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The concept of audio-visual materials encompasses a dynamic and multifaceted educational approach that merges auditory and visual elements to enhance learning experiences and facilitate deeper comprehension and retention. By leveraging a rich combination of sound, images, videos, animations and other multimedia components, educators harness the power of sensory engagement, catering to diverse learning styles and stimulating multiple cognitive pathways. According to Akpan and David (2020) this interactive pedagogical strategy transcends traditional monotone methods, transforming the learning environment into a captivating arena where complex concepts are elucidated, abstract ideas are concretized and abstract theories are brought to life. The utilization of audio-visual materials not only fosters active participation but also creates a memorable and immersive learning atmosphere, enabling students to forge meaningful connections with the subject matter. From educational videos and animations that elucidate intricate scientific processes to language learning tools that expose learners to authentic accents and cultural nuances, audio-visual materials transcend linguistic barriers and geographical boundaries, acting as a bridge between learners and the diverse tapestry of knowledge. This approach has proven particularly effective in addressing the needs of auditory and visual learners, accommodating varied learning paces and catering to the demands of an increasingly digital and visually-oriented generation. By harnessing the potential of audio-visual materials, educators unleash a dynamic force that amplifies understanding, fosters engagement and propels education into a realm of enriched sensory exploration. The audio-visual materials are used effectively for teaching of oral English.

Oral English, a fundamental facet of language proficiency, encompasses the mastery of spoken language in real-time communication contexts. It involves the development of effective verbal communication skills, encompassing pronunciation, intonation, fluency, vocabulary and grammar, allowing individuals to express thoughts, ideas, emotions and information with clarity, coherence and precision. Beyond the mere mechanics of speech, oral English embodies the art of effective conversation, encompassing active listening, turn-taking and the ability to adapt language usage to diverse social, cultural and situational contexts. According to Oyedele and Omoogun (2021) it serves as a vital conduit for interpersonal interactions, enabling individuals to engage in meaningful dialogues, negotiations, debates, presentations and storytelling. The acquisition of proficient oral English skills not only facilitates successful everyday communication but also nurtures self-confidence, fostering a sense of empowerment and agency. In educational settings, the emphasis on oral English promotes interactive learning environments, where students collaboratively engage in discussions, role-plays and group activities that nurture critical thinking, creativity and adaptability (Ali, 2021). As an essential tool for cross-cultural communication, oral English facilitates global connections, enriching intercultural understanding and enabling individuals to participate effectively in a diverse and interconnected world.

The state of teaching Oral English in Nigerian secondary schools is characterized by a blend of challenges and potential. While recognizing the significance of oral communication skills, the current approach is often hindered by factors such as large class sizes, a curriculum emphasizing written exams and limited resources. According to Akinwumi and Joshua (2019) traditional teaching methods, including rote memorization, dominate classrooms, potentially neglecting authentic communication. Incorporating modern methodologies like communicative language teaching (CLT) and technology-enabled learning has shown promise, yet their widespread implementation is hampered by resource disparities. According to According to Ogunleye (2018) the effectiveness of current methods varies, with some students benefiting from motivated educators and interactive environments, while others struggle due to inadequate practice opportunities. To enhance oral English instruction, comprehensive reforms are needed, encompassing curriculum revisions, teacher training and innovative methodologies that foster practical, contextually relevant oral communication skills for diverse real-world scenarios.

The integration of audio-visual materials holds immense potential to revolutionize the teaching and learning of oral English in senior secondary schools. By incorporating dynamic visual and auditory elements, such as videos, podcasts, interactive multimedia presentations and authentic language samples, educators can create a multi-sensory and immersive learning environment that resonates with diverse learning styles. According to Umar and Bala (2022) these materials facilitate the exposure of students to natural accents, intonations and contextual language use, thereby enhancing their listening comprehension skills and helping them develop a nuanced understanding of real-world communication patterns. Moreover, visual aids can provide a concrete context for language usage, enabling students to better grasp abstract concepts, expand vocabulary and refine their pronunciation through imitation. The interactive nature of audio-visual materials promotes active engagement, encouraging students to participate in role-playing, dialogues, debates and discussions, thereby fostering both their speaking fluency and confidence. Additionally, technology-enabled platforms offer opportunities for self-paced practice, enabling students to repeatedly review content and refine their skills independently. Ultimately, the judicious integration of audio-visual materials not only enriches the pedagogical experience by making learning enjoyable and relatable but also equips students with the practical, authentic and versatile oral English skills crucial for effective communication in real-life scenarios.

The pressing necessity for educators, not only in Mangu but also in the broader educational landscape, to incorporate these materials into their pedagogical approach is underscored by the potential to significantly improve learning outcomes and arm students with the indispensable skill of oral English. According to Oyinloye and Owoeye (2022) this integration of resources into teaching practice is not merely a suggestion, but a critical imperative in the current globalized world where English, particularly its spoken form, serves as a lingua franca in various domains such as business, academia and international diplomacy. By leveraging these materials, educators can provide a more engaging, interactive and comprehensive learning experience that caters to different learning styles, thereby fostering an environment conducive to the acquisition and mastery of oral English. This, in turn, empowers students to confidently express their thoughts, ideas and perspectives in English, thereby enhancing their overall communicative competence (Adebayo & Oluwatoyin 2021). Furthermore, the adoption of these materials by educators can also facilitate the tracking and assessment of students’ progress, enabling them to provide personalized feedback and targeted interventions to address any learning gaps. Therefore, the call for educators in Mangu and beyond to embrace these materials in their teaching practice is a strategic move towards equipping students with the vital skill of oral English, thereby preparing them for the opportunities and challenges of the 21st century.


In an ideal scenario, senior secondary school students within Mangu Local Government should possess a proficient command of oral English. This proficiency would enable them to articulate their thoughts clearly, engage in meaningful conversations and confidently express themselves in various academic, social and professional contexts.

However, the current situation indicates that many students struggle with oral English, facing challenges in pronunciation, fluency and effective communication.

Educators have implemented various teaching methods, including traditional lectures, textbooks and some sporadic use of audio-visual materials to improve oral English skills.

Despite these efforts, the issue of inadequate oral English proficiency among students persists in the senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government.

The effects are multi-fold, impacting not only the students but also their ability to succeed academically and in future careers. Poor oral English skills hinder effective communication, which is vital for academic excellence and future job prospects.

This research aims to address the pressing concern that the current methods are not effectively improving oral English skills among students in Mangu Local Government. There is a growing belief that incorporating audio-visual materials into the curriculum could be a more effective approach.

While similar studies have explored the use of audio-visual materials in language education, there is limited research specifically focused on its impact on oral English skills in the context of senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government. Understanding the unique challenges and potential benefits in this specific setting is essential.

It is due to these reasons that this research seeks to investigate the effects of audio-visual materials on the teaching and learning of oral English in senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government. The ultimate goal is to provide valuable insights and recommendations to enhance the quality of English language education in this region.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning of oral English in senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government. Other specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. To discover the effect of audio visual materials in improving students’ performance in stress patterns
  2. To discover the effect audio visual materials in improving performance of students in intonation
  • To examine the effect of audio visual materials in improving performance of students in consonant sounds.
  1. To examine the effect of audio visual materials in improving performance of students in vowel sounds.


            The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. What are the effects of audio visual materials in improving students’ performance in stress patterns?
  2. What are the effects of audio visual materials in improving performance of students in intonation?
  • What are the effects of audio visual materials in improving performance of students in consonant sounds?
  1. What are the effect of audio visual materials in improving performance of students in vowel sounds?


            The following null hypothesis guided the study:

H0: There is no significant difference in the performance of students who were taught oral English with audio visual materials and those who were taught with conventional method of teaching.

Ha: There is a significant difference in the performance of students who were taught oral English with audio visual materials and those who were taught with conventional method of teaching.


This study shall be beneficial to the following education stakeholders such as students, teachers, school administrators, policy makers, parents and government:

  1. Students are the primary beneficiaries as the study aims to enhance the teaching and learning of oral English. If the study finds that audio-visual materials significantly improve understanding and proficiency, students will benefit from more engaging and effective lessons. This could lead to improved academic performance, better communication skills and increased confidence in using English, which are all valuable in further education and future careers.
  2. Teachers stand to gain from this study as it could provide them with innovative teaching strategies and materials. If audio-visual materials are found to be effective, teachers can incorporate them into their lessons to make them more interactive and engaging. This could also make their job easier and more rewarding, as they see their students’ progress and engagement increase.
  • The study’s findings could guide school administrators in making strategic decisions about resource allocation. If audio-visual materials are found to be beneficial, administrators might decide to invest more in these resources. This could lead to overall improvements in the school’s teaching quality and students’ performance.
  1. The study could provide valuable data for education policy makers at both local and national levels. If the study shows that audio-visual materials enhance the teaching and learning of oral English, it could influence policy decisions related to curriculum design, teaching methods and resource allocation.
  2. Parents would benefit from the study as improved teaching methods could lead to better learning outcomes for their children. This could result in their children having better opportunities for further education and employment. Parents could also gain a better understanding of how to support their children’s learning at home.
  3. The study could serve as a foundation for future research in the field of English education or the use of audio-visual materials in teaching. Future researchers could build upon the findings, explore related questions, or conduct similar studies in different contexts. This could contribute to a broader understanding of effective teaching methods.
  • Improved English proficiency among students could have wider benefits for the community. Better communication skills could lead to more effective interactions within the community and with the outside world. This could also potentially lead to economic benefits, as individuals with good English skills often have better job opportunities.


This study will concentrate on the relevance and effectiveness of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning of oral English in senior secondary schools within Mangu Local Government. It will scrutinize the various types of audio-visual materials employed in teaching oral English, such as videos, audiotapes and interactive software. The impact of these materials on students’ oral English proficiency, comprehension and communication skills will be assessed. Additionally, the study will delve into the teachers’ perspectives on the use of audio-visual materials in teaching oral English, encapsulating their perceived benefits, challenges and suggestions for improvement.

However, the study has certain delimitations. It will be confined to senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government, excluding schools outside this area. The focus will be solely on the teaching and learning of oral English, disregarding other subjects or aspects of English language learning such as written English or grammar. The study will only consider the use of audio-visual materials, not evaluating other teaching aids or methods.


This theory, proposed by Allan Paivio in 1971, suggests that the human mind processes verbal and non-verbal information separately but concurrently. This implies that when students learn oral English through audio-visual materials, they are likely to understand and retain the information better because it is coded both visually and audibly.

Dual-coding theory is a theory of cognition that suggests that the mind processes information along two different channels; verbal and visual. It was hypothesized by Allan Paivio of the University of Western Ontario in 1971. In developing this theory, Paivio used the idea that the formation of mental images aids learning through the picture superiority effect. According to Paivio, there are two ways a person could expand on learned material: verbal associations and imagery. Dual-coding theory postulates that both sensory imagery and verbal information is used to represent information. Imagery and verbal information are processed differently and along distinct channels in the human mind, creating separate representations for information processed in each channel. The mental codes corresponding to these representations are used to organize incoming information that can be acted upon, stored and retrieved for subsequent use. Both imagery and verbal codes can be used when recalling information. For example, say a person has stored the stimulus concept “dog” as both the word ‘dog’ and as the image (appearance, sound, smell and other sensory information) of a dog. When asked to recall the stimulus, the person can retrieve either the word or the image individually, or both simultaneously. If the word is recalled, the image of the dog is not lost and can still be retrieved at a later point in time. The ability to code a stimulus two different ways increases the chance of remembering that item compared to if the stimulus was only coded one way.

The Dual Coding Theory is highly relevant to the present topic as it underscores the significance of utilizing both auditory and visual channels for effective learning and comprehension. In the context of this study, employing audio-visual materials, such as videos and multimedia presentations, can facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of oral English by engaging students through two sensory modalities – hearing and seeing. This dual sensory input not only enhances the retention of linguistic information but also aids in the development of language skills, pronunciation and comprehension, making it a vital approach for improving English language education in senior secondary schools.


Relevance: In this context, relevance refers to the degree to which audio-visual materials align with the curriculum, learning objectives and students’ needs in the teaching and learning of oral English in senior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government. It measures how well these materials connect with the intended educational outcomes and the cultural, social and linguistic context of the students.

Effectiveness: Effectiveness refers to the extent to which the use of audio-visual materials enhances the learning outcomes, specifically in the acquisition and proficiency of oral English. It can be measured by comparing students’ performance, engagement and comprehension before and after the introduction of these materials.

Audio-Visual Materials: These are educational resources that utilize both sound and visual components. They can include videos, slideshows, audio recordings, films, interactive games and other multimedia content. In this context, they are specifically designed or chosen to aid in the teaching and learning of oral English.

Teaching and Learning of Oral English: This refers to the pedagogical strategies and learning activities involved in improving students’ English speaking and listening skills. It includes pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, fluency, comprehension and conversational skills.

Senior Secondary Schools: These are educational institutions catering to students typically aged 15-18 years old, equivalent to high school in some educational systems. In this context, it refers specifically to such schools within Mangu Local Government.

Oral English: This refers to the spoken form of the English language. It includes aspects such as pronunciation, intonation, rhythm, stress and the use of informal and formal speech in various contexts. In the educational context, it refers to the ability to use English effectively in spoken communication.



  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview Table of contents, abstract and chapter 1 below

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