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1.1 Background of the study 

Education is regarded as a powerful instrument of social change and national development. This holds for all societies, developed and less developed to the extent that promoting and sustaining quality education are never left to chances. To this end, it is believed that the quality of life in the society can be greatly enhanced through education, hence the five main national goals of Nigeria, which have been endorsed as the necessary foundation for the National Policy on Education (FRN 2013) are the building of: (a) a free and democratic society (b) a just and egalitarian society (c) a united, strong and self-reliant nation (d) a great and dynamic economy and a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens. According to Esene and Mgbonyebi (2015) one of the national education goals is principally the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to leave in, and contribute to the development of the society. The National Policy on education emphasized the role of entrepreneurship development education in National Development by stating  that  education  is  the  most  important  instrument  for  propelling  change,  as  no fundamental change can occur in any society except through educational revolution that impart on the intellect (FRN, 2012).

The system of education inherited from the colonial masters is a clear departure from the traditional or informal education where ethical principles, religious beliefs and various occupations were taught according to Ifemeje in Oduma (2012).  Oduma positel that at independence, the country inherited a subservient type of education system meant only to provide and serve the needs of the colonial administration. Olu-obafemi and Onajinrin (2014) and Akahuemonkhan, Raimu and Sofoluwe (2013) asserted that the colonial education policy centered on the production of literate nationals who were required to occupy position which would strengthen the colonial administration. According to Esene and Mgbonyebi (2015), our educational  institutions,  few  as  they  were,  remained  factories  for  producing  clerks, interpreters,  forest  guards  and  sanitary  inspectors  as  no  special  professional  nor entrepreneurial skills was envisaged in the educational system. 

Consequently,  the  dysfunctional  education  that  is  devoid  of  entrepreneurial  skill acquisition  therefore  laid  foundations  of  militia  agitation  as  unemployment  dominates national  discourse.  Already,  the  rising  unemployment  rate  in  the  last  couple  of  years, particularly among graduates, is believed to be largely responsible for the rising violent crimes and widespread feeling of insecurity in the country. Today, kidnapping, advance fee fraud, otherwise called 419, armed robbery, prostitution, cultism, riots, protest, drug and child trafficking among others; have become the order of the day.

Worried by the high rate of graduate unemployment which has been put at 1.8millions yearly as postulated by (Esene, 2015) the presidency in 2006, directed all higher educational institutions in Nigeria to include on its curriculum of studies, Entrepreneurship Development Education (EDE) as a compulsory course for all students with effect from the 2007/2008 academic session irrespective of students areas of study. The need for entrepreneurial education was equally emphasized by Oduma (2012), who asserted that “because of the unprecedented increasing number of graduates without corresponding vacancies, government felt that entrepreneurship education is very necessary to make the large scale number of graduate self-reliant. Presently, Entrepreneurship Development Education has been gradually accepted as unique courses now offered and taught among higher educational institutions in Nigeria aimed at equipping students with skills and competencies to make them self-reliant and employer of labour on graduation. 

Entrepreneurship today is therefore enjoying a great deal of attention in various colleges of education in Nigeria. At  the  moment,  in  the  department  of  Office  technology  and Management programme run  by  some  institutions  in  Nigeria,  particularly  colleges of education, Introduction to Business and Small Scale Business management are taught along with the three Entrepreneurship Development Education Courses, viz: BED 126 – Introduction to Entrepreneurship; BED  216  Office  Practice.  All these are aimed towards the acquisitions of practicable skills and office competencies for self-reliant. Okolocha and Ile (2011) observed that the attempt of various governments in the past, to eradicate poverty and increase the standard of living of citizens through the establishment of Poverty Alleviation programmes have failed due to lack of entrepreneurship skills by students of the education system. The authors prudently observed that millions of jobs are waiting to be done because people with the right education and training cannot be found. This corroborates the result of a study carried out by the National University commission (NUC) as reported in Mebane (2006) in Ejeka & Mgbonyebi (2016). The findings of the study revealed that colleges of education in Nigeria do not sufficiently and adequately prepare students to be self-reliant. It is therefore in view of the above that this study is been carried out to find out what Office Technology and Management programme is and to x-ray the Entrepreneurship skills require by students the self-reliance on graduation.

1.2 Statement of Problem

It has been discovered over the years that Nigerians has been working tirelessly to reduced unemployment and youth redundancy. Several policies aimed at capacity building and utilization has been introduced by both civilians and military government.

Entrepreneurship Education has been receiving increasing recognition as a source skills acquisition, job creation, and empowerment for the unemployed and economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world. But despite this, it has been observed that there are several challenges or obstacles that hinder entrepreneurship education in Nigeria they include: lack of qualified entrepreneurship teachers to impart the required skills and knowledge to the students, inadequate facilities and equipment for learning, poor societal attitude to technical  and vocational education development, unavailability of fund for young entrepreneurs to start and run their own business, rampant political and bureaucratic corruption together  with absence of social consensus on important macroeconomic policy issues, significant infrastructural deficits especially with regards to roads and electricity and systematic irregularities inimical to small businesses among others. It is based on the foregoing that the study was undertaken.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study is to identify the entrepreneurship skills required by student of office technology and management for self reliant, specifically the study seek to:

  1. determine the managerial skill required by office technology and management students for self reliant.
  2. verify the technical skill required by office technology and management students for self reliant.
  3. ascertain the marketing skill required by office technology and management students for self reliant.
  4. examine the ICT skills required by office technology and management student for self reliant.
  5. determine the accounting skills required by office technology and management students for self-reliant.


 1.4   Researcher Questions

To facilitate this research work, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. What are the managerial skills required by office technology and management students for self reliant?
  2. What are the technical skills required by office technology and management students for self reliant?
  • What are the marketing skills required by office technology and management students for self reliant?
  1. What are the ICT skills required by office technology and management student for self reliant?
  2. What are the accounting skills required by office technology and management students for self-reliant?

1.5       Research Hypothesis

In order to test and ascertain the degree of credibility of this project, pertinent null hypothesis is post as thus:

Ho:      there is no any significance relationship between managerial skills and students for self-reliant

1.6Significance of the Study

This research work would be of significance to the students, teachers, parents, community and researchers.

To Students: it would enlighten them about the importance of entrepreneurship education in boosting them academically, and provide them with knowledge and skills of being self-reliant after graduation.

To lecturers: it would give them a foresight on the need to lay more emphasis on entrepreneurship education through skill acquisition for their students, children and wards.

To Parents: it would encourage them to see the need to motivate their children and wards to acquire entrepreneurship education skills and also enlighten them about the relevance of entrepreneurship education to the child and the economy.

To Community: it would assist in improving the standard of living of the community members through increased productivity and also attract investors through the skills.

To National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) information gathered on findings on entrepreneurship skills would help National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) in improving the curriculum and other general polices guiding the study of office technology and management in Nigerian colleges of education.

Finally, to future researchers, it would serve as a vital document for any person who may wish to research on this topic for reference purposes.


The scope of this research work covers on the entrepreneurship skills of the OTM students in federal College of Education Pankshin Plateau State and its contributions towards self reliance. It also covers the various programmes and measures put in place by government in implementing the policy on the teaching of entrepreneurship in Nigeria Colleges of Education (NCE two business educations 2017/2018 academic session of Federal college of Education Pankshin)


Entrepreneurship: is the ability to create new ideas, products or services for personal; self-reliance and to meet the needs of the society.

Entrepreneurship Education: is act of training an individual to acquire knowledge and skills to create new ideas, products or services of personal self-reliance and to meet the need of the society.

Skills: is define as a learned responses, often as a result of specific training which afford someone the ability to perform a particular task and achieve a particular objective.

 Office: Office is any place where business, clerical and professional activities take place.

Office Technology:  involves the use of new inventions or devices in an office to transform, or change the process of office work. It is this rapid change in the technology of office work through the use of machines to do the work that was previously done by hand that explains what we call office technology/automation.

Management: Management is an executive ability to handle a business.  Hence, office management is the administrative handling, controlling and maintaining a balanced process of work inside the office of an organization whether big or small, which is necessary to achieve the best service it can provide to the people who will receive a great benefit.

Office Technology Management: Office Technology and Management is a specialized phase of vocational education that prepares students to enter teaching and office occupations as capable and intelligent members of the labour force. 

  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below

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