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TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         I

DECLARATION                                                                                                                   II

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                 III

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                               IV

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       V

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                                                      VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       VIII

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 XI

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                                XII

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           XIII


  • Background to the Study 1
  • Statement of the Problem 7
  • Objectives of the Study 8
  • Research Questions 8
  • Significance of the Study 9
  • Scope and Delimitation of the Study 9
  • Operational Definition of Terms 11




3.1       Introduction                                                                                                                71

3.2       Research Design                                                                                                         71

3.3       Population and Sample                                                                                               71

3.3.1    Population of the Study                                                                                              71

3.3.2    Sample Size                                                                                                                72

3.4       Sampling Technique                                                                                                   72

3.4.1    Simple Random Sampling Technique                                                                        72

3.4.2    Purposive Sampling Technique                                                                                  73

3.5       Data Collection Instruments                                                                                       74

3.5.1    Observation Technique                                                                                               74

3.5.2    Description of Structured Questionnaire                                                                    74

3.5.3    Validation of the Questionnaire                                                                                  74

3.5.4    Reliability of the Questionnaire                                                                                  74

3.6       Data Collection Procedure                                                                                          75

3.7       Data Analysis Procedure                                                                                            75


4.1       Introduction                                                                                                                77

4.2       Data Analysis                                                                                                              77

4.2.1    Research Question One                                                                                              77

4.2.2    Research Question Two                                                                                              80

4.2.3    Research Question Three                                                                                            83

4.3       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                      87

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                               87


5.1       Introduction                                                                                                                91

5.2       Summary                                                                                                                     91

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                                  92

5.4       Recommendation                                                                                                        93

5.4.1    Recommendations from the Study                                                                             93

5.4.2    Recommendations for Further Studies                                                                       93

            REFERENCES                                                                                                          95

            APPENDICES                                                                                                           99



Table 1: Distribution of population of students with physical impairment                            72

Table 2: Sample of various schools selected with respective sample size                             72

Table 3: Random sampling of special schools in the Educational Zones                              73

Table 4: Mean Summary of the types of equipment and facilities available for use                 77

by students with physical impairment

Table 5: Mean Summary of the extent which educational services are provided to                    80

students with physical impairment

Table 6: Mean Summary of the challenges that exist among students with physical                83



This study titled ‘Assessment, Provision and Challenges of Educational Services for Students with Physical Impairment in Secondary Schools in Plateau State: Used descriptive type and cross-sectional design. The population of the study were 164 students with physical impairment from three (3) Senatorial Districts of Plateau State. The sample size of the study was 30 students with physical impairment. Two sampling techniques were used; simple random was used to select 6 schools for the study while purposive sampling technique was used to select students with physical impairment. In order to collect data from the selected samples, the researcher used a self-made structured questionnaire. Data analysis was quantitative and which data were fed in the computer and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that switch users, walkers, artificial limbs, flufers, adapted furniture, power lifts, or ramps were not available for use, leaving these students with only access to crutches, wheelchairs, laptops, and canes. Auditory, health, recreational, and counseling services were the only educational offerings offered to the students with physical impairment. On the other hand, services such as physical therapy, transportation, parental counseling, speech and language pathology, occupational therapy, and interpretation were not offered to the students with physical impairment. The results showed that students with physical impairments in Plateau State faced obstacles related to inadequate motor skills, the lack of adapted sports facilities, the inaccessibility of school environments, parental engagement, specialists, and supplies.Ministry of Education should ensure that infrastructure is modified so that it is accessible to all students with physical impairment and ensure the availability of all the needed equipments and facilities in various secondary schools in Plateau State.School heads are encouraged to create workshops and seminars in training all teachers and caregivers responsible in providing the educational services that should be provided for the pursuance of the education for students with physical impairment. Government should provide adapted materials and facilities and make school environment accessible for students with physical impairment in Plateau State.



1.1       Background to the Study

An assessment in special education is the process used to determine a child’s specific learning strengths and needs, and to determine whether or not a child is eligible for special education services. Assessment in special education is a process that involves collecting information about a student for the purpose of making decisions. Assessment, also known as evaluation, can be seen as a problem-solving process that involves many ways of collecting information about the student (Nelson & Dawson, 2014). According to Suskie (2004) assessment is “a process that involves the systematic collection and interpretation of a wide variety of information on which to base instructional/intervention decisions and, when appropriate, classification and placement decisions. Assessment is primarily a problem-solving process”.

Assessment plays a foundational role in special education. Students with physical impairment are complex learners who have unique needs that exist alongside their strengths. Effective special education teachers have to fully understand those strengths and needs in order to help them. Thus, these teachers are knowledgeable regarding assessment and are skilled in using and interpreting data. This includes formal, standardized assessments that are used in identifying students for special education services, developing students’individualized educational programme or plan (IEPs), and informing ongoing services.

Assessing the educational development of students with physical impairment is very challenging for teachers and they often express the need for accurate and precise guidance in applying the assessment practices in inclusive classrooms (Unda, 2009). The Individualized educational plan for each student should be put in practice and include the necessary modification in relation to the assessment of knowledge as well as the specific goals that should be attained individually for each student.There are a wide range of strategies and assessment tools used to gather data about students with physical impairment. Specialists conducting the evaluation will be looking at developmental, academic, and functional information about the child and their needs.These assessments do more than determine whether or not a child has a disability. They must also pinpoint whether or not the physical impairment impacts the student’s education.

Educational provision is the business of the Government of any country to its citizenry irrespective of ability or inability, no wonder, the Nigerian Government ranging from Federal, States and LGAs run schools and subsidized costs on education through different intervention programs such as UBEB, SUBEB, TET FUND, Industrial Training Fund, Educational Trust Fund, Mellenium Development Goal, among others to ensure provision and sustenance of education at the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels respectively. Moreover,the creation of Special Education Unit under the Federal Ministry of Education as well as Special Education Centres in almost every Local Government, Areas to cater for diverse persons with special needs of which those living with Physical Impairment are not an exception. In modern era, the clamor for inclusion of Persons with Physical Impairment is gradually gaining universal acceptance in both Advanced and Developing Countries; giving room for an implementation of laws that would protect Persons with Physical Impairment. Provision of special facilities to meet their unique needs, Scholarship to support their education, eliminating architectural barriers in raising structure and even adopting the 5% recruitment policy absorption into civil service Adima, Ladipo&Abosi, 2020).In the education of children with physical Impairment, the first priority is to promote the optimum development of the child’s capacity and personality. Physical limitation and environmental handicaps bring about uneven development and it essential to do everything possible to compensate for the direct effect of such as emotional unsettlements, immaturity of social isolation. Much more than in ordinary teaching, the teacher of students with Physical Impairment has to be observant of children in development and accept the responsibility for guiding it.  Similarly, the regular teachers should be observant too and required to have ultimate knowledge and understanding of the individual child with Physical Impairment, his/her strengths and weaknesses in mental ability, his different levels of emotional, social and physical maturity, the particular effects on him of the handicap, the influence of home and family.

The UN Enable (2004) stresses the importance of the mobility and accessibility of disabled persons to facilities in order for them to be well integrated in society. It lays emphasis on how important it is for local authorities to ensure that the specific needs of the disabled persons are identified and incorporated accordingly. Dion (2005) also emphasis that accessibility measures should be inculcated in all rebuilding or reconstruction efforts; in a bid to ensure that the educational facilities are accessible.

            Educational service is the phenomenon fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one which carried an explanation in question. Educational related services may include: Audiology services, counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling, early identification and assessment of disabilities in children, interpreting services, medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes only, orientation and mobility services, parent counseling and training, physical therapy and occupational therapy, psychological services, recreation, including therapeutic recreation, school health services and school nurse services social work services in schools and speech-language pathology services (Küpper, 2007). The list of educational services is not intended to be exhaustive, which means that other developmental, corrective, or support services can be provided as “educational services” if they are required to help a student with physical impairment benefit from special education.

Educational Services comprises of establishments that provide instruction and training in a wide variety of subjects for students. Education is a right of every child whether she/he is disabled or non-disabled as education equips children to meet the challenges of life. It involves growing up knowing the environment in which we live in. It is a human right with immense power to transform the environment in which we live, as it is a powerful instrument of social change and often initiates upward movement in the social structure. In order to make education for all a reality, every child must have access to quality education. The UNESCO Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960) and other international human rights treaties like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1946) prohibit any sort of exclusion from educational opportunities on the basis of sex, ethnic origin, language, religion, nationality, socio-economic conditions, abilities etc. However, millions of children continue to experience exclusion within (and from) education systems across the world especially persons with physical impairment (Adima, Et’al, 2001).

            According to Atolagbe, (2005) Physical impairments include a range of conditions affecting individuals of all age ranges. Among these are cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, polio, seizure disorders, spinal cord disorders, juvenile arthritis, limb deficiency, and skeletal disorders. Physical impairments are usually classified into the two categories of neuromotor impairments and muscular skeletal conditions. Neuromotor impairments result from a damaged central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord, and individuals so affected have difficulty controlling their muscles and movement (Kiarie, 2005). While individuals with muscular/skeletal impairments also have difficulty with muscular and movement control, the cause of these impairments may not be neurological. Individuals with either neuro-motor or muscular/skeletal conditions may need the same educational, therapeutic, and recreational services to realize their potential(Kennedy, 2000). In cases where the physical impairment is very significant and necessitate it, some individuals may need to use special devices and technology to accomplish such tasks as walking, eating, or writing, that most people take for granted (Osakwe, 2010). Learners, especially those with lower limb paresis and other forms of lower limb mobility limitation may also require assistive devices such as wheel chairs, canes, crutches, and artificial limbs for mobility (Osakwe, 2005). There are persons with physical impairment in all parts of the world and at all levels in every society. The physical impaired has a substantial long-term adverse effect on one’s ability to carry out normal day to day activities. Both the causes and the consequences of physical disability vary throughout the world. According to The United Nations (1993), those variations are the result of different socio-economic circumstances and of the different provisions that States make for the wellbeing of their citizens. According to Crume, Moran &Shiekh, (2001) environmental, technical, and attitudinal barriers and consequent social exclusion reduce the opportunities for physically impaired to contribute productively to the household and the community and further increase the risk of falling into poverty. However, through educational services and rehabilitation, they cease to be a liability to the society and contribute to the national development.

            Historically, persons with physical impairment have been marginalized and denied equitable participation opportunities, including participation in education. They have been criminally victimized within the society’s institutions mostly due to negative psychological factors such as negative attitudes, prejudices, stereotyping, and stigmas (Hughes, 2005). In many African countries, being disabled at least doubles the chance of having never attended school (UNESCO, 2010), and those who do start school are at increased risk of dropping out. The problem is exacerbated in higher levels of education. There have been several criticisms about Nigerian education, among which, according to Mba (1995), is its failure to take account of individual differences among learners into consideration. The need to consider individual differences is not unconnected with the fact that children do not develop the same way. For instance, while some may be tall and thin, others may be short and fat. These and many others are just examples of differences in children’s physical development. There are also some differences in intelligence, emotional, maturity and social development among children. Thus, we have the hearing impaired, the learning disabled, the gifted, the talented, the mentally retarded and host of others. These children and youths with variations in their total development are those for with special education is meant to take care of.

            According to Adamu (2009), there are more than 19 million physically impaired people in the world. Between 75 and 90 per cent of them live below poverty line due to years of neglect by the society, especially their lack of access to paid employment. People, particularly students with physical impairment are usually perceived by societies as disadvantaged groups. Hence they are in a position of missing some economic, political and social benefits including the right to access equitable and quality education. This is in line with Mcleod (2014) who points out that, students with physical impairment experience personal limitations in school environments that affect their social, psychological and academic spheres that may likely affect their academic performances at school.

An assessment of the educational services for Nigerian students shows that students with physical impairment have experienced narrow chances to enjoy school environments or practices due to fewer priorities given by educational providers to issues that may support the disable especially in developing countries in areas such as curriculums, teaching and learning materials, infrastructure, special programs such as sports and games, environmental issues and the general quality of education.  Buildings in most school environments are also not supportive to Students with Physical impairment in developing countries such as Nigeria and Plateau state in particular. Students living with Physical Impairment are also faced with the problem of overcrowded classrooms, lack of seats, standing space and poor acoustics. This is a difficult situation and it negatively impacts academic performance of Students with Physical Impairment.A good example cited is in the study by Firmer (2005) which shows that more than sixty percent (60%) of students with physical impairment studying under unconducive learning environment performed poorly in their studies due to the difficulties they faced.

Challenges they encountered included, among others, long walking distances, limited access to learning materials and climbing building stairs. The conditions stated above constitute major obstacles for many Students with Physical Impairment getting access to formal education systems in school and colleges. Due to these factors, there could be very low attendance of Students with Physical Impairment, retention, survival and academic completion rates. They are less favoured by infrastructures and school environment in general, it is from the researchers consideration of the situation explored above that the interest for this study was triggered. This study intends to explore the assessment, provision and challenges of educational services for students with physical impairment in Plateau state: Case study of selected schools in the three Educational Zones of the state with the aim of unearthing the problems associated and proferring better solution against the problems encountered by Students with Physical Impairment and recommend appropriate strategies for the problem.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

An assessment, provisions, and challenges of educational services for students with physical impairment in Plateau state present a pressing concern. Despite efforts to promote inclusive education, students with physical impairments continue to face significant obstacles in accessing quality education tailored to their unique needs. There seem to be a lack of comprehensive assessment methods and tools to accurately identify and evaluate the educational requirements of students with physical impairments in Plateau State. The absence of appropriate assessment practices hampers the development of individualized education plans and the provision of necessary support services which is a serious concern to the educators.

Educational services available for students with physical impairments in Plateau State seems to be inadequate and fall short of meeting their diverse needs. There is a scarcity of specialized facilities, assistive technologies, and trained personnel, such as special education teachers, therapists, and support staff to cater for the specific requirements of these students. Students with physical impairments encountervarious challenges that impede their educational progress. The physical infrastructure of schools in Plateau State may not be designed or adapted to accommodate students with physical impairments. These barriers pose significant challenges for students with mobility issues, making it difficult for them to move around and participate in various activities within the school environment.

The increasing number of children with physical impairment out of school and unfavorable learning environment in Nigeria has increased the number of unskilled and illiterate citizens and youths who are not groomed for employment. Such students become dependent on others for their daily basic needs. Others engage in dangerous offenses as they seek for their earnings. That is why the researcher is interested in investigating the assessment, provisions and challenges of educational services for students with physical impairment in Plateau State. The investigation provided light on how to address the problem of effective engagement of the physically impaired secondary education. As is commonly acknowledged, education empowers individuals for social, political and economic independence, hence those who miss education stand at disadvantage.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to look into the Assessment, Provisions and Challenges of Educational Services for Students with Physical Impairment in Secondary Schools in Plateau State.

The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To find out the equipment and facilities available for use by students with physical impairment in inclusive secondary schools in Plateau State.
  2. To determine the type of provisions of educational services available for students with physical impairment in inclusive secondary schools of Plateau state.
  3. To find out the challenges that exists in learning among students with physical impairment in inclusive secondary schools of Plateau

1.4       Research Questions

  1. What are the type of equipment and facilities available for use by students with physical impairment in inclusive secondary schools of Plateau State?
  2. To what extent are educational services provided to students with Physical impairment in inclusive secondary schools of Plateau state?
  3. What are the challenges that exists in learning among students with physical impairment in inclusive secondary schools of Plateau state?

1.5       Scope and Delimitation of the Study

            The study waslimited to the assessment, provisions and challenges of educational services for students with physical impairment in secondary schools of Plateau State. The research only involved secondary school students with physical impairment in the three senatorial districts of the state. The study included students with physical impairment to provide information on problems challenges of educational services for students with physical impairment. These factors will most likely to delimit the representativeness and generalization of the study to the entire situation in all the three Senatorial Districts of the State. The names of the schools that were selected are: BSS/GHS Gindiri, Federal Government College Jos,Ganaka International School Jos, Federal Government College Jos,Saint Benedict College Shendam and Federal Girls’ Government College Langtang North.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will benefit students, teachers, Guidance and Counselors, curriculum planners, Ministry of education officials, researchers and Federal ministry of education. The study is expected to assist in establishing a base for the government and other stakeholders to follow up in providing accessible, quality and equitable high education to people with physical impairment.

            It is expected to help policy makers and education planners to review existing educational policies, plans and priorities so as to find out better ways of financing and supporting students with physical impairment in secondary education at the same time improving enrollment, survival, completion and performance rates of this group of students in secondary schools.

This study will expose students to the relevance of assessment for appropriate provision of educational services, thereby appreciating teachers’ role in conducting different assessment technique which would help students identify their level of performance, areas of weaknesses, causes of difficulties and as well reflect on ways to improve on these challenges.

 It will help Teachers to ascertain why students with Physical Impairment are not doing well at the secondary level in the study location to address the factors responsible with a view to improving the quality of assessment technique among teachers and hence students’ performance in schools.

School authorities will be better informed to acquire appropriate structures materials and facilities that are relevant to meet the unique needs of Students with Physical Impairment. The school authority has it as a duty to see that pupils are tested from time to time for the purpose of finding areas of difficulties and introducing workable solution for the students’ intellectual development.

Parents on their part, will gain from the outcome of this study as it will serve as an eye opener to their essential roles in deciding the type of school with well provided equipments and good services to enroll wards with Physical Impairment, demand for their children academic welfare thereby checkmating the activities of their children both in school and at home; checkmate the action of school authority in respect to quality input and other related matters.

Government and Non-Government Agencies will have the necessary requisite, for the implementation of projects in schools; for instance, establishing ethics for assessment techniques in schools, emphasis on teachers’ qualification, record keeping machine, writing materials, good environment among others should be readily available if assessment and provision must be given a  priority.

The findings of this study will serve as a reference material for subsequent investigation. It will help guidance Counselors with relevant information for effective counseling of students with Physical Impairment in secondary schools so as to promote performance.

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms

Physical Impairment: This refers to a limitation on a student with physical impairment in the physical functioning and mobility within the school that affect active participation.

Educational services: These are provisions that offered instruction and training in a wide variety of school subjects for students with physical impairment.

Assessment: This refers to the examination carried out on the students with physical impairment to determine their challenges in school environment.

Accessibility: This is the right or opportunity of students with physical impairment reaching, obtaining and using a service available in school for purposes of acquiring knowledge.

Physical facilities: Basic infrastructure such as buildings, roads and pathways that help to make the students with physical impairment active participants in school programmes.

Equipment: These are modified devices that students with physical impairment need in order to participate in all activities of the school.

Provision of Educational Services: These areprovision that students with physical impairment are provided to enable their full participation in school activities.

Special Education: This refers to a set of services provided to students who experience exceptional learning needs to meet their unique needs.

Students with Physical Impairment:This refers to students who have orthopedic, neuromotor, or musculoskeletal impairments that prevent normal physical functioning in school environment. 

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