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1.1 Background of the Study

Instructional materials are essential tools in learning every subject in the school. They allow the pupils to interact with words, symbols and ideas in ways that develop their abilities in reading, listening, solving, thinking, speaking, writing, using media and technology (Bukoye, 2018). According to Faize and Dahan (2011) instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impact information to pupils in the educational process. Instructional materials resources include libraries, textbooks, vowels sound charts, consonant sound chart, audio-visual and electronic instructional materials such as radio, tape recorder, television and video tape recorder. Another category of material resources consist of paper supplies and writing materials such as biro, eraser, exercise books, crayon, chalk, drawing books, notebooks, pencil, ruler, slate, workshop and so on.

Instructional materials are of great importance in educational pursuit because of its role in the achievement of educational objectives and goals. The extent to which an educational institution attains her objectives is directly proportional to the educational resources available and their utilization. According to Bidmos (2006), utilization of instructional materials makes teaching easier for the teacher and accelerates learning on the part of pupils. The following are other advantages of their use to the educational process. Instructional materials motivate pupils to learn, they provide experience not readily or easily secured in other ways (concreteness), they bring teaching objectives closer to learning and fasten the message of a teacher as channel, they save time and expand the possible modalities of learning (Jindem, 2018).

Instructional materials can enrich learning settings by showing things that are far away, those that took place in the past; those that are minute to see, too large to bring to class, too complex to understand at first sight with explanations only or things that cannot be seen, heard or perceived by other channels (Kemp & Dayton, 2005). Instructional materials have become part and parcel of the teaching and learning process thus Heimich, Molenda and Russel (2005) observes that the facilitation of learning with modern media is making it possible for pupils to use all their senses. Such media such as tapes, records, filmstrips and slides have overtaken the chalkboard in the media becoming increasingly valuable. Most instructional materials which are effective in the delivery of content also help to sustain learner’s interest.

The main purpose of teaching is to impact knowledge, information, values and skills to the pupils. The use of instructional materials is therefore to make sharing of these ideas, thoughts, feelings and knowledge clearer (MaCharia, 2007). According to Betz (2000), visuals attract attention, which is permanent in learning. He further observed that many attractions compete for pupil’s attention making it important to employ attention – catching devices to fens on the lesson. Clearly, the importance of instructional materials in the teaching – learning process cannot be ex-haunted. Teachers’ awareness of these benefits can motivate them to appreciate entrance, acquire and use the resources in their teaching. It can create one of the ingredient (ways) of developing a positive attitude by the teacher regarding the use of Instructional materials. The availability of educational objective and goals. The extent of which an organization like educational institution attains her objectives is directly proportional to the educational resources available and their utilization. This is not different from learners with learning disabilities.

Learning disabilities (LD) constitute a diverse group of neurological disorders that affect an individual’s ability to acquire, process, and use information efficiently. These disabilities manifest across various domains of learning, including reading, writing, mathematics, and reasoning skills. The concept of learning disabilities emerged as a response to recognizing the incongruence between a person’s potential and their actual academic performance. Over the years, researchers and practitioners have strived to define and understand LD, leading to evolving conceptualizations and refined diagnostic criteria. The study of learning disabilities is crucial not only for academic purposes but also for ensuring the well-being and inclusion of individuals who experience these challenges.

Several studies by James (2009) have also shown that instructional materials such as charts, audio-visual, photographs, audio tapes, television, etc., not only provide concrete basis for conceptual thinking, but they also increase pupils’ learning interest and make learning more permanent, thus stimulating self-ability in the pupils. Opeloye (2009) observes that instructional materials encourage active learning by the pupils and save teachers time and energy by minimizing over verbalization.

According to Beeby (2006), although instructional materials are necessary for effective teaching and learning of Oral English, most teachers cannot put them to proper use in teaching the subject. The problems militating against the use of instructional materials in teaching English Language include unavailability resources centres, low media competence level of staff ignorance, large classes, poor facilities and funding arrangement; Most of the instructional materials required for effective teaching of English Language are not available. UNICEF (2013) in their study found that the quantity and quality of instructional materials are inadequate for effective instruction in priary schools. Recent research reports, such as Olibie (2000) and Nwoji (2000), indicate that the situation has not changed for good. Even when some of these media, such as vowel charts, consonants charts, audio-visual and real objects may be available in some school, they are not properly put to use in the teaching process by teachers because of incompetence.

Walberg and Thomas (2002) in their own contribution have reported that children learn best when they can actively explore an environment rich in adequate materials. Learning experiences are richest when the environment (physical resources) around them meets their needs through its adequacy and effective utilization. Individuals have perceived and acknowledged the purpose and function of resource in effective teaching and learning. Hallack (2000) has emphasized that the availability, relevance and adequacy of educational resource items contribute to academic achievement and that unattractive school buildings, crowded classrooms, non-availability of playing ground and surroundings that have no aesthetic beauty can contribute to poor academic performance.

The concept of teaching and learning disabilities encompasses a range of cognitive, sensory, emotional, or physical challenges that can significantly impede an individual’s ability to acquire and apply knowledge in traditional educational settings. These disabilities, which may include conditions like dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and others, require specialized and tailored approaches to instruction and support. According to Smith (2017) effective teaching in the context of learning disabilities involves recognizing diverse learning profiles, utilizing alternative teaching strategies, providing individualized accommodations, fostering a supportive and inclusive learning environment, and equipping pupils with the tools and skills they need to navigate their unique challenges and realize their full potential in both academic and personal pursuits.

            It was reported that 89% (percent) of the respondents claimed that they had no improvise while 51% (percent) indicated that they had no access to resource materials at all. Ismaila (2008) reported that out of 144 subjects involves in a study, 124 (86.1%) indicated that their schools were in short supply of teaching materials. In another study or related study by Pwajok reported by Famwang (1998), it was found that a large percentage of pupils (61.3%) and (77.5%) of the teachers believe that lack of suitable and relevant textbooks made pupils developed a non-challenge attitude to Children with learning disabilities.

            Due to the above background, the researcher, wished to find out the effectiveness of instructional materials in teaching children with learning disabilities in central primary school, Pankshin.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

            Experts observe that learning is faster and more lasting at direct and iconic experience level. The following are statements of the problems:

  1. Learning Efficiency and Iconic Experience: Experts highlight that direct and iconic experiences facilitate faster and more enduring learning. Iconic learning involves using visual aids like pictorials to teach pupils, especially when exposing them to real-life situations is impractical.
  2. Educational Objectives and Reconstructed Scenes: In cases where real-life exposure is unfeasible, educational objectives are met by reconstructing scenes and presenting them as pictures or dioramas to learners.
  3. Challenges in Primary Schools in Pankshin: The researcher notes that primary schools in Pankshin face various challenges:
    • Inadequate supply of instructional materials.
    • Insufficient manpower to manage available materials.
    • Poor utilization of materials due to teacher ignorance.
    • Absence of trained technical personnel for material handling.
  4. Material Storage and Neglect: Additionally, instructional materials suffer due to improper storage and neglect:
    • Materials stored in offices, corridors, unroofed or dilapidated buildings, leading to damage by termites, bad weather, and rust.
    • Materials sometimes kept at the PTA chairman’s house, hindering pupils’ access.
    • Introductory technology equipment, like computers and gadgets, locked in storage without trained personnel for operation.
    • Some teachers avoid using materials due to perceived time and energy consumption.
  5. Focus of the Study: Given the above challenges, the study aims to investigate the effectiveness of instructional materials in teaching children with learning disabilities at Central Primary School, Pankshin.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of instructional materials in teaching children with learning disabilities in central primary school, Pankshin. Specially and specifically the research intend to find out the following.

  1. Whether instructional materials are available in Central Primary School for teaching Children with learning disabilities.
  2. The extent to which teachers use them for teaching Children with learning disabilities.
  • The activities use by Children with learning disabilities teachers to facilitate teaching and learning.
  1. The extent are instructional materials available in the Central Primary School in Pankshin Local Government Area.
  2. The activities Children with learning disabilities teachers use to facilitate teaching and learning.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized. It will be significant to the following category of individuals:

  1. Children with learning disabilities: The primary beneficiaries of the study are the pupils with learning disabilities attending Central Primary School, Pankshin. The research aims to identify effective instructional materials and methods that can better cater to their specific learning needs, potentially improving their academic performance and overall learning experience.
  2. Teachers and educators: Teachers and educators at Central Primary School and other educational institutions working with children with learning disabilities can benefit from the study’s findings. The research can provide insights into innovative and evidence-based instructional strategies that they can implement in their classrooms to support pupils with learning disabilities effectively.
  3. School administrators and policymakers: School administrators and policymakers in Pankshin, as well as educational authorities at regional or national levels, can use the study’s results to make informed decisions about the allocation of resources, curriculum development, and professional development programs for teachers, all aimed at enhancing the educational experience for pupils with learning disabilities.
  4. Parents and guardians: The study’s findings can be valuable for parents and guardians of children with learning disabilities. It can help them better understand the importance of instructional materials and how they can collaborate with teachers and schools to support their children’s learning at home.
  5. Research community: The study’s outcomes can contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of special education and learning disabilities. Other researchers and academics can build upon these findings and conduct further research, potentially leading to more effective teaching practices and interventions for children with learning disabilities.
  6. Society at large: By improving the educational outcomes of children with learning disabilities, the study can have a positive impact on society as a whole. These pupils, when adequately supported in their education, may have better chances of becoming productive and engaged members of the community in the future.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What instructional materials are available in the Central Primary School?
  2. To what extent do teachers use instructional materials in teaching children with learning disabilities in schools?
  • What activities do social teachers use to facilitate teaching and learning?
  1. What types of instructional materials are available in the schools?
  2. Do these Instructional materials really improve the teaching and learning of children with learning disabilities?

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study covers the extent of effects of instructional materials for effective teaching learning of Children with learning disabilities. It is restricted to some selected Central Primary School in Pankshin Local Government Area. However, despite the fact that it is restricted to the selected local government Area, its findings will be generalized to other parts of the state and country at large.

1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Instructional materials: for the purpose of the study instructional materials refers to the wide variety of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning. Some are real objects others are pictures, charts, television, radio, film strip and slide projectors which bring about effectiveness and efficiency in teaching and learning process.

Effective: In the context of this study, it is something that has a positive impact on another.

Learning: Learning can be attempt as a change in behavior which is more or less permanent in nature and which result from activity, training or observation.

Teaching: Is the ideas of a particular person or groups. Especially about politics, religion or society, that is taught to other people.

Concrete: This is a situation whereby pupils clearly understand what they are taught through the effects of instructional materials.

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  • Chapter 1 to 5
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