COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DENGI DISTRICT OF KANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF PLATEAU STATE
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DENGI DISTRICT OF KANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF PLATEAU STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of content vi
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 9
1.3 Purpose of the Study 10
1.4 Research Questions 11
1.5 Hypothesis 12
1.6 Significance of the Study 13
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study 14
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 14
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERTURE
2.1 Concept of community 16
2.2 Concept of Participation 18
2.3 Concept of Secondary Education 20
2.4 Concept of Administration 24
2.5 Concept of Educational Administration 25
2.6 Concept of community participation 29
2.7 The Role of Community Participation in the Administration
of Secondary School 31
2.8 Constraints to community participation in funding of
secondary schools 37
2.9 Relationship between community and school 39
2.10 Ways through which communities contribute funds to schools 42
2.11 Policies and measures to be initiated to increase
community participation 44
2.12 Summary of the Reviewed Literature 47
METHOD AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Research Design 49
3.2 Population and sample of the Study 49
3.3 Sampling Techniques 50
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 51
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument 52
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 53
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 54
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Presentation of Demography Data 57
4.2 Analysis of Data 60
4.3 Hypothesis Testing 69
4.4 Discussion of Findings 71
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Major Findings 76
5.2 Conclusion 77
5.3 Recommendations 78
5.4 Limitation of the Study 79
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 80
This research work X-rayed on the Community Participation in the Administration of Secondary Schools in Dengi district of Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau State. The employed descriptive survey design, a stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting the teachers, community stakeholders, and principals for the study, the research used 100 respondents, a self-design instrument questionnaire was used for data collection, and a mean score was used for data analysis and Chi-square statistical tool was used to test the hypothesis. The findings revealed that community Provide funds for building of structures such as classrooms, toilet. chairs, tables in secondary schools, Communities do source for loans from banks for the school, School authority carry out regular consultations with community development unions on school programmes and activities, Community activist advice the school staff, the Board of Governors, or school committee on pressing education needs and responsibilities, Community Contribute in procurement of instructional materials-books, chalk, posters, maps, Community stakeholder take part in admission of new and transferring students into the school. The study recommends among others that government should set up a compulsory annual programmes to educate the community and the school on their functional roles in the administration of schools, The state government should through a possible medium sensitize all communities on the need for increased participation in schools management and provision of facilities and instructional materials for schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is one of the tools used to achieve a society’s goal towards development. Through a well-planned educational structure, the work force needed by the community can be provided. Education helps to integrate the individual into the society in which he is born. Education is the process by which people develop their intellectual, emotional, spiritual, and physical powers so as to become fully participating members of the community. According to Onuselogu (2007), education is referred to as a means of enlightenment and a process of training and preparation for useful life in the community. The Federal Republic of Nigeria on her National Policy on Education (2004), education is an instrument for national development, in this end, the formulation of ideas, and their integration for national development, and the interaction of persons and ideas are all aspects of education. This means that education is the process of training and developing the mental potentials, physical knowledge, skill and character of individuals both formal and informal schooling.
According to Igwe (2013), the establishment of a government, the pacification of recalcitrant groups, the maintenance of law and order, the endeavour to forge a viable economic system and a formidable, stable and democratic political order were seen as demanding immediate priority by the colonial government. The deliberate action by the British administration not to provide relevant and functional education to the various communities did not allow the citizens of the communities the opportunities to make meaningful inputs into the educational system.
This was followed by an accelerated interest in the establishment and management of schools by the government, voluntary agencies, private individuals and communities with the aid of the missionaries. With the entry of these new interest groups or agencies, there was remarkable expansion in the number of secondary schools all over Nigeria especially in the Western and Eastern parts. Ugwu (2000) described a community as a people obliged to one another not because of the place of birth, race, sex, religion, but people bound to one another and governed by shared taste, specific needs, or common interest. They develop a strong sense of belonging when activities are shared by the same group of people in a setting. It can be modern or traditional, urban or rural. They form the Parents Teachers Association with numerous functions such as money raising activities, maintenance of school discipline and building schools, and payment of school fees so as to afford their children the benefits of education. Elechi (2003), posits that community may be defined as the area where people live geographically together.
Emphasizing on the necessity of school decentralization and community participation in running secondary schools in Nigeria, the policy on education states that, “school system and consequently their management and day-to-day administration shall grow out of the life and social ethos of the community which they serve” National Policy on Education NPE (2004) In view of the above, the government has been encouraging community participation in the administration of secondary schools. The role of the community in the management of secondary schools has the following objectives. Representing the school to the outside world, working effectively with supervisors by encouraging them to meet and communicate with parents, evaluating the school by way of showing satisfaction and involving the parents in the work of the school (Whawo, 2002).
Parents relationship with the school is seen as both partners as well as customers. Parents in the community are seen as partners in the process of educating the child. Parents under this dispensation, according to Onuh (2014), are willing to share the following sense of purpose mutual respect, and willingness to negotiate. Akinwumi (2014) and Grandier (2006), stated that there is much to gained from treating parents as partners in the education of their children and the school continually think of ways to achieve this.
Therefore, community participation in the administration of secondary school must take into account the presumed socioeconomic and educational advantage of such involvement. Thus, the nationalization of schools further ushered in a more functional and dynamic school community relations with the establishment of Parents Teachers Association (Igwe 2013). As part of democracy dividends to the citizens, the government of Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) during the second Republic (1979 -1983) embarked massively on the establishment of community secondary schools. It was for the purpose of taking secondary education to the doorsteps of the people and on the other hand to reward communities that were sympathetic with the national government.
According to Onah, (2005), Communities have crucial roles to play in the process of repositioning education which cannot be achieved efficiently and effectively without the communities’ active participation in school administration. Yet despite the efforts of the communities in the provision of education, the citizens are totally in the dark as far as administering of the school is concerned. The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) emphasized the importance of communities in the school administration when it stated that the local people, particularly parents will be encouraged to participate in school management. This implies that government takeover of schools, where applicable, was without prejudice to community involvement and participation in the management of the schools. The joint school-community participation in school administration is now receiving more attention in educational circles in Nigeria and this has resulted to healthy interaction between the schools and the communities. It is not possible to separate the community and the school because of their complementary roles in the education of citizens. Similarly, the relationship between the school and the community is twofold and bilateral such that it simultaneously places the responsibility on both the school and the community. In the same vein, parent’s school involvement is a term that connotes support, participation, commitment, interest, and cooperation of parents in education of their wards in schools. The schools belong to the community just as the children from the community that attends the schools. Ofougwuka (2005) noted that the parents in the communities assist in the provision of the necessary educational resources and infrastructures for proper administration of the school such as classroom, libraries, hostel accommodation, and also maintained facilities through its various activities like education endowment funds, construction of new buildings, provision of reading materials, repairs and maintenance of existing structures and provision of necessary social amenities. Many situations would be helped simply by the school knowing of the home circumstances and the parents knowing more of what goes on in the school. Whawo (2002) has opined that the schools cannot do the job alone and parents cannot delegate their responsibility for guiding their children. All existing link such as the Parents Teachers Association, Old Boys/Girls Association are valuable. Each of these groups are committed to ensuring that conducive learning environment prevails in the school.
The educational resource disparities that exist between most secondary schools could be as a result of poor community school involvement in school administration. Okongu (2002) pointed out that the effect of poor community involvement in school administration are indiscipline, moral decadence and academic malpractices in the schools which are becoming alarmingly high, making effective school administration almost an impossible task. In this era of economic meltdown and globalization, the government or the school heads cannot do it alone. This is because the management of schools has equally become very complex with its own problem. Some of the complexities according to Obi (2003), can be seen in the areas of: increasing cost of education, technological explosive student enrolment, school community conflicts and staff and students indiscipline.
This is the true situation because the educational system envisaged by the national policy is very cost intensive and demands adequate funding and adequate personnel. There are no science laboratories, technical workshops, music and language laboratories and art studies to be established and experts to teach these subjects. These require money and are capital intensive Taiwo cited in Igwe, (2013) stated that the policy was made at a time when there was economic boom, but its implementation is taking place at a time of economic ‘doom’ – economic meltdown. With the present state of the nation’s economy, it will be extremely difficult, if not impossible to implement the education programme envisaged by the policy document satisfactorily alone by the government without active participation of the various communities across the country. Secondly, technological influence is not helping matters now as the issues of literacy among students and teachers and availability of personal computer (PC) for teacher and students is not adequate.
The control and discipline of students and staff constitute a major fundamental and functional area for both the school authority and the community. In exercising disciplinary measures the principal or teacher must employ reasonable devices because where a student is injured or caused to suffer other incapacities or deformity the teacher or the school authority are legally responsible for such misdeed. This can dent the good image of the school and the relationship between the school and the community. In short each of the above can influence the school negatively if not well managed. Many of such situations would be solved or alleviated simply by active participation of community in what goes on in the school. In other words neither the school nor the community can afford to remain self satisfying without the assistance of the other as each constitutes a fundamental and indispensable catchment resources to the other, (Obi 2003)
Buttressing this trend further Obiechina, (2006) noted that parents (communities) show indifference and disregard to their children’s discipline and activities of Parents’ Teachers’ Association. In the light of the above, there is the need to critically examine community participation in the administration of secondary school that would lead to achieving the stated aims and objectives of secondary school within the structure of educational system.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The demand for education in Plateau State and Kanam LGA in particular has become progressively more insistent, more widespread and more complex. The educational aims and objectives have widened with new challenging opportunities and threats to meet the critical needs of the Nigerian society. But most secondary schools in kanam have administrative problems, such problems range from personnel to infrastructural. Even a preliminary visit to some of the community schools by the researcher show that lots of administrative problems actually exist. There has been rapid explosion in the number of children eager and desirous to receive one form of education or the other, inability of the school authority to control the staff and the students due to truancy and lack of discipline on their parts, infrastructural problems and motivational problems among others.
The government sometimes provides some of these needs, but they are grossly inadequate in supply. Evidence abounds in various secondary schools that prove that the government alone cannot solve all the problems of school administration, (Obiechina, 2006). The trend now is that the government cannot do it alone, as effective school administration is almost an impossible task without community participation. So the problem of this research is to have a systematic assessment of community participation in secondary school administration in kanam with a view to; highlighting possible ways of strengthening school community involvement, and general improvement of the school. So the problem of this study posed in question form is: what are the possible ways community participation in the administration of secondary schools could be enhance to achieve the goals of secondary education.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to determine the extent community participate in secondary school administration in Dengi district of Kanam local government area of plateau state. Specifically the study seeks to:
- Determine the extent to which community participate in funding education in Dengi district of Kanam local government area of plateau state
- Determine the extent to which community participate in school decision-making.
- Find out the extent to which community participate in provision infrastructural facilities.
- Examine the extent community participate in provision of personnel in the school system.
- Determine the extent community participate in maintenance of discipline among students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- To what extent do communities participate in funding secondary education in Dengi district of Kanam local government area of plateau state?
- To what extent do communities participate in the schools decision making in schools?
- To what extent do communities participate in the provision of infrastructural facilities in the schools?
- To what extent do communities participate in provision of personnel (tutorial and non-tutorial) in the school system?
- To what extent do communities participate in maintaining discipline among students in secondary schools in Dengi district of Kanam local government area of plateau state?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses guided the study and will be tested at 0.05 level of significance:
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean rating scores of principals, and teachers on the extent communities participate in funding education in Dengi district of Kanam local government area of plateau state
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals, and teachers on the extent communities participate in school decision making.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean rating scores of principals, and teachers on the extent communities participate in the provision of infrastructural facilities.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study have some theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significance of the study will be based on systems theory of administration because the theory rest on the assumption that the internal and external environmental factors act as an integrated whole and of any part affects the whole. The secondary school system is a system and the concept of interaction and interdependence of parts with the others is applicable. In the education of the children, the schools and community form the nucleus that bring about actual, positive, functional and meaningful development of the child for better tomorrow. When the principal is confronted by parental demands for new courses or changes, not only is the principal affected directly but also the teachers and students are affected. Teachers act on the basis of their needs, beliefs and goals (motivations) as well as their roles’.
Thus, the study will redress the position of community participation in secondary school administration to achieve more positive results. In practical terms, this study will be of great significance to school administrators (Principals), teachers, parents, students, Ministry of Education, policy makers and the community in general. The study will help to draw the attention of the principals to realize the importance of mutual understanding between the school and the community in the administration of schools. It will help the school administrator to solicit assistance and active role of the community in various school programmes.
This will help to achieve not only the academic excellence but also moral and character training and a smooth and efficient administration. The teachers will also benefit from the study as they enjoy good working relationship from their host community. It increases their productivity. The parents in turn will benefit as it enables them to be copartners in the school activities. This is because the success of their children will in turn improve the quality of their lives and that of the community. The policy makers’ attention will be rekindled to realize the extent at which the policy of involving communities in school administration has been helpful to educational development and in the attainment of desired educational goals. Finally the communities will have many opportunities to foster and monitor their children’s learning.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study covered the community participation in the administration of secondary schools in Dengi district of Kanam local government area of plateau state. The content scope is in accordance with the purpose of the study. The study covered Dengi district of kanam LGA (community-government ownership) within the Local Government Areas that make up the education zone. It involved all key stakeholders in secondary school education within the zone and beyond.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
To make this work understandable, it’s required to portrays the terms used in the context of the work.
Community participation: this can be seen as the involvement of individuals and groups toward participating in the progress of secondary education.
Administration of secondary schools: This is the management of secondary schools in Dengi districk in Kanam Local Government Area.
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