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Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii

1.1. Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 5
1.3. Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.4. Research Questions – – – – – – – 6
1.5. Significance of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.6. Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – – 8

2.1 The Concept of Teenager – – – – – – 9
2.2 Concept of prostitution – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Causes of Teenage Prostitution – – – – – – 13
2.4 Concept of Academic Performance – – – – – 13
2.4.1 Measurement of Academic Performance – – – – 17
2.5 Effects of Teenage Prostitution on Academic Performance of Teenagers 20
2.6 Summary of Literature Review – – – – – – 21

3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 22
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 22
3.2 Population of the Study – – – – – – – 23
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique- – – – – – 23
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 24
3.4.1 Description of the Instrument – – – – – – 24
3.4.2 Procedure for Instrument Development – – – – 24
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument – – – – 24
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection- – – – – – – 25
3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 25

4.0 Introduction- – – – – – – – – 27
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – – 27
4.3 Discussion of Findings- – – – – – – – 35

5.1 Summary of Findings- – – – – – – – 38
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 38
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 39
References – – – – – – – – 40
Appendixes – – – – – – – – 45


This project was carried out to determine the conception of teenage prostitution and academic performance in secondary schools in Jos South Local Government Area. The population of this study consisted of all the teachers in the selected local government. The sample of the study consisted of 100 teachers. The sampling technique adopted for this study was the random sampling technique. The instrument used for collecting data was the questionnaire. The method of data analysis was simple percentage. The findings of the study indicated that the causes of teenage prostitution are poverty in the home, following bad friends, early exposure of females to sexual activities; the effects of teenage prostitution on the individual include: teenage prostitutes experience divided attention in academics as they spend most of their time trying to look good, teenage prostitutes can contract HIV/AIDS, lack of respect for constituted authorities, depression as a result of result of prostitution; some of the effects of the teenage prostitution on their academic performance include: poor performance academically, dropping out of school, getting expelled from school and improper grading of students are the effects of teenage prostitution on the academic performance of the students. In the light of the findings, it was recommended among others that parents should try as much as possible to provide the needs of their children, especially the female ones, school authorities should emphasize on sex education with particular stress on the dangers of teenage prostitution, teachers who are involved sexually with students should be punished in order to serve as a lesson to others, teenage prostitution should be made a crime where both the girl and the customers will face the wrath of the law.

1.8. Background of the Study
Prostitution has been regarded as the oldest profession, as it meets the natural urges of humans in return for money and it is claimed to be as old as civilisation itself (Bindel,2006: Gangoli & Westmarland, 2006: Day,2007). Origins of prostitution date back to the genesis of mankind. There appears to have been in every age men who did not avail themselves to the marriage covenant but driven by sexual instincts for illegitimate sexual pleasures who are satisfied by wicked women. This may be assumed to be the real origins of prostitution throughout the world, though in particular cultural groups this cause could have been assisted by female avarice or passion, religious superstition or mistaken sense to hospitality. Accordingly, prostitution exists in every society. It is constantly assumed as an existing fact in biblical history. It is estimated that prostitutes were common among the Jews before the Birth of Christ (BBC).
In some, societies prostitution is not a disgrace but a practice that is legitimised. The portrayal of prostitution in societies vary, for some people, prostitution is viewed as an expression of sexual liberation, as a public health issue to others as a form of violence against women. Kelser (2002) argues that prostitution serves men’s sexual needs and meets women’s economic needs. In liberal feminism, prostitution in contractual sense is conceived as private business transaction, (Day, 2007). Radical feminists, on the other hand, view a prostitute as a human being who has been reduced to a piece of merchandise or an act of selling one’s body, in which a prostitute rents out a specific part of their bodies – namely their genitals. Such a view, assumes that the client buys sex, does not care for the sex-workers sexual gratification, but requires the prostitute to provide sexual enjoyment, (Klepper, 1993).The liberal contends that a woman is free to enter into contracts. However, the radical feminist does not believe that a prostitute’s desire to enter into such a „contract‟ is done of her own free will. The radical feminists see prostitution as an exploitative relationship in which the customer is interested only in the prostitute’s services and not her personally, (Day, 2007). On a different perspective, the Marxist feminist response to the liberal position is that prostitution represents a corruption of wage labour, and is therefore degrading and oppressive. Contrary to radical, liberal and Marxist feminists, the existentialist feminism, views prostitution as an avenue which allows women to escape from dependency on men in a way that does not leave them victims, but empowers women. From a moralistic view, prostitution offends cultural moral standards and spreads sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, herpes and HIV/AIDS syndrome (Barry, 1995).Used condoms, syringes and other paraphernalia left on the ground are potentially hazardous. Stuart (1995) observed that the presence of prostitutes may negatively affect the area by reducing property values. Prostitution is deemed inappropriate behaviour. However, shifting the ethical centre of sexual morality, from contemporary and classical ethical theory towards a morality, in which moral right and wrong is defined from patriarchal culture, which is male dominated; it would not logically convince opponents of patriarchy. Specifically, Imelda, (1995:37) states, “If male domination becomes the underpinning of morality, all systems of moral theory then must be applicable in consistent terms with this new moral centering in which male domination and the thirst for sexual power is central.”
It is noted that most theoretical approaches in understanding factors that influence prostitution have limitations. For example, prostitutes and their clients have a world view about the degrading nature of prostitution. Exploiting sexuality is not uncommon, and it is not always men who are exploitative. There are many instances of men’s exploitation by women who have used their sexual prowess to exploit them, for example, to get favours, money or promotions, (Dorchen, 1990). Barry (1995) and Stuart (1995) generally agree that prostitution is a form of moral decadence because it degrades a woman, who is generally viewed as a person of low social statute.
The profile or the client or prostitutes need not be overlooked because without them there would not employment for these categories. For there are still many men who begin their sexual life with prostitute. Normally they are pushed by their friends or even their close family member to demonstrate their “manhood”. Among men who are marry, many try to resolve sexual problem within their marriage by going to a prostitute, has its peculiar history and etiology the urges to achieve necessary of life, pleasurable relaxation without necessarily passing through cultural approved process in achieving their social goal led many teenage to prostitution. Adotomere (2005) refers to teenage prostitution as prostitution associated with teenagers who give out themselves for sexual intercourse in request for money material gains. The implication of above is that many who go into prostitution do so as a result of financial difficulties. They find no other easy way of acquiring money to alleviate poverty hence they resort t selling of their bodies for monetary gains. Okorodudu (2006) stated that teenage prostitution is relative to the individual’s value and time, very importantly is the acceptance of behavior as normal, so long as norms and values have become dynamic. Teenage prostitution is an act of indulging in sexual acts for financial and material benefit among teenagers. Teenage prostitution is relative not merely to establish social laws but also to generate practice (Agular Garbes and Morish 2004). It is used in relating to an individual behavioural departure from well established norms.
Teenage prostitution has attracted a lot of concern from various researchers and the society in general. This is partly as a result of evil associated with prostitution and its attendant violation of the society norm and value on the other hands these teenagers who involve themselves in prostitution are of the generation the society depend on for its continuous existence and could not afford to allow them waste. As a result many mothers have expressed their view on the topic “teenage” prostitution. According to Carlebach in Morde (2004) juvenile prostitutes in Nairobi were from inadequate or dispute family background. In a similar study for women escaping prostitution, Promise (1977) stated that 30% at a sample of women in San Francisco catered prostitution at the age of 15 or younger and described themselves as runaways. In a study Ayonumare (1999) posted that sexual films on our television promotes curiosity and which makes them to carry out the fact of prostitution for the fun of it. He also attributed the member of increasing teenager in school involving in prostitution to poverty which has a strong correlated with the rapid increase in teenage prostitution. Teenagers exposed to pornographic films are likely to try out what they have seen or heard just for the fun of it, (Laidpo, 2002). He also blamed the situation on lack of basic sex education at home and at school; in another study Mackinvon and Dworkin (1997) noted that pornographic has been used as recruitment into prostitution. Adedoyin and Adegoke (1995) identified child sexual abuse as a precursor to prostitution among 50% of 150 Nigeria prostituted teenagers. Farely and Kelly (2000) reported that researcher and clinical reports have documented the prevailed childhood sexual abuse and chronic traumatization among prostituted women. Form the foregoing; it can be viewed from the opinion of writer that teenage prostitution has its roots from poverty runways from homes, pornography, child abuse self will, parents background etc.
In the light of this discussion, this study sets out to create a link between teenage prostitution and academic performance of secondary school students in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State.
1.9. Statement of the Problem
Over the years, there has been a loud outcry by parents, teachers and other education stakeholders over the mass failure of students in secondary schools, of which the girl-child is not an exception. This problem has been attributed to a number of social vices which include: bullying, cultism, teenage pregnancy, teenage prostitution, etc. The prevalence of teenage prostitution has become a serious social prob¬lem to secondary schools in Nigeria, the government and society in general. Teenage prostitution has its attendant risks which include health, physical, emo¬tional, psychological and sociological risks. It is not quite clear the impact of prostitution tendencies may have on academic performance of secondary school stu¬dents in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State as stated above so the desire to write the research topic.
1.10. Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teenage prostitution on the academic performance of secondary school students in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State.
Other specific objectives include:
1. To determine the causes of teenage prostitution.
2. To find out how prostitution affects girl-child generally.
3. To evaluate the effect of teenage prostitution on the academic performance of students.
4. To proffer possible solutions to the discovered problems.
1.11. Research Questions
In order to have a guide, the researcher has formulated the following research questions which will be answered by the end of the research:
1. What are the causes of teenage prostitution?
2. How does teenage prostitution affect the girl-child generally?
3. What are the effects of teenage prostitution on the academic performance of students?
4. What are the possible solutions to the discovered problems?

1.12. Significance of the Study
The importance of this study cannot be underemphasized especially now that the society is gradually but effectively going towards destruction as a result of prevalent disease like hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, etc. The benefactors of this research study include parents, government, teenage students and the counsellor.
The counsellor will come to know that prostitution is one of the causes of academic failure and therefore will discourage female students against it during group counselling, one-on-one counselling and even in the classrooms.
To the parents they will get to know the gross effect of teenage prostitution on the academic performance of their children and even on their health, therefore, they will apart from monitoring them, they will serve as role models for their children to imitate and abstain from this cankerworm eating into the society,
To the government, they would formulate policies that will prohibit teenagers from engaging in prostitution for fear of the consequences.
The research will also add as a feather to the already existing literatures on the teenage prostitution which will in-turn help other researchers who wish to venture into this area of study.
1.13. Delimitation of the Study
The study shall cover the conception of teenage prostitution on academic performance of secondary school female students. It will involve teachers, counselors in some selected secondary schools in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, despite the fact that the study is limited to the selected local government, its findings, will be generalized to other parts of the country as well.
1.14. Operational Definition of Terms
For clarity and purpose of this research, some key terms used in the study have to be defined, as they are used in the context of the research, for better understanding:
Teenager: This is child who is between the age of 12-18 who is not yet an adolescent.
Academic Performance: This is the extent of success or failure in one’s endeavour in educational pursuit
Teenage Prostitution: This is a situation whereby a teenager sells her body to be used for sexual gratification by another individual who may be male or female.








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