EFFECT OF MULTIMEDIA TEACHING APPROACH ON STUDENT’S ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES TO DRUG ABUSE EDUCATION
EFFECT OF MULTIMEDIA TEACHING APPROACH ON STUDENT’S ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES TO DRUG ABUSE EDUCATION
1.1 Background to the Study
Basic Science is the foundational science subject taught at the Junior Secondary School level of Nigerian educational system. It is a prerequisite subject for science subjects at the Senior Secondary and other applied at the tertiary institutions of learning (Samuel, 2017). The relevance of Basic Science in all fields of Science made it imperative to be included in the curriculum of Junior Secondary School as enshrined in the national policy of education (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2014).
Basic Science education’s purpose is to train students to acquire proper understanding of basic principles as well as application. It is also aimed at developing appropriate scientific skills and attitudes as a prerequisite for future scientific activities. To achieve these objectives, active participation and collaborative learning activities become imperative and these need functioning instructional media to make Basic Science instruction effective (Osokoya, 2013; Samuel, 2017; Eriba & Samuel, 2018; Agu & Samuel, 2018).
Despite the relevance of Basic Science to national development, security, economy, manpower and government’s efforts to improve science instruction in schools, students’ achievement is below average. This has become a great concern for science educators. Researchers such as Bukunola and Idowu (2012), Osokoya (2013), Alabi (2014), Oni (2014) Kabutu, Oloyede and Bandele (2015) and Samuel (2017) observed that poor instructional strategies employed in the teaching of the subject by teachers contribute to students under achievement.
Despite attempts made to improve students’ achievement and the quality of Basic Science learning in schools, students’ achievement is persistently not encouraging at the Junior Secondary School Basic Education Certificate Examination. The consistencies in underachievement are obvious as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Statistics of Basic Science Students’ Achievement (Results) by Grade for June/July Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) (2013-2017) in Nasarawa State
Year Number of candidates registered % Grade (A1-C6) % Grades (D7-E8) % Grades (F9)
2013 13751 24.09 26.51 49.40
2014 12821 22.46 25.84 51.70
2015 9985 34.98 28.30 36.72
2016 10257 37.45 26.94 35.61
2017 9878 36.44 31.52 32.04
Source: Department of Statistics, Ministry of Education, Nasarawa State (2017)
Table 1 shows that the percentage credit passes and above in Basic Science continues to fall below 50% for the period of seven years reviewed, although grades D7 and E8 are considered to be passes but they are not good enough for candidates to go for science-oriented subjects in the Senior Secondary School level. Students’ attitude and life styles such as drug abuse have contributed to their underachievement in Basic Science (Abdu-raheem, 2013; Chikere & Mayowa, 2011).
Therefore, to achieve the objectives of Basic Science and the goals of secondary education as stipulated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2014) which include among others, to inspire students with a desire for self-improvement and achievement of excellence, to raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour and live as good citizen, there is need for an effective instructional strategy (Bukunola & Idowu, 2012).
Drug is any chemical substance which when taken into the body affects one’s mood, behavour or state of mind. It ranges from socially acceptable drugs (alcohol, caffeine and nicotine) through prescription drugs (amphetamine, lexotan and valium) to the illicit drugs (cocaine, heroin, marijuana) Stella, 2009.
According to Abdullahi (2005), the term drugs is a abroad name that is not restricted to oral therapy (i.e. injection, capsules or tablets) but includes marijuana, alcohol as well as traditional alcoholic drinks like Ogogoro, Burukutu, Fito and Bammi.
Nigerians make use of drugs just in the same way as this is done in many other societies. The population in Nigeria avails itself of drugs when the occasion warrants them just as other population in the world do.
Drug abused is when drug is not medically necessary, legally prohibited or when it is excessively used as in the case of socially acceptable drugs such as alcohol and cigarette. Stella,2009.
According to Schmelleger (2002) people accept the use of some drugs under certain circumstances as benign and even beneficial practice through connection to social and individual situations. The use of drugs like Benylin with codeine, Tutolin with codeine, for medical purposes like whooping cough is not a drug abuse but it becomes abused only when it is geared towards producing some desired behaviours, physical dependency,addiction and/or constitute a nuisance tothe society.
. Drugs are abused in Nigeria simply because they are used without due authorization from formally qualified and registered persons who according to the laws of the land must approve their use. This observation is borne out by several studies on illness behaviour among Nigerians (Erinosho, 2000). According to Kalunta (2000), the most common drug abuse in Nigeria are marijuana, amphetamines, mandrax, proplus, barbiturates and codeine that have negative effects to the youths, immediate society and Nigeria at large.
Drug abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. The use and abuse of drugs by male and female adolescents have become one of the most disturbing health related phenomena in Nigeria and other parts of the world (Ekpenyong, 2012). Several adolescents who persistently abuse substances often experience an array of problems, including academic difficulties in the likes of declining grades, absenteeism from school and other activities, and increased potential for dropping out of school; health-related problems (including mental health); poor peer relationships, and involvement with the juvenile justice system (Abdu-raheem, 2013). Additionally, there are consequences for family members, the community, and the entire society (Oshodi, Aina & Onajole, 2010).
Oshodi, Aina and Onajole (2010) reported that, despite worldwide concern and education about
psychoactive substances, many adolescents have limited awareness of their adverse consequences. They further explained that curiosity, social pressure and peer group influence are noted to be primary reasons for substance misuse. In an attempt to control sleep or energize themselves, most adolescents and young ones’ start experimenting with tobacco, alcohol, ephedrine and other caffeinated substances such as Nescafe and red bull. Some of the reasons for the drug abuse, as identified by Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010), are to reduce pain, anxiety and tension, ignorance and misinformation, parental background, urge to commit crimes, peer group influence, isolation and loneliness.
Furthermore, Chikere and Mayowa (2011) posited that in a number of school and college surveys in Nigeria, alcohol use is the most common among students, with many drinking students having had their first drink in family settings. They also discovered that the majority of students affected were initiated into the use of alcohol at a tender age of 16-20 years. Stimulant use and abuse appears with increasing frequency in the nation. The reasons individuals, including students, often give as a reason for stimulant usage include the need to belong, expectancy, mental set, sex, certain drives, integrative use, ceremonial use, hedonistic use, utilitarian use and disintegrative use.
Drug abuse has become a threat to the lives and success of the youth. This is evidently a source of sorrow to the parents, guardians and relatives. It is also a big challenge to the whole nation. Stakeholders and members of the public, generally, should devote urgent and adequate attention to the alarming rate of drug abuse, especially among the youth who will be our future leaders.
Multimedia aids in education could be define as the various electronic and technological devices employed by the teacher/ learner to enhance the interest, acquisition and retention of knowledge. These include print media like newspapers, magazines, journals and books. Electronic media include; Television, Radio, Slide, CD Rom, Projectors, CDs, DVDs and interactive media like cell phones and the internet. Multimedia combines five basic types of media into the learning environment: text, video, sounds, graphics and animation, thus providing a powerful new tool for education (Nwanekezi & Kalu, 2012).
Researches have shown that the quality of learning can be significantly enhanced when ICT is used as an intellectual multi-tool adaptable to learner’s needs (Furo, 2015; Nwafor & Okoi, 2016). Gyang (2008) referred to this as: critical thinking, information skill, higher level conceptualization and problem solving. It has been observed that average school age child spends much time watching television; playing video games and exploring other electronic media devices, including the cell phones. These exploration and manipulation have been found to stimulate interest and create enabling environments for learning to take place both inside and outside the classroom, It also makes learning easier and knowledge more easily retained (Nwanekezi & Kalu, 2012). Moreover, Akbiyik and Akbiyik (2010) are of the view that critical thinking, decision making, reflective thinking and creative thinking are various forms of cognitive learning outcomes of multimedia aids.
The basic school stage is the foundational learning stage of an individual. At this stage, audio and visual impressions made on a child in the process of teaching and learning leaves a long-lasting effect on the educational development of the child. Children are naturally curious and inquisitive about their environment. They are observant, persistent and enjoy entertaining learning experiences (Nwanekezi & Kalu, 2012). The multimedia explored in this study are animation and video.
Animation is an instructional strategy that involves the use of two or more different types of
animated instructional media in presentation of lesson. Supporting this view, Mayer, (2001)
noted ,that animated teaching involving the use of Video Compact Disc (VCD), Digital Video
Disc (DVD), power point, or 16mm film are sought of animation instruction. Animation teaching
could be inform of lesson presentation, in that, still pictures; text, graphics, motion picture,
background sound, as well as some narrations are combined at the same time in order to enhance
student’s understanding of concepts. It also includes the use of interactive elements such as
graphics, text, video, sound, and cartoon teaching (Nweke, 2010). The flexibility of learning
through animation allows a wider range of stimuli thus increases the students‘ engagement in
learning. Studies by Kearsley (2002) revealed that students who learn from animation have
greater self-esteem and motivation in ICT classes. The researcher added that animated pictures
are used to support 3-D images in different displays, convey procedural knowledge, demonstrate
the dynamics, and allow explorations through manipulations. The present study will use multimedia animation and video media package involving computer projection and observed it effect on student’s achievement and attitude toward drug abuse concepts.
Video is a kind of multimedia teaching that can transmit verbal and non-verbal with the combination of Audio and Visual materials. It develops continuity of thought and offers a reality of experience that stimulates self-activities on the part of students (Nwoji, 2000).
In video teaching, the teacher produces a teaching video package which is played on a video a video player connected to a television monitor which is put on, for the learner to view. At interval he may choose to stop playing and explain certain points or factors or wait till the end of the lesson. Learners have the opportunity to repeat the lesson over and over again (Orisabiyi, 2007).
Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual’s way of acting and behaving. It has very serious implications for the learner, the teacher, the immediate social group with which the individual learner relates and the school system. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learner experiences. They may also be learned simply by following the examples, opinions of parents, teachers or friends. This is imitation which also has a part to play in the teaching and learning situation. In this respect the learner draws on his teacher’s disposition to form his own attitude which may likely affect his learning-outcomes (Chamdimba, 2008; Yara, 2009).
Therefore, attitude is another variable which seems to affect learning positively or negatively. Attitude according to Victor and Lerner (2005) is a psychological construct or latent variable responses to stimuli. According to them, attitude regulates behaviour that is directed towards or away from an object or situation or group of subjects or situations. The way and manner a subject matter is handled affects the attitude of the learners either negative or positively. For a positive attitude to be developed, pleasant events must exist during the time the student is encountering the subject matter. A lot of evidence exists in literature that show that attitudes adopted by students plays a major role in teaching and learning out-comes (Chamdimba, 2008;Yara, 2009).
Negative attitude can lead to low expectations on student’s academics. Also teaching strategies can influence the attitude of students positively or negatively. Reports have shown that improved instructional strategy affects the attitude of students. Oloorukoba (2001) reported that students taught using cooperative learning strategy had positive attitude to the educational benefits derived from group work. This study therefore sought to find out if there will be a change in attitude of students toward the misuse of drugs using this method.
Achievement is the action of accomplishing an academic task successfully. Its purpose is to find out the stand of a student at a given moment (Akani, 2017). It has to do with testing the knowledge acquired by the student which help the teacher and the student to evaluate and predict the degree of learning attained. It is useful in testing the retention of information and skill. It is also a determinant of the efficacy and efficiency of a given instruction (Kabutu, Oloyede & Bandele, 2015).
Globally, there have been debates on students’ achievement in science with respect to gender, which has continued to be of interest (Akani, 2017). Alabi (2014) observed that male students achieve better in science than their female counterparts. Cases where female students dominate their male counterparts in terms of achievement in science are rare. Many factors responsible for the dominance of male students in science are; gender imbalance, task difficulty, cognitive competence, perceived negative attitude toward female students by their teachers amongst others (Udo, 2010).
In order to enhance students’ academic achievement and attitude towards Basic Science and especially drug abuse, there is need for Basic Science teachers to employ appropriate learning strategies that will enable students view scientific knowledge as that which is inseparable from their environment and background. Based on the foregoing, the researcher set out to investigate the effect of Multimedia Teaching Approach on Basic Science students’ achievement and attitude towards drug abuse in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, it has been observed that the persistent low academic achievement in basic sciencecontinue to exist. Despite several innovative strategies adopted by the teachers to focus on science classroom on hands-on and minds-on, on science concepts, under achievement as well as negative attitude by students on science subjects persist, as reported by scholars and Chief Examiners JSSCE and NECO (2013 to 2017). This has been attributed to inadequacy and dismal utilization of basic science equipment for teaching, like using computers, limited animations and usage of media technology. As such teachers constantly use conventional methods in teaching the subject which is teacher centered and ignores students centered approach for effective teaching and learning of science concepts. This creates gap in the application of media technology to improve students’ achievement in drug abuse education. Limited literature exists on the effect of multimedia teaching approach on students’ academic achievement and attitude to basic science at junior secondary schools in the study area. In addition, in utilizing this method, teachers consider the cognitive aspect of the learners more than the affective (attitude).
Another dimension to this problem is that in spite of the sustained lessons been taught in schools on drug abuse education, the abuse of drugs among secondary school students appear to be on the increase. The cumulative effect of this phenomenon is the consequent drop out of many students from school to say the least.
There is a need to provide an alternative teaching strategy which will hopefully incorporate both cognitive and affective domains in the teaching of drug abuse education. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the effect of multimedia teaching approaching on student’s achievement and attitudes to drug abuse education.
1.3. Research Questions
The following questions are set to guide the study:
1. What are the mean achievement scores of students taught drug abuse using multimedia teaching approach and those taught using lecture method?
2. What are the mean attitude scores of students towards drug abuse when taught using multimedia teaching approach?
3. What are the mean achievement scores of male and female students to drug abusewhen taught using multimedia teaching approach?
4. What are the mean attitude scores of male and female students towards drug abusewhen taught using multimedia teaching approach?
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of multimedia teaching approach on Basic science students’ achievement and attitude towards drug abuse. Specifically, the study intends to:
1. determinethe effect of multimedia teaching approach on students’ achievement in drug abuse.
2. determine the effect of multimedia teaching approach on students’ attitude towards drug abuse.
3. determine the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught drug abuse using multimedia teaching approach.
4. determine the mean attitude scores of male and female students taught drug abuse using multimedia teaching approach.
1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will be tested at the 0.05 level of significance:
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught drug abuse using multimedia teaching approach and lecture method.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean attitude scores of students towards drug abuse taught using multimedia teaching approach and lecture method.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students towards drug abuse using multimedia teaching approach.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean attitude scores of male and female students towards drug abusewhen taught using multimedia teaching approach.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Multimedia teaching approach could be significant in aiding learning of drug abuse education. The result of this study might be beneficial to the following stakeholders in education. Such stakeholders include: Basic science educators, Teacher training institutions, Authors and Publishers of basic science text books, Basic science curriculum planners and developers, students and education policy makers.
Basic Science Teachers: Teachers may be more sensitized by the result of this study through seminars or workshops to adopt multimedia teaching approach in the teaching of drug abuse education. However, this may enable them to be more creative in designing multimedia teaching approach that would enable their students learn basic science better in this computer age.
Teacher Training Institution: The findings of this study will also help teacher training institutions to incorporate multimedia teaching approach into their existing methods of teaching. Agencies and Association like National Mathematical Centre (NMC), Science teachers’ association of Nigeria (STAN), Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN), National Association of Research in Science Education (NARSE) that carry out researches and organize conferences, seminars and workshops for practicing teachers of junior schools’ basic science would find this study beneficial by including it in their catalog for effective teaching/ learning approach.
Basic Science Students: The findings may be used to educate adolescents on substances abuse in Nasarawa West Senatorial zone Nasarawa State,Nigeria.
Professional Health Care: the findings of this study might help health care professionals, and other professionals involved with adolescents to understand the prevalence of adolescent substance use and abuse, associated morbidities and most importantly, to develop effective evidence –based strategies and policies that could be used to control the substance abuse and misuse of drugs.
NDLEA: the findings could be useful to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and other relevant bodies in combating drug abuse in school environment.
Basic Science Curriculum Planners: Basic Science Curriculum Planners such as Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) will find this study beneficial by incorporating multimedia in their curriculum through seminars and workshops for effective teaching and learning of basic science.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will investigate the effect of multimedia teaching approach on Basic Science students’ achievement and attitude towards drug abuse education. It will be delimited to Junior Secondary School Three (JSSIII) Basic Science students in Junior Secondary Schools within Nasarawa West Senatorial Zone of Nasarawa State, because it is observed that most students in the zone abuse drugs for one purpose of the other which leads to underachievement in Basic Science. The Junior Secondary three students will be used for the study because they have passed through first and second stage of the Junior Secondary School Basic Science and have been equipped with the fundamental skills, knowledge and attributes of the subject which will help them understand the subject and communicate among themselves effectively. The content scope of Drug Abuse used includes; meaning and effect of drug abuse, prevention of drug abuse, activities of drug control agencies, misuse of herbal medicine and ways of misusing drugs. The choice of the topic is that, it is included in the Junior Secondary III Curriculum and despite Government inclusion of drug abuse education in Nigerian secondary school curriculum to minimize the abuse of drugs by adolescents, yet more and more students are misusing drugs in secondary schools. The type of multimedia that will be used in this study are animation and video. Multimedia Teaching Approach is specifically chosen because it will allow for more active involvement of students in teaching and learning as audio and visuals will be used which will allow for proper transference of knowledge from the teacher to the students. This is in line with the design of Basic Science curriculum.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Some concepts used in the study are operationally defined as follows:
Multimedia: it is the teaching strategy used for the experimental group that implies application of computer software packages and flash cards in teaching process.
Attitude:This is described as a situation in which students change their behavior positively or negatively after learning experience.
Achievement in Basic Science: The scores obtained from students’ test.
Drug: Is any chemical substance which when taken into the body affects one’s mood, behavour or state of mind.
Drug Abuse:is when drug is not medically necessary, legally prohibited or when it is excessively used as in the case of socially acceptable drugs such as alcohol and cigarette
Lecture Method: this is a strategy in the teaching of control group that involves verbal presentation of ideas, concepts and generalization of facts.
Students:Junior Secondary Three Basic Science Learners.
3-Dimentional Effects:Refers to a motion picture, motion picture show, movie, moving picture show, picture, film, flick picture.
Drug Addiction: This refers to addiction to drugs or substances that a student’s body can no longer function without it.
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