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Cover Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration Page – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication Page – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement Page – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii

1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 4
1.3 Purpose of the study – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.6 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope / Delimitation of the Study – — – – – 7
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 7

2.1 Origin and definition of feminism – – – – – 9
2.2 Some feminist perspectives – – – – – – 13
2.2.1 Mainstream Feminism – – – – – – 13
2.2.2 Black and Womanist – – – – – – – 14
2.2.3 Cultural Feminism – – – – – – – 15
2.2.4 Radical Feminism – – – – – – – 15
2.3 Feminist writers and feminism in literature – – – – 16
2.3.1 Feminism in Literature – – – – – – 16
2.3.2 Feminist Writers – – – – – – – 18
2.4 Some “Ridiculous” and “Radical” feminist Thoughts – – 20
2.4 Summary of literature review – – – – – – 23

3.1 Research design – – – – – – – 25
3.2 Area of the study – – – – – – – 25
3.3 Population of the study – – – – – – 25
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – 26
3.4.1 Sample size – – – – – – – – 26
3.4.2 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – 26
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – 26
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument – – – – 26
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – 27
3.8 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 28

4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 29
4.1 Mode of Data Presentation / Result – – – – – 29
4.2 Restatement of Research Questions – – – – – 29
4.3 Presentation of Results – – – – – – 30
4.4 Discussion of the Findings – – – – – – 41

5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – 44
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 45
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 45
References – – – – – – – – 48
Appendices – – – – – – – – 50



Feminism has risen to become one of the most influential social philosophies of our time. Feminists’ sentiments now permeate all areas of human endeavor. This can be seen especially in the gender sensitivity of children of secondary school going age. The extent to which such sub-feminist philosophies as radical feminism impacts on these children as is being taught through the instrumentality of literature is being examined here. The study answers such questions as whether or not there is a prevailing feeling that women are being marginalized in the Nigerian society, whether or not there is a need for continued feminist education and more importantly, how the teaching of radical feminist ideas impact the Nigerian youths especially those of secondary school going age. The study therefore is a survey of some selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area. The sample was exposed to teach Bessie Head’s The Collector of Treasures after which their opinion was sought on issues bothering the questions raised. It was found that there is a need for continued feminist education as there is a strong feeling that women are being marginalized. The responses gathered also revealed that exposing students to radical feminist ideas such as those contained in Bessie Head’s The Collector of Treasures has a strong tendency to make them radical feminists too. The study thus recommends amongst others, that feminism and feminist ideas must be taught through literature however, the materials of literature to be so used must be carefully selected.



1.1 Background to the Study
The gender debate is one age long debate whose end is as yet not in sight. The polarization of humanity into male and female, man and woman, boy and girl has since grown beyond the physical and biological structural differences that make up the male and female sub- species of human beings. after all, these features are natural and thus irreversible. However, the roles that the human socio-cultural, political and even economic and religious societies have come to assign to people for no other reason than they are “male” and “female” has caused limitless suspicion and without ceaseless strife and friction between the male and the female world population. This strife is for the seeking and observance of gender equality. This campaign has been and is still being championed by women cutting across different aspects of human endeavour and ages.
The championing of the gender fight by women is perhaps unsurprising since the woman folk is understood to be more exploited of the two. This is further strengthened by the institutional backing that this marginalization of the woman folk has enjoyed. A quick look at some of these institutions and their teachings lays credence to this claim.
Firstly, religion as an institution cannot be said to have helped the woman to gain equality with the man. a look at the two dominant world religions – Christianity and Islam – will reveal that the woman is taught to be a subordinate to the man. The man is regarded as the head of the home and as it is prevalent in Islam, the man can go on to marry as many wives as he can. The woman on the other hand has just one defining duty; to be submissive to, and treat her husband as her lord.
Economically, men are more favored to own and manage the factors of production to include land, labour, and capital. Until recently, it is almost abominable for a woman to amass wealth of her own. And even now, the woman who has rises to wealth by her own inclination is most often thought to have done so through shameful means by the community.
Politically, women make the most impact by going out en-mass to vote for their male counter-parts. Until very recently, women could not think of themselves worthy to run for political offices against men. The Liberian former president Ellen Johnson Sirleaf remains the only woman in Africa, and one of a negligible few in the world to have occupied the number one position in a country. in Nigeria, that may take forever to happen. But perhaps what is more embarrassing is the vigour with which Nigerian women pursue if not beg, for the 35% affirmative action. The 35% affirmative action is a legislation that says women should make at least 35% of political appointees by the state and federal government. “why not 50% affirmative? You may choose to ask. “Because women are subordinate to men” , seems the most likely answer. Interestingly, no government has lived up to this legislation in truth.
Educationally, women were left out in those days because most parents believed that the life of the girl child ends in another man’s house and also do not see the need of sending the girl-child to school. Also in a man’s house, the woman space is restricted to the spheres of reproduction and household tasks, no matter her level of education they say “women’s education end in the kitchen”
Also in the classroom where there should exist democratic values and freedom among both boys and girls, boys are socialized to look down upon girls and to view them as inferior and not capable of making decisions or take up challenges. No wonder the status of women all over the world is a cause for grave concern. Women in all societies experience various forms of discrimination and oppression, they are singled out for one form of oppression or the other.
Theses instances are in exhaustible, whether they are justifiable or not is another matter entirely. But what is of interest to us now is the position that women and some men too have taken now, that the woman must be seen as and treated as an equal of the man. Thisis feminism. However passing this feminist philosophy on is one that come with a myriad of challenges. And the woman folk does not seem to have come to an agreement about the nature and form that the man-woman relationship will take. Some women have extreme views of feminism and this has impacted the gender sensitivity of humanity. The nature of this impact as it regards radical feminism is what this study has set out to investigate.
1.2Statement of the problem
All over the world, there is a somewhat rapid acceptance of feminism and its gender equality gospel. Individuals, religious, civil society and political groups among others are spreading the word, the philosophy, that men and women are created equally and also must be treated equally also. The problem however is, how are they really “preaching this gospel?”
Furthermore, the “gospel” itself is not one and the same. The message in some quarters is liberal. The teaching is that it is wrong or better put. It will be wrong to deprive people certain rights/privileges for no more reason that they are women.
On the other hand, some of those messages are extreme, if not brutal. These are extreme views. They call on the women to take up arms if necessary to fight any and all men that stand on their path.
Interestingly both of these variants of the same philosophy with their various sub-forms have continued to permit the society and are being choked down the throat of the young who are growing into the world of the adult with all its myriads problems. The bigger problem is the question of the impact of some of these sub-philosophies of feminism. When some literatures teach radical/extreme feminism, how do they young actually accept these views and how do they go on to influence their “adult” life?
1.3 Purpose of the study.
The purpose of this study is to find the effects of teaching radical feminism to SS 3 students in Pankshin LGA through prose using Bassie Head’s The Collector of Treasure. Other purposes include:
a. To find out if there is any prevailing feeling that women are being marginalized in Nigeria.
b. To find out if there is a need for the teaching of gender equality principles in Nigeria.
c. To establish how the teaching of radical feminist ideas impacts on the Nigerian youth especially those of secondary school going age.
1.4 Research Questions
This research is guided by the following question;
a. To what extent can it be said that women are marginalized in Nigeria?
b. To what exent can the need for gender equality be necessary in schools?
c. How is the teaching of radical feminist ideas impacting the Nigerian youths especially, those of secondary school going age?
1.5 Significance of the study
The success of teaching and learning profession and its overall attainment of educational goals is greatly dependent on the availability of qualitative materials. These materials serve both as reference and instructional materials. Therefore, stakeholders in the business of education will find this research work a significant contribution on the academic discourse on the issues raised in this research namely, feminism, literature and teaching.
Also, it is expected,
a. to serve as a reference material to relevant stakeholders in education.
b. to benefit decision and policy makers on the place of literature education in propagating feminist sentiments in schools.
c. to serve as a study material that both staff and students can use to increase their knowledge on issues discussed.
d. to inform the society on women agitation for equal right so that radicalism will not tilled extremism.
1.6 Theoretical Framework
This study takes a critical look at issues related to gender particularly those about women. This qualifies it as a feminist inclined work. Bassie Head’s text, The Collector of Treasure, which is used as to test the impact of teaching radical feminism is in itself a feminist text. Therefore, as a research work from the feminist theoretical perspective, this study shall judge issues with such feminist sentiments as the need for gender equality and an increased recognition of women in the society.

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
This research is limited to finding out effects of teaching radical feminism to senior secondary school students three using Beasie Heads’ Collector of Treasures. The research shall cover Pankshin Local Government Area. However, the findings of the research will be generic as it can be generalized to other parts of the country as well.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as they relate to the study.
1.8.1 Impact
A significant or strong influence; an effect.
1.8.2 Radical
Favoring fundamental change or change at the root cause of a mater; thorough going.
1.8.3 Feminism
A social theory or political movement arguing that legal and social restrictions on females must be moved in order to bring about private life.
1.8.4 Gender
The biological sex of an individual (usually male or female and sometimes inter sex)

1.8.5 Sensitivity
The quality of being sensitive; the ability of an organization or organ to respond to external stimuli.

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