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Writing is an essential form of human communication that encompasses the expression of thoughts, ideas, and information through the medium of written language. It serves as a powerful tool for capturing and preserving knowledge, documenting history, sharing experiences, and fostering meaningful connections between individuals and societies. Writing involves the deliberate arrangement of words, sentences, and paragraphs to convey meaning and evoke emotions. It enables individuals to articulate complex concepts, engage in critical thinking, and explore their creativity. Writing can take various forms, including academic essays, creative literature, professional reports, persuasive arguments, and personal reflections. It requires a blend of technical skills, such as grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure, as well as the ability to organise thoughts coherently and tailor the message to the intended audience. According to Ristow (2014) effective writing not only conveys information accurately but also engages and captivates the reader through compelling storytelling, persuasive reasoning, and vivid descriptions. It encourages self-expression, self-reflection, and the development of a unique writing voice. Writing is a process that involves brainstorming, outlining, drafting, revising, and editing, allowing writers to refine their ideas and refine their message over time. It also necessitates careful attention to clarity, coherence, and precision to ensure that the intended meaning is accurately conveyed. In the digital age, writing has evolved to encompass various platforms, including blogs, social media, emails, and online publications, expanding its reach and influence.

Essay writing is a structured and analytical form of written communication that allows individuals to explore and present ideas, arguments, and information in a cohesive and persuasive manner. Essays serve as a fundamental genre of academic and intellectual discourse, requiring a thoughtful and systematic approach to research, analysis, and organisation. According to Paul (2021) the process of essay writing involves several key components, including selecting a topic, conducting research, formulating a thesis statement, developing an outline, drafting the essay, revising and editing for clarity and coherence, and finally, presenting a well-crafted and cohesive piece of writing. Essays provide an opportunity for individuals to demonstrate their understanding of a subject, critically evaluate different perspectives, and engage with relevant literature and evidence. They require the integration of personal insights with scholarly sources and the application of logical reasoning to support the main arguments or claims.

Effective essay writing involves clear and concise writing style, proper use of grammar and punctuation, and adherence to the specific formatting and citation guidelines of the chosen academic or professional discipline. Essays can take various forms, such as argumentative, persuasive, descriptive, expository, or narrative, each with its own purpose and structure. Successful essays not only present coherent and well-supported arguments but also demonstrate an understanding of the topic’s broader context and implications. Essay writing cultivates critical thinking skills, encourages intellectual curiosity, and fosters the ability to communicate complex ideas effectively. It promotes the development of research skills, the evaluation of evidence, and the synthesis of information from diverse sources (Paul, 2021). Moreover, essays serve as a means for individuals to express their unique perspectives, creativity, and voice, allowing for personal and intellectual growth. In academia, essays play a crucial role in assessing students’ knowledge, comprehension, and analytical skills, while in professional settings, they are utilized to communicate ideas, propose solutions, and contribute to meaningful discussions.

Teaching essay writing involves a range of effective methods that can help students develop their writing skills. First, providing explicit instruction on essay structure and organisation is crucial. Teachers can introduce students to the components of a well-structured essay, such as the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion, and teach them how to create a clear thesis statement and topic sentences. Second, modeling and demonstrating the writing process can be helpful (Adewoyin, 2016). Teachers can showcase the step-by-step process of brainstorming ideas, outlining, drafting, revising, and editing. This allows students to observe effective writing strategies in action and understand the importance of multiple drafts and revisions. Third, incorporating peer collaboration and feedback into the writing process is valuable. Group discussions, peer editing, and peer review sessions enable students to receive constructive criticism, exchange ideas, and improve their writing through collaborative learning. Fourth, integrating technology can enhance essay writing instruction. Online resources, writing software, and interactive writing platforms can provide students with immediate feedback, grammar and spell-check tools, and visual aids to support their learning. Fifth, promoting writing workshop approach can improve students’ vocabulary, language skills, and exposure to different writing styles and genres, which in turn can enhance their essay writing abilities. Again, providing regular practice and opportunities for writing, both in-class and as homework assignments, is essential.

The writing workshop approach is an instructional method that emphasizes student-centered learning and active engagement in the writing process. It is a collaborative and interactive approach where students work on their writing projects in a supportive and structured environment. The writing workshop typically involves multiple stages, including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. During each stage, students receive guidance, feedback, and support from their peers and the teacher. The approach encourages students to explore their ideas, develop their writing skills, and take ownership of their work (Mdodana-Zide & Mafugu, 2023). It promotes a growth mindset, as students learn to view writing as a process that can be improved through practice and revision. The writing workshop approach also fosters a sense of community and collaboration, as students share their work, provide constructive feedback to their peers, and learn from each other’s writing experiences.

The implementation of the writing workshop approach has several positive effects on essay writing among senior secondary school students. Firstly, the approach promotes a growth mindset and encourages students to view writing as a process rather than a fixed skill. This mindset empowers students to take risks, experiment with different writing techniques, and revise their work with the understanding that improvement is possible. As a result, students become more open to feedback and constructive criticism, leading to enhanced essay writing skills. Secondly, the writing workshop approach fosters a supportive and collaborative learning environment. Through peer sharing and feedback sessions, students have the opportunity to learn from their classmates’ writing experiences and gain insights into different writing styles and approaches. This collaborative aspect allows students to develop a deeper understanding of effective writing strategies and learn from their peers’ successes and challenges (Galle, Alaku & Paul, 2020). It also cultivates a sense of community and active engagement in the writing process. Furthermore, the writing workshop approach emphasizes the importance of revision and editing. Students are encouraged to revise their essays based on feedback received from their peers and the teacher. This iterative process of revision helps students refine their ideas, clarify their arguments, and improve the overall structure and coherence of their essays. It instills in students the understanding that writing is a dynamic and ongoing process that requires continuous refinement and improvement. Moreover, the writing workshop approach provides ample opportunities for individualized instruction and support. Teachers can provide personalized feedback and guidance to students based on their specific writing needs and challenges. This targeted support enables students to address their weaknesses and further develop their strengths in essay writing. The individualized attention and guidance promote a deeper understanding of writing concepts and facilitate the acquisition of advanced writing skills.


Senior secondary school students should exhibit exceptional proficiency in essay writing. They should be capable of constructing well-organised, coherent, and thought-provoking essay that not only showcase their understanding of academic subjects but also prepare them for higher education and future academic and professional success. The reality paints a different picture. Many senior secondary school students in Nigeria struggle with essay writing. A substantial proportion of senior secondary school students appear to be struggling with fundamental aspects of essay writing. WAEC Chief Examiner’s report of 2022 indicated that 76.36% of students passed with credit in five subjects including Mathematics and English but most students failed English language because they could not express themselves in writing (Samaila, 2022). Whether it’s forming coherent arguments, organising thoughts logically, using appropriate vocabulary, or following standard grammatical rules, many students are falling short of expectations. This situation is not just a matter of individual failure; it reflects a systemic issue that affects the entire educational landscape of the country. Their essays often lack structure, clarity, and depth, indicating a significant gap in their writing skills and the need for targeted intervention.

Educators and institutions have made concerted efforts to address the issue of mass failure in essay writing. They have implemented various teaching methodologies and strategies to enhance students’ essay writing capabilities. These strategies include traditional classroom instruction, writing workshops, and the incorporation of technology into the learning process. Despite these well-intentioned efforts, the problem of subpar essay writing skills among senior secondary school students has proven to be persistent. Many students continue to struggle, failing to meet academic standards and failing to grasp the full potential of their education (Abbass, 2019). The repercussions of this problem are multifaceted. Individual students experience diminished self-confidence and academic frustration, leading to a potential erosion of their enthusiasm for learning. Furthermore, the overall academic performance of these students may suffer, limiting their future educational and career opportunities.

Given the urgency of the situation, this research endeavors to provide a solution-oriented approach. The aim is to investigate whether implementing the innovative writing workshop approach can offer a more effective means of addressing the longstanding challenge of poor essay writing skills among senior secondary school students in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. While educational professionals have made efforts to enhance essay writing skills, there exists a notable gap in understanding the specific impact of the writing workshop approach in the context of Pankshin Local Government Area, Plateau State. Previous research in the region has not extensively explored this strategy’s potential benefits in improving essay writing proficiency among senior secondary school students. This study seeks to examine the effects of the writing workshop approach on senior secondary school students’ achievement in essay writing in Pankshin Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria.


The aim of this study is to examine the effects of writing workshop approach on senior secondary school students’ achievement in essay writing in Pankshin Local Government Area. The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. To assess the difference in performance between students exposed to the writing workshop approach and those not exposed to it in terms of organization in essay writing.
  2. To examine the difference in performance between students exposed to the writing workshop approach and those not exposed to it in terms of content development in essay writing.
  3. To investigate the difference in performance between students exposed to the writing workshop approach and those not exposed to it in terms of mechanical accuracy in essay writing.
  4. To explore the difference in performance between students exposed to the writing workshop approach and those not exposed to it in terms of idea expression in essay writing.


The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. What is the difference in performance of students who were exposed to writing workshop approach and those not exposed to it in organization?
  • What is the difference in the performance of students who were exposed to writing workshop approach and those who were not exposed to it in content?
  • What is the difference in the performance of students who were exposed to writing workshop approach and those who were not exposed to it in mechanical accuracy?
  • What is the difference in the performance of students who were exposed to writing workshop approach and those who were not exposed to it in idea expression?


Hopefully, senior secondary school students in Pankshin Local Government Area will benefit from this study. By implementing effective writing workshop strategies, students can improve their essay writing skills, critical thinking abilities, and overall academic achievement. The findings of the study can provide students with a practical approach to enhance their writing proficiency. By actively participating in writing workshops, students can develop their ability to express ideas coherently, engage in meaningful dialogue, and think critically about their writing. This can empower them to excel academically and succeed in their future educational endeavors.

It is hoped that teachers in the region will benefit from the research findings by gaining insights into innovative teaching methods. They can use the results to enhance their instructional strategies, leading to improved student performance. The study’s findings can provide teachers with evidence-based guidance on incorporating writing workshops as a pedagogical tool for essay writing instruction. This knowledge can inspire them to adopt more interactive and student-centered teaching approaches, fostering a stimulating learning environment. By implementing effective writing workshop strategies, teachers can engage students actively, encourage collaborative learning, and ultimately enhance the quality of education in the region.

School administrators and principals may find value in the study’s outcomes as they seek ways to improve the quality of education in their institutions. They can use the research to make informed decisions regarding curriculum development and resource allocation. The findings of the study can provide administrators with insights into the effectiveness of the writing workshop approach in improving students’ essay writing skills. Armed with this knowledge, they can support and promote the integration of writing workshops into the curriculum. Additionally, the study can inform decisions about allocating resources, such as training teachers on effective implementation of writing workshops, to further enhance educational outcomes.

Educational policymakers at the state and national levels can potentially use the research findings to inform policy decisions. Hopefully, the study will contribute to discussions on educational reforms and strategies for enhancing students’ writing skills. The findings can provide policymakers with evidence of the benefits of incorporating interactive strategies, like writing workshops, in essay writing instruction. This can influence policy decisions related to curriculum development, teacher training programs, and overall educational reforms. By recognizing the value of innovative teaching methods, policymakers can contribute to improving the educational landscape and fostering better writing skills among students.

Parents and guardians of students in Pankshin Local Government Area will hopefully benefit indirectly from the study as their children’s academic performance improves. They can play a supportive role in implementing the strategies recommended by the research. By being aware of the benefits of writing workshops in essay writing, parents and guardians can encourage their children to actively engage in classroom discussions and provide them with opportunities to practice their writing skills at home. This collaborative effort between parents, students, and teachers can create a conducive learning environment and support the academic growth of students.

The broader community in Pankshin Local Government Area may benefit from this study if improved education leads to a more educated and informed populace. This can have positive ripple effects on social and economic development. As students develop their essay writing skills through writing workshops, they can become effective communicators and critical thinkers. This can contribute to informed decision-making, community engagement, and the overall growth and development of the local area. A population equipped with strong writing skills can drive positive change and contribute to the progress of the community.

Hopefully, the study will inspire future researchers to explore similar topics or expand upon the findings. This can contribute to the body of knowledge on effective teaching strategies and their impact on student achievement. The study’s outcomes can serve as a springboard for further research, such as investigating the long-term effects of writing workshops on students’ writing skills or exploring the effectiveness of other innovative instructional strategies. By building upon the findings of this study, future researchers can deepen our understanding of effective teaching practices and contribute to the continuous improvement of education.


This study covers the effects of writing workshop approach on senior secondary school students’ achievement in essay writing in Pankshin LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study will focus on all public senior secondary school students within Pankshin LGA. The study will use only SS 2 students. The reason for choosing SS 2 is because they are not an examination.  The researcher did not choose the SS 1 students because they are just coming into the senior category therefore, they are not yet well-grounded. The SS 3 students are examination class, therefore, the researcher will not want to interrupt their preparations. The study will focus on SS 2 because it will serve as preparation for them when they get to SS 3, they will be better grounded in essay writing.

In the scope of the work, the study will focus only on certain aspects of writing which are organization, content development, mechanical accuracy and idea expression Despite the clear scope, there are certain delimitations that should be acknowledged. Geographically, the study is limited to Pankshin LGA in Plateau State, Nigeria and may not be directly generalized to other regions or educational contexts without considering the unique characteristics of the area. The sample size will be limited to one hundred(100) senior secondary school students from two(2) schools, which may not represent the entire population of senior secondary school students in the area. While efforts will be made to ensure a diverse sample, the findings should be interpreted with caution and not extrapolated to all students in Pankshin LGA, Plateau State.

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  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
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