EFFECTS OF ORAL DRILLS MEDIA ON THE PRONUNCIATION ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
EFFECTS OF ORAL DRILLS MEDIA ON THE PRONUNCIATION ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration Page – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page v- – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – ix
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
METHOD AND PROCEDURE
3.1 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – 31
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN – – – – – – 31
3.3 SAMPLE POPULATION – – – – – – 32
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES – – – – – – 32
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION- – – – 33
3.5.1 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT – 33
3.6 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION – – – – 33
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS – – – – – 34
PRESENTATION OF DATA AND DISCUSSION
4.1 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – 31
4.2 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS – – 31
4.3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING – – – – – 52
4.4 DISCUSSION – – – – – – – – 53
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS – – – – – – 55
5.2 CONCLUSION – – – – – – – – 56
5.3 RECOMMENDATION – – – – – – – 57
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – 58
APPENDICES – – – – – – – – 63
This project was carried out in order to find out the effect of oral drill media on the pronunciation of students in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. The research design used for the study was quasi experimental design. The instrument used for the collection of data was the test. Samples of 30 students were used as the control and experimental group. The test was developed by the researcher using the vowel sounds of English from the class textbook which was made up of ten(10) questions. A total number of thirty(30) students comprising of male and females at Trinity Missionary College Pankshin were used. The researcher discovered that there is a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught oral English using the oral drill medium and those taught without it. Therefore, there is indeed a significant relationship between oral drill media and effective teaching and learning of oral English. In the strength of the findings, the researcher recommends that teachers of English language should adopt the pronunciation for the purpose of clarity of understanding, retention and high achievement in the pronunciation of students, teachers of English language should also be exposed to seminars and workshops which will equip them with the needed skills in the operation and use of audio-visual materials in teaching, teachers of English language should also use instructional materials in every English language lesson and make sure that every student comes to the class with the required textbook for the subject, parents should be enlightened during P.T.A meetings on the educational importance of the availability of audio-visual materials in their homes such as the record player, radio, television, computer, etc. This can encourage self-learning in children, curriculum planners should adopt audio-visual materials for the teaching of English language, the government on its own part should provide aids to the schools by supplying them with the available audio-visual materials in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning of oral English in Nigerian secondary schools, considering its status in the country, government should also establish centres for audio-visual teaching materials training, production and distribution. It also should address the problem of electricity supply in the country since most of the audio-visual materials are electronic oriented, schools on their part should make adequate provision of power generators other than depend on the government for power supply. They should also create more time for the teaching of oral English.
1.1 Background of the Study
English language is not indigenous to Nigeria. Yet, it is studied and used in Nigeria more actively than most of the indigenous languages. The English language is Nigeria’s second language (L2) but many parents prefer their children speaking English to their indigenous languages. Our grandparents with little or no education still hunger and thirst for English language. In Nigeria, some primary and secondary schools use the English language as medium of communication and whoever speaks any of the indigenous languages within the school premises is fined or severely punished. The Nigerian tertiary institutions and work places are not left out in the wide spread of English usage.
No wonder, Bamgbose (1971) asserts that of all heritage left behind in Nigeria by the British at the end of the colonial administration, probably none is more important than the English language. He further explains that the British colonial masters taught the English language to Nigerians and made it official, the language remains, official ever after Nigeria gained independence in 1960. He also noted that the official status of English in Nigeria has made it to serve as the language of the media, politics, legal drafting and education in the country up till date. English language is the only language that has spread aggressively, breaking every ethnic an d language barrier, there is hardly anywhere around Nigeria that English speakers are not found.
As important as it is, the Nigerian users of English should aim at pronouncing English words in a way that it brings out their messages without altering the language to the extent that its value as a medium of communication will be lost. Where this foundation is laid is in the lower levels of education: nursery, primary and post primary schools. However, the English language teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools is a serious process. Teaching and learning of English language here does not only refer to grammar but also its oral parts of pronunciation which deals with the English sounds system.
Pronunciation according to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is the way in which a language or a particular word or sound is pronounced. The nature of English pronunciation is different from that of the Nigerian language which are open syllable in nature, that is why for example, a native Nigerian would pronounce the word ‘bread’/bred/ as ‘bredi’ /bredi/, bringing the mother tongue (L1) into the second language (L2). This is one of the reasons why the Nigerian second language learners encounter difficulty in the learning of the English pronunciation.
Although English is undeniably a very confusing and perhaps complicated language to pronounce well, most especially to Nigerian second language learners, due to the mother-tongue interference, there is some good news – it can be learnt. Pronunciation is like any other skill, it involves learning new movements and rules and practicing them until they become second nature through the active involvement of the learner and the qualified teacher, but in past years, oral English was not taken seriously in the senior secondary schools in Nigeria. This is why Iyiola, (2010) writes that “To say that the English of Nigerians is appalling is to state the obvious. This is so because over the years, attention has not been paid to the teaching of the speech sounds of English in schools”. He further observes, however the emphasis in recent times on the phonic method of teaching English at the primary school level, and the inclusion of an oral English component in the SSCE syllabus is an indication of a renewed interest in correct pronunciation”.
Therefore, for teaching and learning of oral English to be effectively achieved, there should be qualified teachers and also good methods of instruction. Iyiola (2010) asserts that, it is obligatory that all teachers must make concerted efforts to improve their students. Gimson (1980) caps it all when he said that the teacher of English constitute a special case, he has the obligation of presenting to his students as a faithful model of English as possible. In the first place and particularly if he is dealing with young pupils, his students will imitate a bad pronunciation as exactly as they will to a good one.
It is important to note that varieties of language teaching methods exists, which include grammar translation method, Gouini series, the direct method, oral approach and situational situation etc. However, over the years, researchers and linguists in a quest for an adequate and comprehensive method of teaching language have come to a conclusion that there are still areas left out that are not considered. It is in the light of this that the researcher has seen the need of evaluating the effect of using oral drills media in teaching pronunciation to learners in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Language teaching and learning has been the primary focus of applied linguistics. Formal instruction does not work in vacuum. Formal instruction does not work in a vacuum. school environment, teacher qualifications, curriculum and instructional approaches, and many other factors interact to produce growth in student academic skills and knowledge. There is sufficient empirical evidence that suggests that the academic performance of students relies substantially the method of instruction and instructional tools. Oral drills media has become one of the most essential tools for the teaching and learning of oral English. This is because learning objective might likely not be achieved without the use of language of instruction and drilling activities. English as a second language in Nigeria is officially recognized in public affairs.
However, the poor academic achievement in the English language, especially in orals, among senior secondary school students has become a source of dismay to all stakeholders. Chief examiner’s report on WAEC results show that the percentage of students (non-performers, those with grades D7 to F9) are usually more than 75% of the total examination candidates each year. The situation is so bad that experts now feel the level of English usages by our SSCE candidates suggest that English is a foreign language in Nigeria and not a second language and not a second language. therefore, it is important that learners of English language learn the skills in speaking or oral pronunciation is that it is key to learning other aspects of the English language as well as the subjects taught through proper instruction methods, tolls and activities in the teaching of the oral English.
Furthermore, common experience has shown that some teachers are naïve of how to use the oral drills media, essential tools in the teaching of oral English despite the fact that there is availability of such tools in schools. Also, in most cases, teachers who teach second languages are themselves not native speakers, so they neither speak the language fluently nor intelligibly, probably because of the interference of mother tongue as mentioned earlier.
Consequently, the focus of this study is to find out if oral drills media will improve the teaching of oral English in senior secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The aim of this study is to show how important the oral drills media is in the teaching and learning of oral English in senior secondary schools. The following objectives are to be achieved by the end of the study:
1. To examine the effectiveness of oral drills media on the pronunciation achievement of senior secondary school students.
2. To identify the English vowel sounds and their corresponding phonetic symbols.
3. Find out whether audio aid material in oral drill will have effect on the English pronunciation performance of secondary schools students.
4. To determine whether pair oral drill will improve pronunciation performance of secondary school students.
1.4 Research questions
1. How effective is oral drill media in the teaching and learning of oral English?
2. To what extent does identification of the English phonetic vowel sounds and their corresponding phonetic symbols affect pronunciation performance of secondary school students?
3. How will pair drill improve pronunciation performance of secondary school students?
The hypothesis below was formulated for this study
Ho: there is no significant relationship between oral drills media and the effective teaching and learning of oral English.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study has become important, considering the vital role that oral drills media play in the teaching and learning of oral English which motivated the researcher into the study. Oral drills media has a very strong relationship with the teaching and learning of oral English. It is an important means of correcting the pronunciation and speech of the students in classroom situation and also in public matters.
The oral drills media may supplement and complement the teacher’s tasks of making sure that the students improve in their oral ability. Oral drills media as earlier mention is a teaching aid that helps the teacher in teaching oral English. In line with Balogun, (1997), teaching aid refers to things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively and to enable the students to learn more readily.
This research however would enable teachers of English language to identify problems and factors that hinder the effective teaching and learning of oral English and how to handle such problems. Students would as well be informed on their major problems in learning oral English.
More so, findings from this study would provide valuable information to the government, the Nigerian educational research center (NERC) and the curriculum planners may gain awareness to create or install oral drill media for the effective teaching and learning of oral English.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Due to time constraint and finances or cost implication, this research work is limited to one (1) selected senior secondary school out of the forty-four (44) secondary schools with Pankshin Local Government Area. The range of the study is wide but the study area selected as sample represents the range. The researcher formally obtained permission from the school and gave instructions on aspects of oral English to an intact class in the selected school for two weeks.
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms
English language: This is a native language in some countries like USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. While in other countries like Nigeria, it is either a foreign language. It is recognized as the language of instruction and international trade.
Oral Drills Media: These are audio or audio-visual installations used as aids in teaching and learning of oral English.
Teaching: This is an interaction between a more knowledgeable person and a person who is willing and prepared to learn. It is an act of instructing educating or inculcating knowledge to learners.
Oral English: It deals with speech sounds pronounced by the voice resonating in the mouth, as the vowels in English or spoken rather than written.
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