviour by the pupil including poor concentration also have an effect on the teaching-learning process.

            Class size has also been an issue that affects the teaching-learning process in most schools in the developing countries. In Nigeria, since the inception of Universal Basic Education (UBE), and Home Grown School Feeding there has been increased enrolment which leads to overcrowding in classrooms making the work of the teacher difficult since he/she cannot easily move around in the classroom (Wabuoba, 2011) quoted in Chuma (2012) The school administration is a crucial factor in the success of a school. The head teacher should be in a position to ensure that all factors within the school that make the school environment favourable for teaching-learning process be put in place to ensure quality standards are maintained. The Education Act of 1968 stipulates that the head teacher is responsible for overall management, control and maintenance of standards in the schools and is accountable for all that happens in the school. He is charged with the duty of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting, (Okumbe, 2001).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

            In Nigeria, many primary schools are being established at various places by government, private organizations or individuals (Tella, 2008). As a result, teaching and learning takes place under different environment. Every school has its location, facilities and also operates under different classroom condition, but all the pupils are expected to write the same standard examination (i.e. Common Entrance Examination) at a completion of basic education. It may be reasonable to expect a uniform performance from all the candidates since they were taught using the same curriculum and syllabus but in most cases some schools seem outperform others in all respect. Frankly speaking, there must be a definite determinant that is really responsible for the constant failure or success of various schools.

The problem under study has to do with an unsatisfactory condition of the school environment in Nigeria. The establishment of government schools is not equally distributed, the situation where by some school were favoured in terms of rich learning environment than others. It has been very difficult if not impossible for government to standardize the school environment. Thus the environment varies from school to school. It is because of this that Chike-Okoli (2001) in line with Ikediashi (2002) have pointed out that poor teaching experience, inadequate or poor physical infrastructure, unsatisfactory building design are likely to cause some physical discomfort for the students and are therefore bound to influence their academic pursuit.

Thus, this study closely looked at the school environmental factor especially the physical facilities in Quanpan and seen its impact on the performance of primary schools. However, for the purpose of this study, only the school environment was considered.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the Assessment of School Environmental Factors on Teaching and Learning Process in Public Primary School In Qua’an-Pan LGA,  Specifically the study intends to:

  • Investigate the extent the quality of physical school environment with regard to school buildings as it affect the academic performance of pupils in public primary school
  • Determine the extent library services offered affects the academic performance of pupils of public primary schools.
  • Find out the extent school location affect student’s academic performance in public primary schools.
  • Ascertain the extents the school facilities affect pupils academic performance in public primary schools.

1.5 Research questions

The study sought to answer the following research questions;

  1. To what extent do physical facilities affect the process of teaching and learning in public primary schools in Quanpan Local Government Area?
  2. To what extent do library services provided affect academic performance of pupils in public primary schools?
  3. To what extent does school location affect the teaching-learning process in public primary schools in Quanpan?
  4. To what extent do school facilities provided affect pupils academic performance in public primary school in Quanpan Local Government Area?


1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between library services provided and academic performance of pupils in public primary schools
  2. There is no significant difference between physical facilities and teaching and learning process in public primary schools in Quanpan Local Government Area

1.6 Significance of the study

Over the years, environment of Nigerian primary schools have suffered neglect in consideration of issues of renovating dilapidated classrooms, construction of new classroom buildings and provisions of other necessary facilities. This is obvious in the way that pupils in some primary schools are learning in dilapidated classrooms or under the tress with little or no seats, no instructional facilities with unqualified teachers among others

The findings from this study will be of immense benefits to the government, head-teachers, teachers, parents, as well as researchers.

The findings will help the government or the policy makers in formulating effective planning and implementation policies and programmes for improved school academic activities. It will also provide policy makers with intelligent forecast and analysis of future needs of the schools in the areas of building and facilities.

It will provide the school head-teachers the opportunity to improve in school supervision so as to ensure both quality teaching and learning in the schools. It will enable them appreciate the contribution of school environment and equipment on pupils academic achievement.

The findings will enable the teachers to appreciate the need for proper instructional delivery. It will help the teacher to improve both in teaching effectiveness and increased productivity in the schools.

It will help the parents in determining the choice of the type of school for their children. This is because, their wards will enjoy good school learning environment that will lead to quality school products.

Finally, it will be of benefit to students’ researchers as it will provide a valid working document or literature in investigating other areas not covered by this study. Thus, it will serve as a point of reference to future researchers in the field.



1.7 Scope and Delimination of the study

The study is delimited to the assessment of school environmental factors on teaching and learning process in pupils primary school in Quanpan  LGA of Plateau state. The research delimits itself to some selected public primary school in Quanpan Local Government Area of Plateau State. The content area covers school building, library services, school location, and school facilities.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

School environmental factors are those aspects within the pupils’ surrounding at school that influence the teaching-learning process.

School location refers to where the school is situated, that is the site.

School Environment: this can be seen as learning situation capable of influencing students’ academic performance of students,

Impact of school environment: This can be described as the contribution of learning situation on academic performance of students by its environments

Academic performance: this is the result of academic environment on students achievement.

Environment: this are surrounding that influence students’ academic and social performance





2.1 Introduction

The literature review focused on school environmental factors that influence teaching-learning process. The chapter focused on school environmental factors under the following subheadings; concepts of school environmental factors and teaching-learning process, adequacy of physical facilities, sufficiency of instructional materials, class size, school location and assessment of the teaching-learning process. Theoretical framework, conceptual framework and summary of literature review followed at the end.

2.1 Concepts of school environment and teaching-learning process

            School environment are those aspects within the learning surrounding at school that influence the process of teaching and learning. The school environment is an important aspect of educational planning. The quality of education not only depends on the teacher as reflected on performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2001) quoted in Chuma (2012) It is believed that a well-planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of pupils. Everything within the school environment has an influence on the teaching-learning process.

            In this study, physical facilities, instructional materials, class size and school location are some factors within the school environment that were found to have an influence on the process of teaching-learning hence the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance pupils academic performance (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000) quoted in Kilel (2012).

2.2 Concept School Environment

            An environment is the natural surroundings of an organism and it can be land, air, or water (Asogwa 2008). According to Onyehalu in Okeke (2001), environment is of three parts namely: physical, social and abstract. School environment is objects or materials found in the home, school, or community. It also includes people like parents, peers, and children. The social environment is the social life, societies, clubs among others. While abstract environment is the reactions, feedbacks responses received on interaction with others. Environment is the physical world inhabited by man, or the realm of nature untainted by man (human action), or the cultural milieu – the physical environment as modified by human action, (Ofomata 2004). It could also be seen as things, around the child that he might perceive or that might have some effect on him. It can be view as all system of air, land, water, and life that surround man. In other words environment is the sum total of all the external conditions which may act upon an organism or community to influence its development or existence. For example the surrounding air, light, moisture, temperature, wind, soil and other organisms. As for Monkhouse, in Ofomata (2004), it is the whole sum of the surrounding external conditions within which an organism, a community, or an object exists.

            In view of school environment, According to Ajewole and Okebukola (2000), a number of factors are said to have contributed to the pupils’ poor academic achievement in school. The authors stress that a host of these factors may surround pupils’ poor achievement in school which may include: poor study habits and lack of available resource materials, poor school climate, indiscipline, inadequate facilities, teachers’ ineffectiveness, the teaching method, and the type of learning environment available for both the pupils and the teachers. From the authors view, the poor performance of pupils in primary school may be a reflection of the type of learning environment. Farombi (2012) observed that school environment may have negative influence on pupils’ academic achievement especially if such environment lacks good school climate, instructional materials, discipline, physical facilities, has poor teacher quality, type of location of school is questionable,

            School environment consist of both material and non-material resources in the school. It includes the teachers, peers, cohesiveness, the subjects, method of teaching. A healthy and attractive school environment makes for conducive learning and promotes pupils’ pride in their schools and their interest to stay in school (Mgbodile 2004). Belanger (1996) writing on the importance of learning environment stated that people’s educational life histories are influenced not only by provision of learning opportunities, but also by the quality of the environment where they live or learn. Continuing he stated that learning is more than educational provision and that the community in which learners live has a profound impact on their aspiration to learn, their curiosity and their desire to develop their own competency.

            Based on opinion of Nwizu (2003) he warned that the environment in which the learner acquires knowledge has a great influence on the cognitive achievement of the learner. It has also been generally agreed that the quality of learning is markedly influenced by environmental and organizational factors. Okafor (1992), opined that learning is an intimate transaction between the learner and his environment. This transaction takes place in a specific context. The child learning in a conducive environment transcends the school parameter. It encompasses the entire community and nation. School environments – wall, ground, lights, and mechanical system can serve as active contributors to the pupils’ learning process. (Keep, 2002). He says that learning opportunities can be integrated into the structure of the school making it an active space rather than passive spaces, housing a disarray of things. Clark (2002) assert that importance of learning

environment strongly stated that:

Growth depends upon internalizing events into a storage system” that corresponds to the environment, it is this system that makes possible the child’s increasing ability to go beyond the information encounter on a single occasion. He does this by making predictions and extrapolations from his stored model of the world. (P. 45)

            Quisenberry, Eddowesi and Robinson (1991), for individuals to be self-motivating and self-imitating, the environment or the setting must be amenable and responsive to human interaction. If the settings do not allow for permeability and malleability, then individual initiative in the learning process is stifled. As Piaget (1964) sited by Okeke (2001) defined intelligence as an accumulation of knowledge which is as a result of the child’s exploration of, and experimentation with the environment and his ability to assimilate and accommodate the environment. He continues by saying that active interaction with the environment is regarded as the most basic requirement for proper intellectual development. Omengboji (2005) emphasized that material environment is a major determinant of goal attainment in school.

            Tsavga (2011) maintains that the learning environment plays a vital role in determining how pupils’ perform or respond to circumstances and situations around them. This implies that no society is void of environmental influences. The learning environment determines to a large extent how a student behaves and interacts, that is to say that the environment in which we find ourselves tend to mould our behaviour so as to meet the demands of life whether negatively or positively. The author opined that the desire for both qualitative and quantitative education has multiplied the problem of providing an effective and conducive learning environment for teaching and learning. In Nigeria, there is an increase in the number of pupils’ enrolment in schools with little or no regards to improving the learning environment so as to better their performance. Freiberg, Driscoll and Knights (1999) observed that some of the notable factors that may influence pupils’ academic achievement in primary schools are; school climate, instructional materials, discipline, physical facilities, teacher quality, type of location of school and class size. This is because, schools with a good and conducive environment that has the best type of teachers, instructional materials and physical facilities will produce better school leavers with high achievement. Most at times parents of pupils’ are not satisfied with the facilities provided in their school. Also, the extent at which some teachers, exhibit high level of indiscipline does not seem to portray them as role models. They rather encourage indiscipline among pupils’ by their attitudes. This may have negative influence of pupils’ academic achievement.

            Awule cited in Aliade (2008) stated that school environment should have good infrastructural development, adequate trained teachers, good leadership and adequate instructional materials among others. All these characteristics according to the author have positive impact on academic achievement of pupils’ in primary schools. In the same vein Abenga (1995), opined that an improved environmental condition leads to higher intelligence scores while poor environmental conditions reduce these scores.

2.3 Adequacy of School Environment and the Teaching-Learning Process

            The image of school environment is dependent on the quality of its infrastructure. The physical facilities of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, pupils’ and the teaching-learning process. They include; administration office, staffrooms and offices, classrooms, laboratories, workshop equipment stores, libraries, hostels, staff houses and school ground. Physical facilities in terms of adequacy and quality have been noted to have great impact on performance of pupils’ in examination. Heyneman & Loxley (2012) in their study on effect of availability of physical facilities on academic performance found out that presence of school library related significantly to achievement in Brazil, China, Botswana and Uganda. The library is an essential factor in the teaching-learning process. Fuller (2011) identified a library as an instructional resource which may significantly influence the teaching-learning process and eventually the performance of pupils. Ayoo (2002) & Eshiwani (1993) agree that school environment such as; classrooms, desks and books have a direct impact on good performance among the pupils’ in developing countries. Classrooms are places that pupils spend the greatest part of their day. Wabuoba (2011) quoted in Chuma (2012) observed that overcrowding in classrooms make it difficult for pupils to write the teacher is also unable to move around the class to assist needy pupils and this affects the teaching-learning process.

            Crowded classroom conditions not only make it difficult for learners to concentrate but inevitably limit the amount of time teachers can spend on innovative teaching methods such as cooperative learning and group work. It was noted that congestion within classrooms affects teaching-learning process. This is because the teacher may not be able move around to give individual attention to all the pupils in need due to the high number of pupils in class. Bernstein (2006) noted that in the United States of America, pupils who attend well maintained schools with good classrooms have a higher achievement than those who attend poorly maintained schools with poor classrooms. Schools with adequate facilities stand a better chance of providing education effectively. Hines (1996) found that student achievement was as much as 11% percent points lower in substandard buildings as compared to above standard buildings. Schools with equipped laboratory have their pupils performing better than their counterparts in schools without laboratories or those with ill equipped laboratories. Laboratory work stimulates learners’ interests as they are made to personally engage in useful scientific activities and experimentations (Owoeye and Yara, 2010)

2.3.1 Sufficiency Instructional Materials and the Teaching-Learning Process

            Availability of instructional materials is a core determinant in the successful implementation of any curriculum. The head teacher should ensure there is proper selection and procurement of teaching-learning resources. According to Agosiobo (2007) the use of teaching resources is important because they motivate learners to learn as they offer stimulus variation and assist in sustaining learners’ attention throughout the lesson. Collin and Rosmiller (2011) assert that even highly competent teachers find it difficult to teach effectively with inadequate facilities or if they are lacking the necessary instructional materials.

            Ashton (2001) observes that instructional materials are crucial in planning and implementing a successful life skill program. The availability of learning resources is the most influential factor which may explain differing performance levels. It is generally assumed that the use of instructional materials leads to better performance. Kathuri (1986) in his study, found that the presence or absence of resources have an effect on teaching and learning. Performance of pupils’ in examinations is influenced by the availability of instructional materials and school facilities such as laboratories, libraries, textbooks, laboratory equipment among others (Eshiwani, 1993). The quality and adequacy of such equipment as, instructional materials have a direct bearing on quality of education as they determine how effectively the curriculum is implemented. There is clear evidence that there is a relationship between adequate provision of books and achievement. Textbooks are often the most cost effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency of schools (Psachropoulous & Wood hall, 1995). Avalos (1991) pointed out that the quality of education the learners receive bears direct relevance to the availability or lack of instructional materials. Schools with adequate facilities such as textbooks and other instructional materials stand a better chance of having better results than poorly equipped ones. Textbook ratio should be one book per three pupils in lower primary and one book per two pupils in upper primary (Republic of Nigeria, 2003). Sharing of these books may have an effect on the teaching learning process since sometimes a pupil may be absent from school yet he/she had the book hence inconveniencing the colleague.

2.3.2 Class size and the teaching-learning process

            The influence of class size has a great impact on the teaching-learning process. The smaller the class size, the easier it is for the teacher-learner interaction thus improving the teaching-learning process since the teacher will be able to give the learner individual attention. Large class size impacts negatively to the teaching-learning process since the teacher is not even able to move freely to assess the pupils work as they do their exercises. According to National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) in Nigeria, small class size leads to engagement of the learner, increased participation, and attentiveness. Smaller class size allows educators to focus more on the pupils in their teaching coming to better understanding and adjust their methods to diverse individual needs. Large class size makes monitoring of pupils’ attendance very difficult thus encouraging pupils’ absenteeism, and the quality of feedback to pupils become very low thus making the teaching learning process ineffective (Bascia, 2003).

            The small class size allows for individualized attention and this strengthens the cordial relationship between the teachers and learners. Managing a large class is a serious problem in many schools as it creates stressful working conditions for the teachers and leads to higher teacher absenteeism (Corcoran, Walker and White, 2011). Wabuoba (2011) observed that overcrowding in class rooms make it difficult for the pupils to write and the teacher is also unable to move around to help the needy pupils. Corcoran, Walker & White (1988) noted that crowded classroom conditions not only make it difficult for learners to concentrate but inevitably limit the amount of time teachers can spend on innovative teaching methods such as cooperative learning and group work.

2.3.3 School Location and Teaching-Learning Process

            The school location has variables such as schools in rural or urban areas, economic status of the neighbourhood, and schools built near market centers among other variables that affect the teaching-learning process (Ahmen, 2003). The extent to which pupils learning could be enhanced depends on the location of the school. When a school is built near market center, the noise from the market will distract the learners from concentrating thus affecting the process of teaching-learning. Economic status of the school neighbourhood also has an impact on the teaching-learning process. Aikens and Barbarin (2008) noted that schools located in low economic status communities are often under resourced and this affects the teaching-learning process. Parents from low economic status are unable to afford resources such as books, computers or tutors to create this positive literacy environment.

            Woolfolk (2007) noted that when the communities’ economic status is low, they may not be able to support the school financially. Economic status of the community will make the community have the ability to support or not support the schools within their communities. The urban or rural location of the school has an effect on the teaching learning process. Most schools in the urban areas are well staffed as compared to those in rural areas since everyone wants to work in the urban centers due to the technology which is high in the urban areas as compared to the rural areas. This causes under staffing in the rural areas thus affecting the teaching learning process. Clanism also affects the process of teaching and learning. Chuma (2012) noted that parents prefer taking their children to schools within their clans despite the performance of such schools. This affects teaching-learning since some schools have a record of poor performance yet they still stick to them because of clanism.

2.4 Academic Performance

            Human beings, according to Illiya (2010) are always happy and eager to know how far and how well they have achieved their aims as feedback of whatever they are doing. Sometimes, when we talk to somebody we expect the person to respond. When a farmer invest resources as inputs in farming, he expects feedback in good yield of his harvest. The quest for satisfaction in everything we do in every human business. But when this prospect is not forthcoming as we expect, we always like to find out where the fault is coming from, in order to offer solution to it.

            Similarly, every education institution is interested in knowing and findings out the academic performance of student’s in academic exercise of teaching and learning. This helps teachers, lecturers and school itself to justify, the extent of its effort and the level of learners achievement from what they have been taught. Dupaull and Rapport (1991) in their own opinion define academic performance as the extent to which a students or undergraduates, teachers or institutions have achieved their educational goals. According to the Encyclopedia Americana (2014) academic performance in school result that accounts for learners learning achievement, and issued to parents in respect of their children’s learning achievement. Moreover it can be view as school results that pupils’ obtain as their learning outcome based on the set standard of education, ranging from failure, pass, and excellent level. This testifies to level of student achievement which justifies whether the student’s learn well or not. Sometimes, academic performance is assessing based on domains of learning. There includes the cognitive psychomotor and affective domains, in determining individuals learners area of specialization (Adeniyi, 2001).

            Beside all these, academic performance is a pedagogical terminology used when assessing learner’s academic success in formal education. The methodology that could be employed in measuring degree student’s learning outcomes differs. There is no single acceptable general method as the best way of attaining this achievement (Aggarwal, 2006). Assessment of academic achievement involves giving student’s an activity to perform either by means of examination, oral text, practical work, class work, assignment, objective test, or written essay, to assess the level of the learner’s performance (Iliya, 2002,). According to Adejunjin and Oladeji (2007), in every education system, the method used at several times are affected by different factors. These factors vary from place to place and level to level, loading to student’s poor achievement. Some of these factors includes learner’s intellectual capability, socio-economic factors and family background.

            Furthermore, the form in which such performance is provided differs. It could be pupil’s report card, terminal result or certificate at the end of the programme. All there are evidence of what teachers or examiners have measured rated and graded. Through this, learner’s strengths and weaknesses are always discovered, and measures could be taken to effect correction in order to bridge the gap. It in a fact that, pupils’ who want to achieved high in their result should work hard and not ending in anticipation for, or just as a set goal. This is because whatever grade of result a student’s obtains in the course of his study may definitely have negative such student in future.

            Poor and inadequate facilities affect the overall academic performance of schools. Sufficient educational facilities promote academic performance and ensure to strengthen the overall academic achievement of schools. While unattractive and old school buildings, cracked classroom walls and floors, lack of toilets, lack of desks and benches, lack of transport facility, lack of proper security system, lack of teaching staff, lack of sufficient classrooms, overcrowded classroom, lack of educational technology etc. negatively affect academic performance of student’s in the school’s. Therefore, this might to say that academic performance has a close link with the available of educational facilities (Hussain, et’ al 2012).

            Class size concerns educators for various reasons because learning can occur positively when lesson are under appropriate conditions both the pupils’ and teachers. The class room size has its own impact in facilitating or influencing activities of teaching and learning. The idea of class size is becoming a concern and an essential point of discussion on among scholars because it is assumed as the class size increase, student’s face any or all-of-the following problems lack of clarity of purpose, lack of advice on improvement, inability to support independent study, lack of opportunity to discussion, inability to motivate student’s. (Monre, 2000).

            Many educators asserted that the number of pupils’ in a class (class size) in one of the determinant variables in the implementation of student’s academic performance. Accordingly, Lue (2000) explained that teachers who have many pupils’ in over-crowded classroom often say that it is certainly not suitable to provide activities and group works for such classes. Kruegen and whitmore concluded that pupils’ who attend smaller classes in the early grades tend to have higher test serves while they are enrolled in those grader than their counterparts who attend larger classes (Kruegen and Whiltmore,2006).

2.5 Relationship between School Environmental Factor and Teaching-Learning Process

            The conceptual framework shows the interrelationship between various school environmental factors thought to influence teaching–learning process. The Conducive learning Environment, Regular attendance of lessons by pupils and teachers, Proper time management, Use of appropriate methodology, Proper supervision and assessment. Effective teaching and learning

School location:

  • Urban or rural school
  • Community support
  • Clanism

Physical Facilities:

  • Chairs, classrooms, offices, library, toilets

Instructional Materials

  • Textbooks, exercise books wall Maps, charts, atlas, science kits

Class Size:

  • Small class, medium, large

Assessment of Teaching-Learning:

  • KCPE Sub- County mock
  • CATS
  • Supervision framework postulates that the factors which influence the teaching-learning process include physical facilities, instructional materials, class size, school location and assessment of teaching-learning process. The influence may be modified by ensuring there is conducive learning environment, regular attendance of lessons by pupils and teachers, proper time management, use of appropriate methodology and proper supervision and assessment which will lead to effective teaching and learning which will be measured through and performance in KCPE, sub- county mocks, CATS and other forms of assessment. The independent variables are school environmental factors which are inputs into the teaching-learning process.

2.6 Influence of School Climate on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils

            School climate is critically linked to risk prevention and health promotion (NASBE, 2011). A positive, respectful school climate provides a solid foundation for supporting pupils’ academic achievement and development of positive attitudes and behaviours. Pupils who are connected to school (i.e., feel safe, perceive themselves to be treated fairly by adults, are happy to be in school, feel they are a part of the school community, and feel close to people at school) experience less distress and engage in fewer risk-taking behaviours (Blum, 2002, 2005). School climate research suggests that positive interpersonal relationships and optimal learning opportunities can increase achievement levels and reduce high-risk behavior for pupils’ in all demographic environments. According to Megan (2002), “research on school climate in high-risk urban environments indicates that a positive, supportive, and culturally conscious school climate can significantly shape the degree of academic success experienced by urban pupils’”. Furthermore, researchers have found that positive school climate perceptions are protective factors for boys and may supply high-risk pupils with a supportive learning environment yielding healthy development, as well as preventing antisocial behaviour. A positive school climate results in positive outcomes for school personnel as well.

            Characteristics of school climate, especially trust, respect, mutual obligation and concern for others’ welfare, can have powerful effects on educators and learners interpersonal relationships (Center for Social and Emotional Education, 2005). Safe, collaborative learning communities where students feel safe and supported report increased teacher morale, job satisfaction, and retention. The interaction of various characteristics of school and classroom climate can create a fabric of support that enables all members of the school community not only to learn but also to teach at optimum levels (Freiberg, 1998). Conversely, a negative school climate interferes with learning and development.

            Organizational climate is assumed to have some effect upon the success of a school in accomplishing its objectives (Singh, 2006). Various studies documented that students in schools with a better school climate have higher achievement and better socio emotional health. The school climate–student achievement connection has been well-established in the research (Freiberg, Driscoll, and Knights, 1999).

2.7 Influence of Discipline of Teachers on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils

            Disciplines and academic achievements are the core of our today’s education. Some scholars have attributed poor achievements of students in academic to high level of indiscipline among teachers while others disagreed. Nevertheless, it becomes imperative in recent times that many schools have traded away discipline and as a result led to poor achievements of students.

            According to Chichi (2001), discipline is the act of orderliness, obedience and maintenance of proper subordination among employees and a check or restraint on the liberty of individual. It is the training that correct, moulds and strengthens the individual behaviour. Adeyemo, (2005), notes that there is wide spread violation of teaching ethics which are capable of obstructing the smooth functioning of the school system and thereby affect students’ academic achievement. Mafabi (2010) opines that, success can only be achieved in school when teachers show good example of time management. Though the practice in most of the primary schools is that, school activities seem not to respect the designed time table. He further stated that punctuality is most a times not observed by teachers, head teachers and non-teaching staff in an educational institution, as part of the efforts toward academic excellence. Indiscipline among teachers are their acts of behaviour that affects effective teaching and learning as well as result to retarding students’ academic achievement. Common indiscipline behaviour by teachers include; absenteeism from school and lesson, lateness, non-preparation of lesson notes, failure to mark students exercise books, non-completion of school records such as diaries, registers, student results, involvement in examination malpractices, illegal collection from parent and students, unapproved study leave with pay, drinking, drug taking and sexual immorality. These are serious threat to students’ academic achievement, because teachers are the expected professionals, entrusted with the responsibility to conserve the future and destiny of the students as well as the nation. (Okeke, 2004:10). “The teacher belongs to a special class (sub-group) saddled with” the responsibility of moulding the child into a functional adult that will contribute to national development with the following qualities; knowledge of the subject matter being taught far ahead of that of the students; professional skill or know-how to awaken a child’s interest in what is being taught and to enkindle in his students a love of learning and a good moral character (Anyamebo, 2005:41-42). Effective discipline is needed in school for good academic achievement. When there is effective discipline in a school and in the classroom, effective teaching and learning can take place. Gawe, Vakalisa and Jacobs (2001:190) emphasize co-operative learning as a solution. If a school lacks effective discipline, the achievement academically will be poor.

2.9 Influence of School Physical Facilities on Academic Achievement of Primary school students

            School facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching and learning of the provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized. The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the teachers. According to Akande (1995), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical are arranged (Farrant, 1991 & Farombi, 1998). Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (2002) submitted that no effective science education programme can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution, Ajayi & Ogunyemi (1990) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, pupils’ will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual pupils’ will also learn at their own paces. The net effect of this is increased overall academic performance of the entire pupils. Commenting on why high academic attainment is not in vogue in Nigeria primary schools, Adesina (1991) identified poor and inadequate physical facilities, obsolete teaching techniques, overcrowded classrooms among others, as factors. Throwing more light on school facilities and moral guiding provision, Fabunmi (1997) asserted that school facilities when provided will aid teaching learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of pupils while the models guiding their provision to schools could take any form as rational bureaucratic and or political model.

            According to Hallak (1990), facilities form one of the potent factors that contribute to academic achievement of pupils in the school system. They include the school buildings, classroom, accommodation, libraries, laboratories, furniture, Recreational equipment, apparatus, and other instructional materials. He went further to say that their availability, relevance, and adequacy contribute to academic achievement of students. He however, quickly added that unattractive school buildings and overcrowded classrooms among others contribute to poor academic achievement of the pupils in primary and other levels of education.

2.10 Impact of Utilization of School Facilities on Effective Teaching and Learning Process

            Despite the inadequacy of educational facilities, the fact remains that even those that are available are not properly utilized and maintained. For example, the New Nigerian of 27th April 1974 in an article titled “teachers’ transfer and supervision” reports that constant transfer and lack of supervision causes under-utilization of teachers in Nigeria. Provision and acquisition of facilities is one thing, effective utilization of such facilities is another thing. Utilization is the degree or extent to which the facilities have been put to effective use. However, facilities can also be under-utilized or over utilized. If over utilized, the facilities will be over stretched which may lead to breakdown, thereby defeating the objectives which they were meant to achieve. For example, a printing machine used for a long time without adequate service and oiling will after sometime breakdown totally. Some equipment in vocational training were bought without training the staff on how to use them accordingly. They were dumped for years. Therefore, they are under-utilized. When facilities are under-utilized, it leads to wastage of resources. For example, the biological microscope kept for long in the store, not used and cleaned properly are under-utilized, therefore, it leads to wastage of resources. Conventionally, school facilities are used by the pupils’ and teachers’ for effective teaching and learning.

2.12 Review of Empirical Studies

            Okafor (2003) undertook a survey study to evaluate school environment in terms of adequacy, usage and maintenance in primary schools in Idemili North Local Government Education Area. The descriptive survey research method was utilized with the questionnaires as the instrument for data collection.

            The findings of this study include the following. It was the opinions of the principals and teachers that they supply physical plant facilities in the post primary schools in Idemili North, Anambra State which include science laboratories, classroom, furniture, staffroom, facilities, library facilities and laboratory equipment. The principals and teachers posited that students should not be charged for the cost of repairing of school plant. The post primary school management Board should employ store officers and other workers to be in charge of school plant including the maintenance, repairing and distributing. Both the principals and teachers were of the opinions that community in which the school is located should refurbish the school plant. This present study focus on school environment as it related to students learning outcome.

            Akabogu (2001) investigated on the effect of location of school on primary school students’ achievement in reading comprehension. The study specifically is to find out whether urban or rural school effect performance of students in secondary schools. Two hundred and sixty (260) senior secondary class 2 (SS2) students in Enugu education zone of Enugu State were used for the study. The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation. While analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 Apha level of significance. Akabogu found out that location of school has significance impact on achievement in reading comprehension. Ezudu (2001) studied Girls science classroom environment as correlates to academic performance of girls in science. He developed two research questions and a null hypothesis for the study.

            From the review of the empirical studies, It is revealed that studies have been carried out on the issue of correlation in the achievement of few subjects and the students’ performance. The review revealed that such few works centered on academic achievement of students in relation to classroom environment. It appears none has concentrated on the general influence of the school environment on the academic achievement of students of public secondary schools in the state. It is against this background that the present study is being carried out to fill the gap.

2.12 Summary of Literature Review

            The reviewed literature shows that there are various school environmental factors which influence the teaching-learning process. This study will investigate how the adequacy of physical facilities, sufficiency of instructional materials, class size and school location will influence the process of teaching and learning. Information on how school environment influence the process of teaching and learning in public schools in Quan-Pan. To complement these studies, the researcher intended to find the relationship between school environmental factors such as the availability of physical facilities, availability of instructional resources, class size and school location and the teaching learning process and make recommendations on how to improve them to ensure quality standards are maintained and consequently fill this gap.



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