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  • Background to the Study

Education is the back bone of an individual’s growth. For this reason, education of every citizen should be taken seriously. Effectual teaching and learning should be encouraged to improve the student’s performance in external and internal examinations.Secondary education is a very significantlevel of education in Nigeria where solid basisfor higher education and useful living is laid. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2013), secondary education is the form of learning in which children receive after primary education and before tertiary stage. Specifically, the secondary education should offer an increasing number of primary school pupils with the chance for education of a higher class irrespective of gender, or social, religious and ethnic setting. Other aims include respecting the views and feelings of others, respect the self-respect of labour and be grateful for those values specified under our broad national aims, and live as good citizens. To promote Nigerian unity with a stress on the common ties that unite us in our variety, inspire its students with a desire for attainment and self-improvement both at school and in later life (FRN, 2013).

In order to achieve those purposes, the human, mental and physical resources available in school must be put into productive use. The educational setup of secondary schools over the years has witnessed a gradual but effective deterioration (Anadi, 2008). Consequently, secondary school leavers cannot stand the test of time if they are exposedto empirical test. Eneasator (2010) ascribedthe deterioration of the standard of secondary schools to the non-challant approachof teachers toward teaching in their various schools. According to the author this low spirit towards teaching has linkwith the poor supervisions and supervisory skillsadopted by the school principals.School administrators aresaddled with frequenttasksin the administration of secondary schools. The school administrator is an administrative position considered to be highest in chain of commandof powerin secondary school which is occupied by a person charged with the tasks of planning, controlling and coordination of human, material, financial and time resources to foster the attainment of the school goals and objectives. The school principal as the instructional leader is entrusted with the responsibility of improving the excellenceof instructional delivery through enoughsupervision of teachers. To support this, Ugboka (2012) stated that the school principals are the management whose dutyis to provide diversityof administrative supervisory skills for teachers to see the need for change, plan for change and practice new behaviour for effectualteaching and learning.

Administrative supervisory skills are actions taken to mentor and monitor subordinates or teachers and provide supportive and conducive atmosphere for perfectionon the instructional process. It requires planned and systematic monitoring of subordinates and providing professional guidance and assistance to them in order to ensure the successful implementation of the formal or informal curriculum in the school. Furthermore, despite the remarkable advancement in technology in all areas of teaching and learning process through the production of instructional materials such as television, computer projector of various kinds, the teacher is still an indispensably significant factor for motivating and imparting knowledge to the learners at each level of education. The extent to which teachers achieve this important role of imparting knowledge is contingent on their effective job performance.

Teachers’ job performance involves all the activities carried out by the teacher to achieve the desired effects on students. It involves the extent to which the teacher participates in the overall running of the school in order to achieve the expected objective and goals of the school. In other words, performance is the accomplishment of school goals. However, Affianmagbon (2007) has observed professional laxity on the part of teachers. To him, many teachers are merely staying on the job to look for better jobs outside. He complained that the constant casesof absenteeism, persistent lateness to school, irregular and unauthorized movement from duty post and indiscipline constitute a big problem to the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools. Accordingly, Adetula (2005: 34) has called attention to the state of affairs in our secondary schools where in his words “a totally unwholesome and non-professional behaviour of teachers such as absenteeism, lateness, malingering, trading and the general low level of commitment to duty which appears to be indices of lack of supervision in school administration”. Giventhis scenario in the school, it is the duty of the principal to coordinate such activitiesthrough effective supervisory skills, without which, effective teaching may not be accomplished easily.

Supervision of instruction has become very necessary in recent times because of the importance attached to education and the desire to improve the quality of education. According to Osakwe(2010), supervision is concerned with the provision of professional assistance and guidance to teachers and students geared towards the achievement of effective teaching and learning in the school. The principal as a supervisor provides a professional guidance to teachers in order to improve their competencies for effective teaching process to enhance the learning and growth of the students. The school principal in carrying out their duties assist the teachers to perform effectively in the areas of preparation of lesson plan and lesson notes before lesson delivery, good use of instructional methods and teaching aids, keeping and maintaining of school records, classroom management, among others. Through supervision the principal can provide meaningful feedback and direction to teachers that can have profound effect in the learning that occurs in the classroom.

Based on these, it has become vital that principals’ supervisory techniques be properly directed for effective/efficient job performance of teachers. This can only be possible through effective supervisory techniques. Fritz and Miller(2001) opined that, the responsibility of ensuring that effective teaching and learning take place and the extent to which instructional supervisors carry out their duties is by employing various techniques to enhance teachers’ job performance. Accordingly, Obi (2004) has outlined many strategies available for supervisors to help teachers improve on the job; and also to facilitate effective instruction in schools. Some of the strategies include self-appraisal method, micro-teaching, classroom visitation, clinical supervision, workshop, demonstration method among others. These methods provide feedback to the teacher on the various learning outcomes of the educational system, and also help to realize the goals of teaching and learning. This study is carried out to examine the relationship between principal use of workshop techniques, classroom visitation and teachers’ job performance.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

The ability of teachers to render co-operative effort willingly determines the extent to which secondary schools will achieve their goals and objectives. This is so because, it is the teacher on whose shoulder lay the actual work of pedagogy and the attainment of educational results. However, some teachers cannot perform their jobs creditably without being effectively supervised to ascertain whether their performance meet the required standard. Teachers in secondary schools in Langtang North are expected to prepare lesson notes, teach students, and evaluate students’ performance during and at the end of term. The extent to which teachers carry-out these functions depends on how effective their principals are performing their instructional supervisory roles. Such roles include checking on: teachers’ lesson notes, scheme of work, students’ attendance register, lesson delivery observation and others. It is observed in the study area that there is laxity on the part of teachersin their professional role performance. This laxity is mostly observed in public schools. Many teachers are merely staying on the job to look for better jobs outside. The constant cases of absenteeism, persistent lateness to school, irregular and unauthorized movement from duty post and other forms of indiscipline constitute a big problem to the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools. This study was carried out to establish if there is any relationship between administrator’s supervisory skills and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Langtang North Local Government Area.

1.3. Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose of this study is to make an evaluation of administrator’s supervisory skills and its influence on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Langtang North Local Government Area of Plateau State. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. To determine whether the principal always visits the classroom when teachers teach.
  2. To find out to what extent the administrator plans teachers development programme.
  3. To examine the extent to which the principal checks teachers’ professional records and induct.
  4. To evaluate the influence of administrator’s supervisory skills on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools.

1.4. Research Questions

            The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. Does the principal visit the classroom when teachers teach?
  2. To what extent does the administrator plan teachers’ development programme?
  • To what extent does the principal check teachers’ professional records and induct?
  1. What is the influence of administrator’s supervisory skills on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools?

1.5. Hypotheses

            The following null hypotheses were postulated:

H01: Principal does not always visit the classroom when teachers teach.

H02: The administrator does not plan teachers’ development programmes.

H03: The principal does not check teachers’ professional records and induct.

H04: Administrator’s supervisory skills have no influence on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools.

1.6. Significance of the Study

            The benefit of this study cannot be underemphasized. Therefore, this study shall be beneficial to the following educational stakeholders: administrators, teachers, students and future researchers.

            The administrators who are at the center of this research will benefit from it in such a way that they will come to know other supervisory skills which they are neglecting, they will as well understand the importance of these supervisory skills on the job performance of teachers. Therefore, they will employ all the supervisory skills in order enhance job performance of teachers in secondary schools.

            To the teachers, they will benefit from this study as they supervisory skills used by principals will bring out the best in them in terms of their job performance. They will further understand that the adoption of administrative supervisory skills is not to victimize, harass or make them uncomfortable, but to keep them on their toes.

            Students will get the best from their teachers, hence academic performance of students, especially in public schools will be boosted.

            Finally, the study when completed will be of benefit to future researchers as it will serve as reference materials for those who will wish to carry out further research in this area.

1.7. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

            The present study covers evaluation of administrator’s supervisory skills on teacher’s job performance in secondary schools. The study is restricted to selected secondary schools in Langtang North Local Government Area of Plateau State. Despite the fact that the study is limited to the selected schools and local government area, its findings will be applicable to other schools, towns and the country at large.

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

            The following terms are defined for a better understanding of the topic:

School Administrator: He/She is the head of a secondary school, entrusted with the overall supervision of the school; he/she is responsible for teachers’ professional development.

Professional development: It is a holistic process of equipping teachers with competence, skills, knowledge and right attitude that will lead to work efficiency.

Role: This refers to the administrative and managerial responsibilities that the principal has towards the growth of his/her teachers.

Secondary school: Educational institution that operates to provide formal instruction to young people within six years’ duration in the context of Nigeria.

Administrative Supervisory Skills: It refers to activities which the school principals carry out towards their teachers to offer specialized help and support in order to make teachers more effective in improving teaching and learning situation.

Teacher: A person who educates and manages all associated teaching activities in secondary schools; and who is under direct supervision of the school principal.


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