EFFECT OF OVERPOPULATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MANGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF PLATEAU STATE
EFFECT OF OVERPOPULATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MANGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF PLATEAU STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of content vi
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Hypotheses 10
1.6 Significance of the Study 10
1.7 Delimitation of the Study 11
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 12
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERTURE
2.1 Concept of Overpopulation 13
2.2 Concept of Academic Performances 18
2.3 Causes of Overpopulation 20
2.4 Relationship between Class-size and Academic Performance 21
2.5 Implications of Overpopulation Classroom Challenges
for Teachers in public Schools 23
2.6 Impact of Overpopulation of Students in Government Secondary
Schools on their Academic Performance 24
2.7 Strategies Teachers Use when Classrooms are populated 28
2.8 Reviewed of Empirical Studies 29
2.9 Summary of the Related Literature 32
RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Population and sample of the Study 35
3.3 Sampling Techniques 36
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 37
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument 37
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 38
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 39
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Presentation of Demography Data 40
4.2 Analysis of Data 42
4.3 Hypothesis Testing 51
4.4 Discussion of Findings 53
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Major Findings 57
5.2 Conclusion 58
5.3 Recommendations 58
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 60
The research work focused on the effect of overpopulation on academic performance of junior secondary school students in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. The study made use of four (4) research questions and two hypotheses. The research design was survey. The study population comprised all the one hundred and fifty four (154) secondary schools both private and public. 100 students out of 9494 were selected for the study. A questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the targeted respondents, and it was based on four likert scale format. The data was analysed using mean statistical score and chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The findings revealed that the total number of teachers in government secondary schools are limited compared to the increasing population of students in the area, that inadequacy of recreational facilities in rural areas, which keeps students busy after studying, contributes to migration of students from rural to urban areas, but not all students migrate to urban area. It understood that lack of family planning contributes to the increased population of secondary schools in the urban areas, it was attested that School buildings were not enough to accommodate the students. The study recommended that, Classrooms need to be constructed in schools so as to overcome population in schools, In order to improve existing skills of teachers, teachers have to attend the workshops not only as participants, but also be given a chance to present how they manage these classes in the schools. Based on the findings and recommendation the study concluded that Teachers’ experiences with overcrowded classrooms were ‘stressful’. There was contributing factors that led to teachers stressful experiences; however they still managed the situation of over population.
- Background to the Study
Over population in most secondary schools has been considered one of the most challenging problems facing teachers nowadays. Teachers all over the world, face many problems when teaching in over populated classroom. These include instructional activities, management, assessment and discipline problems. Over populated classroom have result in frustration, learners becoming despondent and discouraged as well as negative attitudes toward learning. In Nigeria, despite the fact that the government has clearly confirmed the importance of mathematics by making it a core and compulsory subject at both junior and senior secondary schools levels (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2004), the invested billions of Naira in the teaching and learning of mathematics, but has not yielded any significant improvement due to wasteful and inadequate spending of the required resources. Numerous factors were identified by some researchers for the inconsequential performance by students, some of which included: shortage of qualified mathematics teachers, poor facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching. Another major hindrance to better improvement of government spending, is the continued use of traditional chalk and talk methods which are yet to give way to the multimedia teaching methods presently in use in schools in developing nations.
Overcrowded classrooms have a direct impact on teaching and learning. Over-population of students in school has not only affected learners performance in mathematics but also put immense stress on teachers and other subject. Over population of students in classrooms impacted negatively on teachers’ morale and enjoyment of their profession. Over populated classrooms have created a scenario in which teachers face many challenges in the classroom. Class size refers to educational tools that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school. In emphasizing the importance of class-size to the learning and teaching process, ALL Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS) recommended a maximum of forty students per class for efficient and effective teaching. In light of this, this study is sought to explore the experiences of teachers in over populated classrooms in Mangu Local Government Area.
Overpopulation refers to a situation where the total number of people in an area exceed the available resources. Overpopulation can also be defined as deficiency in resources development in relation to the available people Osuji (2008). This means existing resources cannot march the immediate population number. The steady areas to enjoy recreational facilities, which keeps them busy after studying is one of the factors that contributes to overpopulation of secondary schools in urban areas. Over population of students in secondary school in Nigeria has had a negative impact on the Nigeria educational sector, and the output is devastating in terms of loss of standard and its attendant results. This situation of over population could be speculated to be responsible for the untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, poor standard of living, crime among others. In this, there will be lower standard of education, inadequate instructional materials, production of poor or a few quality text books, congested classrooms and attendant education in characters (dropout as a product of the so called schools).
The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding, and teaching methods are all variables that affect students’ achievement. Other factors that affect student achievement are school population and class size. The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in secondary school. Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact on the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and made students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size does not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably led to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.
In order to better the understanding skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance. These factors can include: school structure and organization, teacher quality, curriculum, and teaching philosophies. The idea that school population and class size might affect student performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes. The learner to teacher ratio relates directly to the quality of schooling. The larger the class the harder it is for the educator to know the circumstances of each individual learner. There are policies in place that stipulate the learner teacher ratio, however the policies are not being implemented and schools admitted more and more learners into the classroom without thinking about the impact this poses on teachers. Teachers are required to provide the best learning experience for learners to learn. In circumstances such as an overcrowded classroom it is not achievable for learners to attain educational goals. When a class size is reduced this allows for effective teaching and learning. Therefore, if the problem of overcrowded classrooms is addressed teachers will be able to provide quality teaching and learning. Smaller classes allow teachers to interact more with learners and give individual attention to slow learners. Over population in terms of classrooms has impacted on teaching and learning but most importantly, rationale for this study, is to make teachers voices heard. This will be achieved by unpacking their experiences since there is no support provided for teachers and their needs were not considered when policies are designed. Policies were designed and supposed to be implemented; however, teachers’ needs were not taken into consideration in the design of such policies.
Researchers have shown that there is a correlation between school overpopulation, large class size and academic performance of pupils. Students’ overpopulation have negative effect on the tone of the school which in turn dampens the morale of both teachers and students. On the contrary, researchers have noted that effective teaching and high academic performance can only be achieved when supported by adequate infra structural facilities and manageable class size.
In an attempt to put sound education on ground worldwide, many factors have been incriminated as being responsible for falling standard of education where it was perceived and established. Among such factors was the issue of class size. Class size as an educational tool that can be described as an average number of students per class in a school, The number of students per teacher in a class. It is a tool that can be used to measure performance of the education system. A lot of argument has gone on the effect of class size on performance, some fingering over-bloated class size as the main factor responsible for falling standard of education in Nigeria, most especially in the elementary or secondary level of education, however others see this as mere coincidence seeing other factors as being responsible. Class size is an important factor with respect to academic performance of students. There is a consensus among researchers and educational scholars that, student’s achievement decreases as class size increases. The effect of class- size on cognitive achievement has been debated and researched for many years, this has been inconclusive.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers’ and infrastructure. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in population of students’ directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in junior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area and what could be done to remedy the situation. Overpopulated classrooms lead to over stretching of available school facilities and overcrowded examination halls which pave way for students to indulge in examination malpractice. Based on these effects of overpopulation mentioned above, this study intends to proffer recommendations to curtail the situation.
- Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the effect of overpopulation on academic performance of junior secondary school students in Mangu Local Government Area. Specifically; the study intends to:
- Find out the students – teacher ratio in government secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area.
- Find out the causes of over population of students in junior secondary school in Mangu Local Government Area.
- Find out the effects of over population in junior secondary schools on the academic performance of students.
- Find out the recommendations on how to curtail increase in students’ population in Mangu Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of carrying out this research, the researcher posed the following questions:
- What is the student – teacher ratio in junior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area?
- What are the causes of over of population in junior secondary schools in Mangu Local Government Area?
- What are the effects of over population of students in junior secondary schools on the academic performance of the students in Mangu Local Government Area?
- What are the recommendations, on how to curtail increase in students population in Mangu Local Government Area
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In order to attain the required standard of this research the following hypothesis were set to be tested at 0.05% level of significance
Ho1 There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance of students in junior secondary schools in Mangu LGA
Ho2 There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance of students in junior secondary schools in Mangu LGA
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to students, teachers, educational planners, government, and society at large.
For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school.
To the teachers, it will help improve teachers’ abilities to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher – students’ relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance.
Furthermore, it will guide the educational planners in checking the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them.
More also, it will provide insight to government on how improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning
To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning.
The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material for future studies.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This research work focuses on the effect of overpopulation on the performance of junior secondary schools students in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State. This research work is limited to public secondary school teachers and students in Mangu Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
To facilitate this research the terms used are portrays below;
Overpopulation: This dealt with the number of students enrolled and admitted per class.
Students: This are set of learners who are willing and ready to learn under the control of a well trained teacher.
Overpopulation of students: This means that number of students above the expected standard per teacher
Effects of overpopulation: The end results of overcrowded classroom in junior secondary schools
Academic performance: this is students’ academic achievement which is usually measure in an over-populated classroom
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