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Title page – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – iv
Table of contents – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iv

1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1-3
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – 3-5
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 5
1.3 Purpose of the study – – – – – 5
1.4 Specific objective – – – – – – 6
1.5 Delimitation – – – – – – – 6


3.0 Introduction – – – – – – 20
3.1 Research design – – – – – – 20
3.2 Research Population – – – – – 20-21
3.2.1 Population – – – – – – – 21
3.2.2 Sample – – – – – – – – 21-22
3.3 Sampling technique – – – – – – 22
3.4.1 Description of the instrument – – – – 22
3.4.2 Procedure for instrument development – – 23
3.5 Validity and reliability – – – – – – 23
3.6 Procedure for data collection – – – – 23-24
3.7 Method of data analysis – – – – – 24

4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 25
4.1 Analysis – – – – – – – – 25-42

5.1 Summary of findings – – – – – – 43-44
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 44-45
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 45-46
Appendix 1
Appendix 2

The investigation was basically an attempt to find out the economics of Amaranthus production in Dawo community of Mangu L.G.A in Plateau state. The research work was centred on some sample villages in the community which include Bungha Dawo, Bungha Gida, Federal low coast, Tal, Dawo angwa respectively. Questionnaires were drawn to analyse the findings that the result of the valuables were obtained, the study found that 50% were predominantly farmers and they fall within the age bracket of 26-35 years. It was revealed in the study area that majority of the farmers engage in small scale farming which formed 65% of the population from the study it was gathered that rivers and wells were the sources of water used. Poor storage facilities which resulted into the immediate sale of the products were the major problems encountered. The study recommended that functional storage facilities and sources of water be improved for farmers use in the production of vegetable. The study also discovered that majority, about 67% of the farmers were men, and the women are involved more in the marketing of the crops. The study also discovered that that most (50%) of the farmers were secondary school leavers. From the study it was discovered also that 28% (which is the majority) of the farmers are from Dam-bungah this is because the area is located close to a source of water (river). The study also discovered that the majority of those involved in the farming of the crop were base farmers which percentage keeps it at 57% which shows that the main occupation of those residing around the area is farming. It was also discovered that spinach is the vegetable that is mostly grown in the study area which number puts it at 51%. The majority (55%) of the respondents have been into farming for around 13 years, which means they have been long into the system. The marketing structure also forced majority of the farmers into small scale farming putting the number at 61%, poultry droppings carry a very high number in terms of the kind of manure been used, which is 87%. It was discovered that most farmers use surface irrigation putting the percentage at 60% as most of them get their source from the river. Most farmers sold their produce at the rural market because of its high perishability which discourage transportation to long distance, also in the report majority 60% of the respondents sold in 1kg this is basically as a result many of the community members do not purchase vegetable in high quantity, keeping its cost per kg at #50 this shows that vegetables are cheap, also 51% of the respondents estimate cost of production at #10,000, this is because the farmers basically lack source of capital to improve their production. The government is thereby called upon to intercede in the matters so as to improve the farmers’ production which will in turn improve their lives.
1.0. Introduction
Agriculture is concerned basically with the husbandry of crops and animals for food and other purposes. It is the foundation upon which the development of stable human community such as the rural and also the urban areas depended and many if not all parts of the world do too. Agriculture is also one of the oldest and earliest industries of the world today and its origin can be traced to the earliest human society. These early settlers collect agricultural produce such as fruits and nuts which they survived on, and when they discovered the displaced seeds of this produce germinated on their own, they (early men) began planting them (seeds of fruits and nuts). This led to the growth of agriculture generally today. The whole grain council (W.G.C) 2010.
Production in agriculture, which started from the earliest men, include all the processes involve in the changing of inputs into finished goods that will give man the desired usefulness and need involved in the distribution of such goods.
Theordore Levitt (1998) believe that marketing should be tied more closely to the inner orbit of business policy even as marketing is originated from series of exchange system. Initially people were concerned with the production for consumers consumption and inter-household exchange, such pattern of production was primarily subsistence in nature providing little or no room for specialization as each household had to produce practically all its need (Levitt 1998).
For instance they grind their own grain into cereal floor, they butchered their meat locally, dry and grind their tuber and also fishes were also dried or meshed, but with time, people discovered their endowment and potential talents which allowed them to produce something better than others Levitt (1998).
Industrial societies and also the rural communities depend on agricultural products the small-scale farmers for supplying food and other basic necessities of life, such as wool and cotton for clothing.
Presently in Nigeria around 70-75% of the adult population, derive their income directly or indirectly from agriculture. Thousands of these populations are farmers who produce cash crops such as cocoa, cotton, oil palm, groundnut, rubber and many other which grows them not only for their own income alone but also for the government. (word press journal 2012).
It is recorded in Nigeria, that over 80% of foreign exchange earned by the country (Nigeria) comes from agriculture before the advent of petroleum industries. This contribution is now diminishing, but still account for about 20% of the foreign exchange earned by the country (Akinsoye 1988).
In regards to small scale farmers, they constitute an important invaluable sector or component of the Nigerian economy. This importance can be pre-missed on certain basic benchmark. The small scale farmers are very efficient in the utilization of the basic production resources available to them.
1.1 Background of the study
Agriculture is concerned basically with the husbandry of crops and animals for food and other purposes. It is the foundation upon which the development of stable human community such as the rural and also the urban area depend upon. Physical inputs such as land, labor, capital management and water resources are organized into farm, firm or a producing unit as a whole. Its ultimate objective may be profit maximization or satisfaction, or even a combination of both.
According to Erebor (2003), production agriculture is the creation of goods and services that finally gets to the consumers, for human satisfaction. Dr. R.O Babatunde explains that Agricultural production involves the making of decision on efficient utilization at farm resources to achieve farmers production and marketing objectives.
According to the B.P.L (Business plan Nigeria) a seminar held in Jos on July (2015) said Agricultural production is the process of transforming agricultural resources into a form that will give us maximum satisfaction. Agricultural production decisions are in effect decision making in the allocation of scarce and therefore a choice has to be made in their use with the ultimate objective may be profit maximization of satisfaction or the combination of these motives of enterprise. Dr. N.E Mundi, and Dr. S.J Ibitoye of the NOUN, (National open University of Nigeria 2010).
Agricultural production economics is a branch of applied economics where economic principles are applied in the use of land, labour, capital and management on farms and in agricultural industry. Agricultural production is an applied field of economics science which is essentially concerned with the application of the principles of choice to the utilization of capital, labour, land water and management resources in the farming industry (Olayide and Heady, 1982).
1.2 Statement of problem
Amaranthus Spp is one of the vegetable crops that is highly perishable. Farmers, in various parts of the country find it difficult to store it for a long period of time. Amaranthus viridis is one of the vegetable crop produced in Mangu, Plateau state that is produced in large quantity, which have been hammered by poor storage facilities, pest and diseases, capital and also laxity on the part of the extension delivery workers.
1.3 Objective of the study
The objectives of this research work is to:
i. Determine the profit of amaranthus production in Dawo community, of Mangu L.G.A
ii. Determine the production and utilization of amaranthus in the study area.
iii. To find out the costs and returns of amaranthus production in Bunga, Mangu L.G.A.
1.5 Hypothesis
Ha: production of Amaranthus is profitable in Dawo community.
Ho: Production of Amaranthus is not profitable in Dawo community of Mangu L.G.A
1.6 Delimitation
The research work was conducted in Dawo community of Mangu LGA of Plateau state. The findings are restricted to Dawo community in Mangu local Government area of Plateau state and other communities that have the same socioeconomic factors.
The study was mainly focusing on the survey of the economy of amaranthus production, farmers profile, consumption and utilization of amaranthus in Dawo community of Mangu local government area.



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