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  • Background to the Study

The goal of reading is to construct meaning based on visually encoded information. Those who enjoy reading derive pleasure and satisfaction from it. Adigun and Oyelude (2003) observed that the skill of reading will not only assist learners in organizing their thoughts and jotting down important facts while reading, but also equip them to comprehend the entire text. Rivers (2011) argued that reading is the most important activity in any language class, not only as a source of information and pleasurable activity, but also as a means of consolidating and extending one’s knowledge of the language. Reading, like listening, is a receptive skill and it is also productive when it is done aloud (Olaofe & Masembe, 2006). According to Longe and Ojo (2006) reading is the ability to transform the visual representation of language into meaning. Therefore, it is an active process (not a product like history) in which readers shift between sources of information.

According to Harris (2000), the message in the printed text is not something given in advance – or given at all – but something created by the interaction between the writer and the reader as participants in a particular communicative situation. Smith (2007) saw reading as asking questions of printed text and reading with comprehension becomes a matter of getting your questions answered. This means reading is a thinking process which requires readers to understand and perhaps to use different skills in gaining information from a text such as inferring, questioning, predicting, and drawing conclusions. Reading involves many complex skills that have to come together for a reader to be successful. For example, proficient readers recognize the purpose for reading and approach the reading with that purpose in mind. Furthermore, they use strategies that have proven successful to them in the past when they read similar texts for similar purposes. While doing this, they monitor their comprehension of the text in light of the purpose for reading, and if needed adjust their strategy use. When unknown words arise and their meaning is needed for comprehension, proficient readers have a number of word attack strategies available to allow them interpret the meaning of the words to enable them achieve the purpose for reading.

A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn. In today’s school the trend is that it encourages a lot of creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity.

The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered. In a teacher-centered approach to learning, teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as “empty vessels” whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments. According to Jindem (2017) in Student-Centered Approach to Learning, while teachers are the authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher’s primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and assessments are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction. To Barone (2013) the commonly used teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, or combinations of these.

Various teaching methods are used for instruction in the teaching of reading comprehension. These teaching methods have been summarized into Expository, Practical or Activity Oriented and Constructivism (Okoye & Okechukwu, 2006). Expository methods according to Nwokenna (2010) which include lecture method, demonstration, project, field trip and discussion methods. They concentrate on presentation of concepts, facts and principles by the teacher while the students are merely asked to listen and take notes.

  • Statement of the Problem

Reading comprehension deficiency appears to affect performance in all other academic subjects. Some problems experienced by some students with reading disabilities include: omitting letters, syllables or words; inserting extra letters, words or sound; substituting words that look or sound similar; mispronouncing words; repeating words and using improper inflection during oral reading. Elementary classroom teachers, reading teachers, special education teachers and secondary school teachers need knowledge about adequate reading comprehension teaching method.

The role of self-questioning strategy in reading comprehension passages among Nigerian senior secondary school students is obvious. The problem under consideration in this study is the effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ reading comprehension achievement of senior secondary school II students in Pankshin Local Government Area. The researcher wonders if self-questioning strategy is used in teaching reading for comprehension as it seems there is no time allocated for it even though there is time for reading comprehension.

Again, interaction with some teachers of English language in some secondary schools in Pankshin shows that they hardly use self-questioning strategy in a lesson. It is based on this that Adeniji (2010) says that some English teachers are lagging behind in their approach to teaching reading comprehension and the effect is poor performance among students. This study desires to bring to light the main objectives of teaching reading comprehension using self-questioning strategy.

Also, many students are novice when it comes to knowing the best reading strategies that enhances their ability to comprehend a text adequately. Researchers also differ regarding the level or class appropriate for teachers to apply self-questioning strategy of teaching. The debate on the best reading comprehension strategy has made studies on self-questioning strategy not leading to a conclusion. This suggests the need for this study to empirically show whether self-questioning strategy enhances the performance of students in reading comprehension or not. Hence, this study wants to provide solutions to these controversies with the hope that it might bring a balanced in the strategies to employ when teaching reading comprehension using conventional method and self-questioning strategy.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effects of self-questioning strategy on Senior Secondary School II students’ learning of Reading Comprehension in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. Determine effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ learning of literal message in reading comprehension.
  2. Discover the effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ learning of relationship of thought in reading comprehension.
  • Find out the effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ learning of critical and referential thoughts in reading comprehension.
    • Research Questions

            The following questions have been raised to guide the study:

  1. What are the effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ learning of literal message in reading comprehension?
  2. What are the effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ learning of relationship of taught in reading comprehension?
  • What are the effects of self-questioning strategy on students’ learning of critical and referential thoughts in reading comprehension?
    • Research Hypotheses

            The following null hypotheses were postulated:

  1. Self-questioning strategy has no effects on students’ learning of literal message in reading comprehension.
  2. Self-questioning strategy has no effects on students’ learning of relationship of taught in reading comprehension.
  3. Self-questioning strategy has no effects on students’ learning of critical and referential thoughts in reading comprehension.
    • Significance of the Study

The benefits of this study cannot be overemphasized especially now that reading comprehension is more relevant than it used to be in the past as a result of the wake of technology and social media. Therefore, this study shall be beneficial to teachers, students, curriculum planners and future researchers.

This study is significant because teachers of English language at the senior secondary level seem to be confused concerning the best strategy for teaching reading comprehension. As such, the findings of this work could bring a better understanding of the strategy for teaching reading comprehension in Senior Secondary Schools.

Again, students’ ability in reading with understanding would be enhanced in English, together with other subjects, when they are taught using the right strategy. It would help students whose comprehension capacity is low, average or high because some useful reading strategies that would boost their comprehension abilities have been explained in details in the course of discussion. This is true because by the time students are exposed on how to draw inferences, predict or guess, generate questions from text; comprehension of a text would be achieved. Hand in hand with that, if the students are able to comprehend texts, they could interpret questions of tests and bring out meanings beyond the literal level. This would go a long way in helping them to come out with flying colours in the termly and the senior school certificate examinations.

Furthermore, the study would help examination bodies and curriculum planners, to design the curriculum that will reflect the objective and purpose of teaching reading comprehension with self-questioning strategy. This could bring about uniformity in the procedures of teaching reading comprehension passages using the curriculum of the senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area and the nation at large. Some areas in English language reading comprehension passages like vocabulary building, word matching or activating prior knowledge, to mention but a few, would immensely help the curriculum planners and examination bodies when setting examinations for the students if found to be effective.

The findings and discussions of the theoretical and practical implications from this study would contribute to researchers in second language learning as it relates to reading comprehension strategies.

  • Scope of the Study

            This study covers effects of self-questioning strategy on SS II students’ learning of reading comprehension. This study shall be restricted to two(2) selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Central. Only 100 SS II students will be used for the study. The aspects of reading comprehension that will be used are literal message in reading comprehension, relationship of thought in reading comprehension and critical and referential thoughts in reading comprehension. The study is restricted to selected secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government area of Plateau State.

  • Operational Definition of Terms

Self-questioning strategy:

Effects: This is a positive result of something.

Reading Comprehension: Reading comprehension is an intentional, active, interactive process that occurs before, during and after a person reads a particular piece of writing. It refers to constructing the meaning of the oral or written messages.

Inferential:  something that is inferred especially: a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence from reading comprehension.

Critical: Taking a detailed examination of reading comprehension passage.

Literal: This is the surface meaning of the massage the writer wants to pass across in a reading comprehension.

Thought: this is the idea or the theme of the comprehension passage.


  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
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