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Title page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i
Declaration page – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iii
Acknowledgment_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ iv
Dedication _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ v
Table of content_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ vi
Abstract_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ix
1.1 Background Of The Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement Of The Problem¬- – – – – – – 5
1.3 Purpose Of The Study – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Research Questions- – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Significance Of The Study – – – – – – 7
1.7 Scope of the Study- – – – – – – – 8
1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms- – – – – 8
3.1 Research Methodology – – – – – – – 46
3.2 Design Of The Study – – – – – – – 46
3.3 Population Of The Stud – – – – – – – 47
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure – – – – – 47
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection – – – – – – 48
3.6 Validity of Instrument – – – – – – – – 48
3.7 Reliability of Instrument – – – – – – – 49
3.8 Data Collection Techniques `- – – – – – 49
3.9 Method Of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 50
4.1 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – 51
4.2 Data presentation and analysis – – – – – – 57
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis – – – – – – 68
4.3 Discussion – – – – – – – – 71
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 73
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – 73
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 75
5.4 Recommendation – – – – – – – – 76
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies – – – – – – 77
Reference – – – – – – – – – 78
Appendix – – – – – – – – – – 87

This study comparatively examined Students’ Performance in West African Senior Certificate (WAEC) Chemistry Examinations in Boarding and Day Secondary Schools of Mangu local government area of Plateau State Nigeria for the past 5 years (2015-2019).The method of sample selection adopted was by random sampling technique from all the boarding and day secondary schools in Mangu. The instrument used to collect data for the study was an inventory titled Secondary Schools Academic Performance Inventory (SSAPI). The data collected were analysed using mean score and T-test was used for testing of the hypothesisto estimate the relationships between the variables of the study. It was found that the performance of students in the Day Senior Secondary Schools in West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations (WASSCE) with particular reference to Chemistry 2015-2019 in Mangu was low Compare to that of Boarding schools. The study revealed that there was a significant difference between boarding studentsand day students. The low level performance could be attributed to congestion of students in classes, inadequate inspection by the relevant authorities, inadequacy of facilities and automatic promotion. The following recommendations was given by the researcher. The State‘s government and officials of Ministry of Education should organize regular special sensitization programmes such as seminars, workshops, conferences and in-service training for Senior Secondary School teachers to improve their competence in Chemistry for better students‘ performance and to update their knowledge on the new development in other areas of specialization, the Ministry of Education in the State should also intensify more efforts in conducting regular and adequate short visits and routine inspection to schools in a bid to monitor activities of students in classes to improve the performances of students and finally, relevant authorities should device means of getting the day schools students more involve in academic activities while at home.


1.1Background ofthe Study
Education is the total process of human learning by which knowledge is imparted, faculties trained and skills developed. Secondary schools not only occupy a strategic place in the educational system in Nigeria, it is also the link between the primary and the university levels of education. According to Asikhai (2010), education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in a country. It is rather unfortunate that the secondary schools today are not measuring up to the standards expected of them. There have been public outcries over the persistently poor performance of secondary school students in public examinations.
According to Nwokocha and Amadike (2005), academic performance of students is the yardstick for testing the educational quality of a nation. Hence, it is expedient to maintain a high performance in internal and mostly external examinations. For some years now, reports on the pages of newspapers and research findings have shown the abysmal performance of students of secondary schools in public examinations. Ajayi (2002), Nwokocha and Amadike (2005), WAEC (2007), The Punch newspaper (September 27, 2008),
Adeyemi (2008) and Asikhia (2010) have all shown that there is poor performance of students in public examinations. The persistent decline in students‘performance in public examinations is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grievous on the society.
One of the most potent tool so far, if not the strongest, of measuring school performance of students is through public examinations such as Senior School Certificate Examination (S.S.C.E.) in Nigeria. These examinations are externally moderated and enjoy a lot of public confidence. The form of education children receive after primary and before tertiary stage is called secondary education. Without secondary school products, it is obvious that the basis for any future academic study cannot be laid. From the aims and objectives of the setting up of schools, one would expect that day and boarding senior secondary school students‘ performance in Kano State would greatly improve. Admittedly, no educational system is problem free. However, the decay in Nigerian educational system is becoming embarrassing. Ogunsaju (1990) described it as calamitous. Though, brilliant students can be found even in public schools, the high percentage of failure in WASSCE tends to rubbish the good ones among them.
Initially, Chemistry and English Language were recording poor results, but later this extended to other subjects including the Sciences and Arts. The schools can no longer justify the faith the government and the public have in them or the huge budgetary allocations they consume yearly. Nevertheless, students have not been doing well, and the situation is not improving.
Day school students enjoy an enriching education and strong relationships with their parents, who can more effectively support their academic success, “Families are very much part of their children’s ongoing daily education, “They are part of the school family and they support learning, and education is part of the students’ lives, whether they’re at school or at home.”
Parents get to play a hands-on role in helping with homework and projects, which can contribute to their children’s academic success, Hebert says. Volunteer opportunities for parents at day schools allow them to make a difference and feel connected to their child’s school.Day school students are also better able to build roots in their home community and take advantage of local career opportunities when they graduate.
While there’s little research to reflect the concrete advantages of day school, it’s clear that day school families enjoy a unique bonus the “we” factor, as Hebert puts it. “When children are in day school and families get to spend more time together, there are fewer divides between parents and children it’s not them and us, it’s we.”
As a child gets older, he or she may develop the maturity to handle the independence that comes with boarding school, which typically starts at middle or high school. This more immersive route of education offers ample opportunities for students to grow as human beings, build meaningful relationships with peers and teachers, and realize their full academic and life potential.”When students enter high school, the relationship with the teacher is as powerful as the precision of the curriculum or the structure of the day school, and the intensity of boarding school allows for teachers to be a powerful motivating force in kids’ lives,” Upham says.
“Boarders also learn how to become independent, have more time to develop broad extracurricular interests and tend to have friendships that are deeper and last longer,” Upham adds. “They are also more involved in their local communities and tend to be more philanthropic. So there are a lot of lifelong benefits that come out of the boarding school experience.”
If education is going to continue to hold on to its old image as an instrument par excellence for achieving national development, it has to be salvaged or resuscitated. The popular practices of changing the curriculum or adding more subjects, changing the duration of schooling or voting more money are not yielding the expected results. A lot more has to be done. Nigerians are quick at pointing accusing fingers at poor teaching facilities, inadequate and poorly trained teachers, parental laxity, under funding and so on. While all these are possibilities, there is an urgent need now to reappraise the schools vis-à-vis all these factors since situations are not static. For instance, the government continues to vote more money into the education sector annually without corresponding improvement in the schools.

1.2 Statement of Problem
The phenomenon of poor external results among Nigerian students, especially those in senior secondary schools is a matter that has become a source of worry to successive governments and major stakeholders in the education sector in the country. Over the years, the majority of students that sat for the May/ June West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and November/ December National Examination Council (NECO) have been recording mass failure in Chemistry.MM Duruji and DE Azuh, (2014).
However, there has been tremendous development in the educational sector of the state. New boarding and day schools have been established to meet the educational demand of its citizenry. The researcher observed that there is unimpressive performance of students in secondary school, the researcher therefore embarked on this study to find out whether there is actually any performance difference in academic performance of students in boarding and day school.
1.3 Purpose of The Study
The main objective of the study is to find out whether significant difference exist between academic performance of Boarding and Day Schools Chemistry students. Other objectives include:
i. Determine the level of performance of students in boarding secondary school in Chemistry.
ii. Determine the level of performance of students in day secondary school Chemistry.
iii. Find out whether differences exist in the academic performance of boarding and day Schools in Mangu LGA of Plateau state.
1.4 Research Questions
The study seeks to answer the following questions:
i. What is the level of performance of Boarding secondary school students in WAEC chemistry?
ii. What is the level of performance of Day secondary school students in WAEC chemistry?
iii. Is there difference in the performance of chemistry students in boarding and day schools of Mangu LGA?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis was formulated;
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of boarding and day secondary schools students in WAEC chemistry in Mangu LGA of Plateau state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would significantly form basis to explain some basic truth to:
Ministry of Education on taking the right decision on the provision of infrastructural facilities to aid teaching and learning process which will help improve the academic performance of day and boarding senior secondary school students in Mangu local government area of Plateau state
It will help the respective school authorities in the state to take corrective measures within their jurisdiction through adequate planning of resources to meet the demands and guide their actions on future projects on the education of day and boarding staff and students for successful teaching and learning process in the schools, especially in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria.
It will stimulate administrators to investigate and formulate constructive strategies with a view to reducing or eliminating students‘poor performance through students‘welfare support services in the Day and Boarding Senior Secondary Schools in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria.
Parents would give much attention and supervision to the student‘s work and hence result in improvement of students‘ performance.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work on comparative study of students‘ performancebetweenboarding and day school WAEC Chemistry from 2014-2019 of some Day and Boarding Senior Secondary Schools in Mangu. The scope of the study is restricted to the schools within the urban area that have presented students for WASSCE for at least seven years in Mangu due to the large number of Day and Boarding Senior Secondary Schools in the area.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
1. Boarding school:This is a school equipped with rooms where its students live instead of living and coming to school from their own homes.
2. Day School:Day school. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A day schoolas opposed to a boarding school is an educational institution where children (or high school–age adolescents) are given instruction during the day, after which the students return to their homes.
3.Performance: This can be define as the action or process of performing a task or function.
4. Academic Performance:Academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals.
5. Study:The devotion of time and attention to gaining knowledge of an academic subject, especially by means of books.
6. Comparative Studies:Comparative studies are the studies to demonstrate ability to examine, compare and contrast subjects or idea
7. WAEC: This is an acronym that stands for “West African Examination Council”.


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