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Cover page                                                                                                                              i

Title page                                                                                                                                ii

Declaration                                                                                                                              iii

Approval page                                                                                                                         iv

Dedication                                                                                                                              v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  vi

Table of content                                                                                                                      vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  x



1.1       Background of the study                                                                                            1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                            5

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                                 6

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                    6

1.5       Hypothesis.                                                                                                                7

1.6       Significance of the Study.                                                                                          7

1.7       Delimitation of the Study                                                                                           8

1.8       theoretical framework                                                                                                 8

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                 9



2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                                               10

2.2       Concept of administration                                                                                          11

2.3       Concept Supervision                                                                                                   15


2.4       Who is a Supervisor                                                                                                    17

2.5       Roles of Supervisors                                                                                                   18       

2.6       Purpose of Instructional Supervision in Nigerian Schools                                         21

2.7       Factors for Effective Supervision                                                                               22

2.8       Concept of teacher effectiveness                                                                                24

2.9       Challenges of School Administration                                                                        28

2.10     challenges of effective administration of secondary schools                                                30

2.11     Challenges Militating Against Effective Supervision in

            Secondary Schools                                                                                                      35

2.12     Solution to the Problems of Supervision                                                                    38

2.13     Review of Empirical Studies                                                                                      39

2.14     Summary of Literature                                                                                               41



3.1       Research Design                                                                                                         42

3.2       Population and sample of the Study                                                                           42

3.3       Sampling Techniques                                                                                                  43

3.4       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   44

3.5       Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                                                       45

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                    45

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                            46




4.1       Presentation of Bio- Data                                                                                           48

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions                                                                                 50

4.3       Hypothesis Testing                                                                                                     58

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                               58



5.1       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                      61

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  62

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      63

5.4       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                 64

            References                                                                                                                  65

            Appendices                                                                                                                 71






The study investigated the challenges of effective administration and supervision in public secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau State. The study adopted four research questions and one hypothesis, meanwhile relevant literature was reviewed. The study employed a descriptive survey research design, the population of the study consisted of 25 schools administrators and 216 teachers. A stratified sampling technique was used to derive the sample respondents of 108 which comprises of administrators and teachers. The instrument used was a self-design questionnaire in four likert format, which was validated by the project and two experts in test and measurement department. Mean score was used for analysis of research questions and chi-square was also used to test the hypothesis. The findings revealed that government dictates all policies and procedures without group participation in decision making, most teachers teaching in secondary were qualified, the inadequate finance made most supervisors not to carried out their duties, the study reject that principals does not provide their staff with materials they need to accomplished their instructional work, it was also revealed that principals and teachers demand for money to allow room for examination mal-practice, there should be adequate provision of instructional material to facilitate teaching and learning, the research also revealed that most principals are involved in classroom activities which constitute problems for effective supervision. The study recommend among others that government should sponsor teachers on a regular basis for in-service training, seminars, workshops and conferences to update their knowledge of their teachers, Provision of adequate and qualified teachers must a conscious and regular programme of both the government and ministry of education, government should take sole responsibility of financing secondary education by providing funds to make facilities available in schools. The study concluded that insufficient funding hinders the smooth administration of schools because it impedes so many things like purchase of learning materials and recruitment of qualified staff.




1.1 Background to the study

One widely held aim of education is to equip students with knowledge, skills, attitudes and competences that enable them to render useful services to themselves and to the society at large. The formal education system of a nation is principal institutional mechanism used for developing human skills and knowledge. Education is, therefore viewed as an indispensable catalyst that strongly influences the development, and economic fortunes of a nation and the quality of life of its people. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO, 1994) recognized education as one of the basic human rights. The issue of effective administration has become critical in education that are expanding enrolments and in nations with constrained resources. Success in increasing access to basic education has often led to declining quality of administration. However, in searching for the factors that promote quality, national programs and literature have increasingly emphasized teachers, schools, and communities as the engines of quality, with special attention to teacher quality identified as a primary focus. UNESCO (2003, 2004) asserts that the growing emphasis on the need for quality administration to accompany the expansion of education, however, remains stubbornly secondary to the persistent drive for quality education.

            Kajo (2005) opined that there are various challenges that educational administrators face in their day to day running of schools. In addition to essential teaching skills, institutional leaders have to provide focused instructional leadership. They must exhibit exemplary and effective classroom practice so that they can make accurate judgment and give useful feedback to the teachers with whom they work. They also have to be result-oriented leaders since among the factors responsible for the failure of the educational policies and programmes is leadership that lack managerial and administrative skills required to succeed. The head teachers in secondary schools are supposed to plan, organize, direct, control and command in order to achieve academic excellence. Success depends on the manager’s ability to use the resources available both human and material in the best way possible. The education system still lacks the necessary funds and materials to implement the various programmes in schools. There are myriad challenges that surround the administration of secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area. Although the Nigerian government has made efforts to address issues of leadership, training and appointments to those positions of authority through in-service courses for persons newly appointed as heads of secondary schools, in particular point to the fact that measures need to be put in place to ensure better performance. The above scenario is probably an indication that head teachers are encountering administrative challenges that impede them from performing to their maximum capacities.

Supervisors have come under pressure, several times on their effect on teacher’s performance. However, no matter what criticisms are levelled against them, their contributions cannot be over emphasised. If supervisors have the responsibility of improving staff performance by equipping them with knowledge, interpersonal skills, and technical skills then one will say that organisations cannot do without supervisors‟ involvement. Supervision occupies a unique place in the entire education system and it becomes absolutely expedient to give it prominent attention. In a contemporary Nigeria, supervision is regarded as the process of enhancing the professional growth of the teachers, the curriculum and improving the techniques of teaching in the classroom through democratic interactions between the Teacher and the Supervisor. Supervision is viewed as a cooperative venture in which supervisors and teachers engage in dialogue for the purpose of improving effective administration which logically should contribute to student improved learning and success. The concept of supervision and its practices in education can be traced to the early American systems. Supervision evolved from a mere judicious nature of inspection, where inspectors made judgment about a teacher rather than the teaching or learning, to the present nature that focuses on assisting the teacher to improve their instructional effectiveness. Vast plan of supervision tend to be conducted in a haphazard manner in which the plans are seldom locally developed, rarely well-conceived and practically never reduced to written form (Ginsberg, 2003).

Supervision ensures that all staff reflects appropriate rules, routine, procedures and regulations to achieve set objectives. In a school setting the overall supervisor is the principal. He is regarded as an urgent of supervision on behalf of the inspectorate in the school level. He or she is involved in the translation of educational policies and objectives into the program and is expected to possess a superior knowledge about curriculum and instruction and to provide expert leadership skills in all areas of the school program.  

In Nigeria for example, the main aim of supervision practiced in schools is to improve classroom instruction and teachers effectiveness; this is through observation of classroom teaching, analysis of observed data and face-to-face interaction between observer and teacher. Currently National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) is committed to continuous improvement of schools and the quality of teaching. This body is directly under the supervision of the minister and it supervises schools on behalf of the minister. Effective supervision in the modern era centers on the improvement of the teaching-learning situation to the benefits of both the teachers and learners, helps in the identification of areas of strength and weaknesses of teachers, follow-up activities that should be directed at the improvement of identified areas of teachers’ weaknesses and give recognition to the teachers and create a cordial working atmosphere based on good human relations. National Open University of Nigeria, NOUN, (2006) observed that Supervision provides opportunities for teachers to be groomed through critical study of instructional processes and classroom interactions to carry out their teaching tasks in line with professional codes of conduct. If school are not supervised adequately, it will have inimical effects on the students’ output and the educational objectives may not be achieved, consequently various instructional supervisory techniques should be employed by the administrators to ensure qualitative and quantities service delivery by the teachers. Since Instructional supervision constitutes the leverage point for instructional improvement, teacher’s competence and efficiency of the educational system while an unsupervised instruction may mal-adjust the standard of education.

Instructional process and supervision help a lot in improving academic performance of students. This is because supervision of instruction aims at enhancing teaching and learning through proper guidance and planning, and devising ways of improving teachers professionally and thereby helping them release their creative abilities so that through them the instructional process is improved and well-articulated. Conceptualizes School administration as a social process concerned with identifying, maintaining, stimulating, controlling, and unifying formally or informally organized human, and material energies within an interpreted system, (Okli, 2014). School administration is specifically concerned with students, teachers, rules & regulations and policies that govern the school system. School administration is a difficult task involving sensitive and challenging functions relating to the supervision of teachers, school personnel, instructional programme, school plants and statutory records. In the school system, supervision is as antique as the teaching profession and has undergone series of evolution since the colonial era. It is directed towards sustaining and ameliorating the teaching-learning process in the educational system because education plays an essential role in the growth and development of any nation socially, politically, and economically.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Effective administration and supervision to many hold a negative view. If schools are not regularly supervised teachers will not be active, teaching and learning will not take place effectively in the classroom, not all the teachers will write lesson notes, teaching aids will not be available, the teachers will be lazy to perform their duties. Poor supervision practice affect curriculum delivery, leading to poor performance among the secondary schools, truancy among the teachers and students. The education system still lacks the necessary funds and materials to implement the various programme in school. If schools are not supervised adequately, it will have empirical effects on the students output and the educational objectives may not be achieved. 

Lack of supervision had brought unimproved instruction and instructional programme in public secondary school. The teachers will not teach effectively in the classroom, because there will be no lesson notes. The provision of adequate relevant and attractive teaching aids will not be available, some teachers may tend to be lazy and the students may not perform well in schools. Effective Administration and supervision control the school system and improve the academic performance of students in the school environment and the instruction given to them will have more effect and their teachers will improve the curriculum properly.

it is therefore suggested that principals as catalysts should facilitate the implementation of the various sets of instructional activities geared towards an effective, viable, vibrant and qualitative educational system that will improve the teaching-learning situation in the input – process – output framework.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study to find out the factors affecting the effective administration and supervision of teachers in public secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau state. Specifically, the study intends to;

  • Find out the administrative challenge affecting effective supervision of teachers in secondary schools
  • Find out the extent to which finance is an administrative challenge that affects the effective supervision of teachers
  • Find out how instructional supervision constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness.
  • Find out lasting solution to the factors affecting the effective administration and supervision of teachers in secondary schools

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the administrative challenges affecting the effective supervision of teachers in secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area?
  2. What extent do finance have on administrative challenges that affect the effective supervision of teachers in Bokkos Local Government Area?
  • To what extent do instructional supervision constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness in Bokkos Local Government Area?
  1. What are the lasting solution to the factors affecting the effective administration and supervision of teachers in secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government Area?
    • Research Hypothesis

HO1 There is no significant difference between factors affecting the effective administration and supervision of secondary school teachers

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is believe that the findings of this study will be of important to the following: government, ministry of education, principals, teachers, students and researchers in secondary schools in Bokkos local government and elsewhere.

The findings of the study will help the Ministry of education and the government to make efforts to offer in-service training and seminars on effective administration and supervision to be made available to school principals and adequate staffing so that principals do not teach the same number of lessons teachers have so as to carry out the role of supervising. It hopes that the principals will gain knowledge, facts and strategies that are required for effective and efficient teacher’s supervision.

To Identifying instructional supervision problems may also help principals and instructional supervisors to improve their supervisory practices.

This may benefit the rural students as they may be better placed to compete with their counterparts in the urban schools.

This may be of benefit to future researchers who will pick up on other aspects of administration that hinder teacher effectiveness or cause job dissatisfaction that are not covered by this study.

1.7 Deliminations of the Study

The study of factors affecting the effective administration and supervision is limited to only public secondary school in Bokkos Local Government Area located in the central senatorial zone of plateau

The study will examine how administration and supervision influence administrators and supervisors in public secondary schools and to, find out if teachers and students achieve their performance. Only teachers and principals will constitute the respondents.

1.8 Theoretical Framework

The theory was relevant to this study in that the seven correlates of effective schools require effective leadership in the part of the school administrators. This is in line with Sullivan and Glanzs (2000) assertion that a prime task of school leaders is to exercise instructional leadership of the kind that results in a shared vision of the directions to be pursued by the school, and to manage change in ways that ensure that the school is successful in realizing the vision. By identifying the correlates of well performing schools in Nigeria, the study tests Lezottes (2010) Effective Schools Model, and also suggests measures that low performing schools can take to improve academic performance.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

The following are the definitions of significant terms;

Administrative experience refers to the knowledge and skills a principal gains, by holding an administrative office for a period of time.

Supervision refers to an internal mechanism adopted by principals for school self- evaluation, geared towards helping teachers and students to improve on their teaching and learning activities for the purpose of achieving educational objective

Principal refers to the chief executive who provides instructional leadership by coordinating curricular programmes and is responsible for the general administration of the secondary school.

Effect: The end result of effective or ineffective administration and supervision of teachers

Administration: This is the process of coordinating both human and financial resources in secondary schools

Factors: This is seen as hindrance contributing to the failing of effectives administration in secondary schools

Affecting: those factors downgrading the effective administration






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