EVALUATION OF THE FACTORS HINDERING EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MANGU
EVALUATION OF THE FACTORS HINDERING EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MANGU
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page iii
Table of Contents vi-vii
List of Tables iv
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study Error! Bookmark not defined.-5
1.2 Statement of Problem 5-6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 6-7
1.4 Research Questions 7-8
1.5 Significance of the Study 8-9
1.6 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of Terms 9-10
CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theory of Guidance and Counselling Services: Systems Theory 11-13
2.2 Conceptual Framework 13-15
2.3 Nature and Forms of Guidance and Counselling Services 16-17
2.3.1 Educational Guidance 17-18
2.3.2 Educational Information 18-19
2.3.3 Vocational Guidance and Counselling 19
2.3.4 Personal-Social Guidance 19-20
2.4 Facilities Effective for Guidance and Counselling Services 20-22
2.5 Relevance of Guidance and Counselling Services 22-25
2.6 Factors hindering Effective Implementation of Guidance and Counselling Services 25-26
2.6.1 Lack of Adequate Time forCounselling and Program Planning 26-27
2.6.2 Attitudes of Staff and Students towards Guidance and Counselling 27-28
2.6.3 Students refusal to reveal their Problems 28
2.6.4 Lack of Trained Counsellors 28-29
2.6.5 Inadequate Funding 29
2.6.6 Sexual Abuse of Students by Teachers 29-30
2.6.7 Inadequate Counselling Personnel and Facilities 30-31
2.7 Empirical Studies Error! Bookmark not defined.-35
2.8 Summary of Chapter Two Error! Bookmark not defined.5
CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 36
3.2 Population of the Study 37
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 39-40
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 42
3.4.1 Validation of Instruments 42
3.4.2 Reliability of the Instrument 43
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 43
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis 43-44
CHAPTER FOUR : DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULT
4.1 Analysis of Bio-data of Respondents 45-48
4.2 Answering of Research Questions 48
4.2.1 Research Question One 48-50
4.2.2 Research Question Two 50-52
4.2.3 Research Question Three 52-54
4.2.4 Research Question Four 54-56
4.2.5 Research Question Five 56-58
4.3 Summary of Findings 58
4.4 Discussion 59-61
CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction 62
5.1 Summary 62-63
5.2 Contribution to Knowledge 64
5.3 Conclusion 65
5.4 Recommendations 65-66
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study 66-67
LIST OF TABLES
3.1: Population for the Study 38
3.1: Sample Size for the Study 41-42
4.1: Age Distribution of Respondents 45
4.2: Distribution of Respondents by Sex 46
4.3: Marital Status and Educational Qualification of Teacher Respondents 47
4.4: Respondents’ Opinion on the Nature and Forms of Guidance and Counselling Services available for Senior Secondary School Students 49
4.5: Respondents’ Opinion on the Relevance of Guidance and Counselling Services for Senior Secondary School Students 51
4.6: Respondents’ Opinion on the Facilities available for guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools 53
4.7: Respondents’ Opinion on Factors Hindering Effective Implementation of Guidance and Counselling Services in Senior Secondary Schools (Students) 55
4.8: Measures that can Enhance Effective Implementation of Guidance and Counselling Services in Senior Secondary Schools 57
LIST OF APPENDICES
I: Questionnaire for Students
II: Teacher’s Questionnaire
This study evaluated the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. In order to achieve the aim of the study, five research objectives and five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research method. The populations of the study comprised of 1827 senior secondary school students from 10 senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. Five schools were sampled and used for the study with a sample size of 322. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed using frequency and percentage to analyze biodata of the respondents. Mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions with decision rule of 3.00. Findings from the study revealed that Guidance and counselling services are relevant for senior secondary school students in Mangu LGA and counsellors’ attitude to counselling hinders effective implementation in Mangu LGA. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that students should be sensitized on the relevance of guidance and counselling services through enlightenment campaigns, seminars and workshops as well as through the social media so as to encourage them to visit school counsellors when they are faced with difficult challenges in life. Teacher and counsellors should try and become more friendly so as to encourage students to share their problems with them.
1.1 Background to the Study
The concept of Guidance and Counselling is as old as man. In fact Gibson and Mitchell (2008) see Guidance and Counselling is man’s heritage from the past. According to them, it is quite possible that the earliest occasion (although not confirmed) in which humans sought a counsellor, was when Adam reaped the consequences of his eating the apple in the Garden of Eden. Gibson and Mitchell (2008) continue to say that no proof exists of this early beginning to counselling, but an abundance of evidence suggests that persons through-out the ages have sought the advice of others believed to possess superior knowledge, insights or experience. Perhaps the first counterparts of the present day counselor were the chieftains and elders to whom the youths turned or were sent to for advice and guidance. In early civilizations, the philosophers, priests and other representatives of gods and religions assumed the role of advising and offering counsel
To make the Nigerian youths to meet up with the challenges of the global trend in economic, political, social and technological advancement, the need to acquire relevant skills through the assistances from career counsellors in school becomes essential. Guidance and counselling services has become an integral and essential component of Nigerian educational process for all students as they progress through the educational system. According to Olowu (2008), the aims of school guidance and counselling services, which are base on a developmental hierarchy, are to provide student, with opportunities to develop knowledge and appreciation of themselves and others; develop relationship skills, ethical standards and a sense of responsibilities; acquire skills and attitude necessary to develop educational goals which are suited to their needs, interest and abilities, and acquire information that would enable them to make decisions about life and career opportunities.
Today, the services has gained prominence in the Nigerian educational system and many are becoming interested in counselling the youths especially students in making wise educational, vocational and social decisions. To ensure that this discipline, counselling wears a national outlook, the National Policy on Education (2004) made it clear that counselling services should be rendered to students in schools. The aforementioned policy document noted that in view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in view of personality maladjustment among school children, career officers and counsellors will be appointed in post primary institutions. The above citation gives an idea that all students in the school system should benefit from counselling services. The counselling services became widely recognized as an important aspect of educational services. It was to fulfil the Nigeria government policy and as a way of implementing the policy statement, professional counsellors are posted to virtually all the post–primary schools in Nigeria. The policy provision has been encouraging but appears to run short of many processes as well as the problem of implementation.
The guidance counsellors are expected to render counselling services which according to Ifelunni (2007) and Afia (2005) include counselling, orientation, information appraisal, placement, referral, fellowship and evaluation. The services are not only to ensure quality in education, but also to help individuals acquire the knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to identify opinions, explore alternatives and succeed in life. No doubtNwaokolo (2006) noted that when counsellors perform their expected duties in the school setting, then the students will be satisfied as their different academic, vocational, social and personal life aspirations are fulfilled.
Akinboye (2007) observed that a good number of adolescent and youths in many Nigerian secondary schools have incongruent patterns between their aspirations and subject combination for the school certificate examination. The implication is that most Nigerian youths today engage in occupations not on the basis of reasonable choice but on the basis of fate. Case of maladaptive behaviours like violation of school rule and regulation, bullying, truancy, drug abuse, alcohol addition, sexual abuse, rape is on the increase among our school adolescents. Ofordile (2002) noted that managing and modifying adolescent maladaptive behaviour is still a big challenge facing teachers, student caregivers and the society at large. Students have variety of interest and abilities. This makes it difficult for them to choose a career. In vocational counselling, students are provided with detailed up- to-date useful information about different careers. The information is centred on careful planning for a career, getting and retaining the career and adjusting effectively to it. The reason for all these is to let the students consider the various areas in harmony with their potentials and consequently choose the best career (Arua, 2006).
In view of the abovehowever, there are some challenges facing the practice and implementation of guidance and counselling in secondary schools which Oraegbunam (2008) listed as counselling-client ratio, non-recognition of counsellors by the headmasters, absence of counselling in the timetable, dual job and lack of authority for execution of programmes; Akinade (2009) identified lack of proper knowledge in interpretation of psychological test, attitudinal, structural, human and cultural problems, lack of trained school counsellors, and lack of enough time and facilities and reference materials for use by counsellors.
As a result, students suffer stress because of various reasons like: fear of failure in both internal and external examinations, wrong career choice, poor personal relationships, pressure from parents/guardians to excel, inability to cope with assignments and the pressure of fending for themselves, school drop-out, criminality etc. It is against this background that this study seeks to evaluate the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The need for senior secondary school’s guidance and counselling services in Nigeria including Plateau State cannot be overemphasized. This is because it is a psychological truism that assistance given to children early in life helps to ameliorate and offer some compromises in an effort to serious development and behavioural problems later in life. Masinde (2003) in a study of one secondary school in Kenya stated that students have a host of emotional and psychological problems for which they need support in order to enable them go through educational life.
Apart from academic problems of failure and dropout of students from schools, other numerous psycho-social; vocational and personal-social problems abound among students in our secondary schools. Parents and significant others in recent times have been so concerned about academic problems of students.
The result of this negative attitude towards guidance and counselling is that most of the secondary school students in some urban and rural areas have been deprived of the valuable services which the programme offers to students in educational institutions in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world. It is against this background that this study therefore intends to examine the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary school in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to evaluation the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary school in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, the specific objectives of the study are to:
1. examine the nature and forms of guidance and counselling services available for senior secondary school
2. determine the relevance of guidance and counselling services for senior secondary school students
3. assess the facilities available for guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools
4. identify the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools
5. proffer possible measures for enhancing effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools
1.4 Research Questions
This study intends to answer the following questions:
1. What is the nature and forms of guidance and counselling services available for senior secondary school students?
2. What is the relevance of guidance and counselling services for senior secondary school students?
3. What are the facilities available for guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools?
4. What are the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools?
5. What are some of the possible measures that can enhance effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study on an evaluation of the factors hindering effective implementation of guidance and counselling services in senior secondary school in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau state will help shed light on the challenges facing providers of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools.
The study will also provide vital information to education planners which can be used to come up with a policy on how to strengthen guidance and counselling programmes in secondary schools – through provision of adequate resources besides organizing seminars and workshops for guidance and counselling teachers.
The results from this study can also assist education administrators to understand the need for having trained teacher counsellors as well as the need to support guidance and counselling programmes in secondary schools.
Finally, the findings will contribute to the already existing knowledge on the important role of guidance and counselling in educational institutions with particular reference to senior secondary schools in Plateau State and Nigeria as a whole.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will examine the variousof guidance and counselling services available in senior secondary school, facilities for effective guidance and counselling, the relevance of guidance and counselling, challenges and how guidance and counselling services can be fully implemented in senior secondary schools.
The study is delimited to the senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. It is also delimited to only private senior secondary schools in Mangu LGA.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Adolescence: A human developmental stage, after puberty, when youths try to establish some independence from their parents‟ rule and develop their own identities. It is a stage characterized by social storm and turmoil.
Attitude: A positive or negative feeling that one holds about a certain object, person, issue or policy which in turn makes him either accept or reject it.
Counselling:An intensive helping relationship/process intended to assist an individual to solve her/his social, psychological or academic problems.
Facility: A building, equipment, materials or services provided in an institution to aid in guidance and counselling.
Guidance: advice or counsel, especially one given to students on academic matters.
Implementation: Setting up and equipping guidance and counselling office complete with needed facilities.
Services: Guidance and counselling help that is given to those who need it.
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