EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF ACADEMIC STAFF OF FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
EFFECTS OF PARENTS’ EDUCATION ON CHILDREN ENROLMENT INTO SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TELENGPAT COMMUNITY OF PUSHIT DISTRICT, MANGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This study was carried out to examine the effects of parents’ education on children enrolment into secondary schools in Telengpat community of Pushit District, Mangu LGA. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of all the parents in Mangu. There are 8 districts in Mangu Local Government Area with a population of 308,028 residents. The sample of the study were 200 respondents. The purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The simple percentage was used to compute the biodata of the respondents and the mean scores were used to analyse the responses of the respondents. The findings of the study revealed that the reasons why parents enrol their children in secondary schools include to reduce illiteracy, for effective communication skills, because it is the rights of the children, to improve learning skills and to enable them secure jobs. The challenges confronting the enrolment of children in secondary schools by their parents include shortage of fund, illiteracy of parents, lack of sensitiveness from the school system, socio-economic factors and lack of funds on the part of the parents are the challenges confronting the enrolment of children in secondary schools by their parents. In line with the findings, the following were recommended among others: parents should be made to understand the benefits of child enrolment in education, especially secondary schools, parents should be made to understand the benefits of child spacing on the educational attainment of their children.
- Background to the Study
Parents are the most immediate relation of a child. Their financial status and education do have an important influence on the personality of child. Educated parents can better understand the educational needs and their children’s aptitude. They can help their children in their early education which affects their proficiency in their relative area of knowledge. Belonging to strong financial background, parents can provide latest technologies and facilities in a best possible way to enhance educational capability of their children. Parental education and Socio-Economic factors are of vital importance in effecting students’ enrolment in school. They are like backbone in providing financial and mental confidence to students. Explicit difference can be observed between those students who belong to different financial status and different parental educational level.
A considerable literature has focused on the effects of parental background on such outcomes for their children as cognitive skills, education, health and subsequent income (Behrman (1997). There is little doubt that economic status is positively correlated across generations. Parents, and the family environment in general, have important impacts on the behavior and decisions taken by adolescents.
Educated parents are more likely to enroll their children in school at secondary school level because they usually show interest and care on their children’s academic achievements, choice of subjects and career (Suleman, 2012). Besides from actively involved in children’s education, educated parents provide suitable home environment for learning. They serve as a model for learning; determine the educational resources available in the home and develop particular attitudes and values among these children towards education (Jabor, 2011)
Parents’ level of education refers to scholastic attainment of mother and father in Schools/Colleges, which could play an important role in determining a child’s intellectual performance. It is, believed that parents’ educational level may be the main source of influence that determines a child’s educational enrolment (Plomin, Defies & McClean, 2010). Studies by Haveman and Wolfe (2005) have indicated that parents with higher educational level could motivate the intellectual potential within their children that may lead them to perform better in school and in return further their education. For example, parents’ educational level may foster higher parents’ involvement in adolescents’ school enrolment, which in turn may influence high school completion (Patrikakou, 2007). Educated parents were also found to be able to make constructive decisions, such as how much time to spend with their children, give their income and may decide on how much to give to their children’s education (Haveman & Wolfe 2005)
The view that more educated parents provide a “better” environment for their children has been the basis of many interventions. Moreover, while the scientific literature is not so clear, it is widely believed that while raising the education for mothers and fathers has broadly similar effects on household income, the external effects associated with education is larger for maternal education than for paternal because mothers tends to be the main provider of care within the household. For example, a positive relationship between mother’s education and child birth weight, which is a strong predictor of child health, is found not only in the developing world but also in the US (Currie and Moretti 2003). The existence of such externalities provides an important argument for subsidizing the education of children, especially in households with low income and/or low educated parents. Indeed, there may be multiplier effects since policy interventions that increase educational attainment for one generation may spillover onto later generations.
While the existence of intergenerational correlations is not disputed, the nature of the policy interventions that are suggested depends critically on the characteristics of the intergenerational transmission mechanism and the extent to which the correlation is causal. In particular, is has proved difficult to determine whether the transmission mechanism works through inherited genetic factors or environmental factors and, if it is the latter, what is the relative importance of education and income. For example, ability is positively associated with more schooling and ability may be partly transmitted from parents to children1. The link, therefore, between the schooling of parents and their children could be due to unobserved inherited characteristics rather than a causal effect of parental education per se in household production. A related issue is the extent to which any causal effect of education works through the additional household income associated with higher levels of education. That is, parental educations may be both direct inputs into the production function that generates child quality and may indirectly facilitate a higher quantity of other inputs through the effect of educational levels on household income.
A discussion of parental educational attainment cannot take place without considering family income levels. Keeping these factors separate is difficult because both are used as proxies for socioeconomic indicators. However, the factors can also be studied independently of one another. For example, parents’ educational attainment is independent of income because parents’ level of education may influence the value that parents place on education, which could, in turn, influence their children’s educational goals (Young & Smith, 2017).
School enrolment refers to the number of pupils/students that a school registered over a period of time (Obi, 2001). The author further state that enrolment determine the viability of a school, where the school enrolment is growing, there is hope of continuity, on the other hand, where there is steady decrease in enrolment, the school may fold up with time. In Nigeria, primary and secondary schools enrolment are categorized into male and female. In a school that is purely male school only boys are enrolled, while in the school that is purely female, only female pupils//students are enrolled. According to Oguche (2011) school enrolment can be positive or negative. It is positive when the enrolment is increasing, while it is negative, when it is decreasing. Positive school enrolment is desirable by all stakeholders in the education industry as this will guarantee continuity and bring about the attainment of stated educational objectives.
Many schools set enrolment goals overtime to ensure growth in enrolment and continuity in the school system. These goals can be attained through a combination of academic programmes, institutional academic plan, aggressive marketing of academic programmes, student services and institutional strategic plans.
It is in line with the above discussion that this study sets out to examine effects of parents’ education on children enrolment into secondary school schools in Telengpat Community of Pushit, Mangu Local Government Area.
- Statement of the Problem
The issues of children’s enrolment has become a necessity given the rate at which education has become important in modern society. Most researchers have investigated the influence of parental education on the academic achievement of their children, however, not much attention has been paid on how parental education status influences the school enrolment of children. It is with this in mind that the researcher has seen the need to investigate why parents fail to enrol their children in schools, why children enrol in cheap schools and the differential enrolment of children in private and public schools. This is done putting in mind how effective parents’ education impacts children enrolment.
- Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effects of parents’ education on children enrolment into secondary schools in Telengpat community of Pushit District, Mangu LGA. Other specific objectives of the study are:
- to examine the reason why parents enrol their children in school.
- to determine the extent to which parents enrol their children in secondary schools.
- to find out the challenges faced by parents in the course of enrolling their children in secondary school.
1.4. Research Question.
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- what are the reasons why parents enrol their children in secondary schools?
- to what extent do parents enrol their children in secondary schools?
iii. what are the challenges confronting the enrolment of children in secondary schools by their parents?
1.5. Significance of the Study
This study will be of benefit to parents, teachers, government, students and future researchers.
The parents will see the dire need to get themselves educated so that they will know the importance of education and use this measures to enrol their children in secondary schools. The parents will see the need to have positive attitudes enrolling their children in secondary schools.
Teachers who are charged with the responsibility of imparting knowledge on the learners will also find this study beneficial because they will see need to educate themselves more in order to serve as role models to the children they teach and their children at home.
The government will benefit from this as they will see the need of improving public schools so that children will be give the best of education. Furthermore, government will provide adequate facilities which will serve as teaching and learning equipments.
Students who are at the centre of this study will benefit from the study after adequate measures are taken by parents, teachers and government to boost their academic endeavours.
Finally, when this study is completed, it will serve as a reference material to future researchers who will want to carry out research under the same field. The study will add to the already existing body of literature on parents’ education and children enrolment.
1.6. Scope of the Study
This study covers effects of parents’ education on children enrolment in secondary schools. The study is restricted to Telengpart Community in Pushit, Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. The study shall draw respondents from only the district in order to get data. However, despite the fact that the is restricted to the selected district, the findings of the study will be generalised to other parts of Pushit and Mangu at large.
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms
Enrolment: This refers to the degree of attendance by an individual or group of individuals.
Parents’ Education: This refers to parents’ level of education or scholastic attainment of mother and father in Schools/Colleges, which could play an important role in determining a child’s educational enrolment.
Children Enrolment: This is the extent to which children attend schools. Children enrolment could be high or low depending on the how important parents deem education is for their children. Sometimes, the enrolment of children in school is hampard by finances.
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