CAUSES OF FAILURE IN ACHIEVING SOCIAL STUDIES OBJECTIVES AMONG STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
CAUSES OF FAILURE IN ACHIEVING SOCIAL STUDIES OBJECTIVES AMONG STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
Academic disciplines are created to help mould us understand the universe, problems surrounding us and to proffer solutions to the prevailing problems. There is a fairly concrete agreement on the basic objectives of social studies towards achieving good citizenship in the society.
The cause of failure in achieving social studies objectives among students of tertiary institution has great effect on the society and the demand of modern life. These demands of modern life brought about constant modification of the young discipline social studies curriculum to suit the emerging social changes in the society.
In view of the fact that social studies is seen as a young discipline by many scholars which is still in the process of organizing and re-organizing itself, social studies has been with us since the existence of social science subjects like; Anthropology, Philosophy, Psychology, Sociology, History, Government, Geography, and some areas in vocational guidance.
Before social studies was institutionalized in the Nigerian school curriculum, countries like Western Germany, Britain, United State of America, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Japan, Thailand and Canada after the second world war introduced social studies in their school curriculum in order to help build humane citizens. The aim was to reform societies, believing that their improvement could easily be effected through the proper development of individuals that compose the society through subject like social studies Parks (2012).
Social studies in Nigeria kick start precisely in 1963 in the western part of Nigeria, Aiyetoro Comprehensive secondary school Ogun state, after the many conferences and seminars, preparing materials for the full take up of the subject in all the primary and junior secondary schools in Nigeria by the Comparative Education Studies and Adaptation Center (CESAC) presently in use. In 1964 social studies was introduced in the Northern part of Nigeria through the Northern Nigerian Teacher Education Project (NNTEP) sustain by the institute of education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.
In 1969 a National curriculum conference was organized attended by eminent scholars from different disciplines and geographical areas as well as the Aiyetoro pilot project, resulting to the subject acceptance.
In 1973 in Alvan Ikoku College of education Owerri, Imo state commenced it at the NCE level. While the Bachelor of education degree in social studies first commenced at the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and Bayero University Kano later follow in the year 1974 Jacob, Audu and Ndazhaga (2005). Record has it that the reason for the introduction of social studies as a subject was due to the need to make education socially relevant.
However, with the implementation of social studies, there are still some serious problems among students and youths in the tertiary institutions of learning that are at alarming rate; such as high record of examination malpractice, arm robbery, falsification of credentials, prostitution, ethnicity, tribalism, cultism, electoral violence, ethno-religious conflict, indiscipline, and religious intolerance, drug abuse, kidnapping, child trafficking, bribery and corruption and the worst of all insurgency in our communities, schools and colleges. All these social vices are common among students in the tertiary institution.
It is in the light of this that the researcher intends to find out the causes of these acts, people and materials that favored the repeated slavish and critical issues and people perception and prejudice about the subject social studies. For instance, the dissemination of information base on ethnic and religious peculiarities and differences, it is good to note that any rational treatment given to the country as a Nation must view its people as those who live, work, and play together.
Social studies has been highly instrumental in the formulation of its objectives and implementation of policies that would produce effective students, but due to some reasons that forced students to the conditions they found themselves, as a researcher, I noticed among other needs of the society to include; education, employment, and right leadership as a pressing demand of the society which the study of social studies provide their basic foundation.
It is also worthy of note that as a department, in the institution of higher learning like ours, cannot make any meaningful progress if the objective of social studies as a course is not mostly achieved or reflected in the lives of its students in the tertiary institution to an extend that one begin to wonder the kind of generation of people in which these trainee and future teachers are going to raise after graduating from school.
Today, illiteracy and ignorance has constituted major setback to participation of citizens in Nation affairs and other civic responsibilities. This is not only peculiar to those who did not have the opportunity to go through formal education, but also many educated people who are best described and popularly known as “educated illiterates”.
Gotep (2009) cited Atu (2005) it is a common knowledge that education must serve a society by training generations, not only in the necessary skills and knowledge but also in the required attitude. Once the objectives of social studies is achieve, we will have productive students who are skillful in both trade and academics, to protect public property, report crime, contribute meaningfully to community development, appreciate each others culture, have religious tolerance, participate in politics, maintain balance with the environment and its resources and be expose to distant and immediate environment and the like.
The true image of Nigeria and social studies, in the higher institution has been battered outside school and abroad, the existence of contemporary societies depends on the nature and character of people. Parks (2012) in Zwarchir, Deborah, Babaji, Nwosu, Pusmuut, Jacob and Wadak (2012). A community that is good has a good foundation, so the bastardized image of Nigeria and social studies in the higher institution can comfortably be polished through the objectives of social studies and its broad goals. Social studies should portray, include and embrace all aspects of school program towards improving human relationship with each other so that students can build those competencies to enable them live as social studies students of our great department in the our school of ‘excellence in service’ in the “good people great Nation” Nigeria as a country.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Rapid population growth in the tertiary institution of learning and social studies is a thing of concerned to researchers and the kind of graduates being produce yearly. The social studies department as a motivative factor for this researcher is to find out “The causes of failure in achieving social studies objectives among students of tertiary institution” has attracted the attention of the researcher Vis-a- Vis the environment of the federal college of education Pankshin, plateau state.
Social studies department is one among the four (4) departments in the school of arts and social sciences since the establishment of the college in 1975 taught as one of the core subject in the National Council for colleges of education (NCCE) school curriculum and the University level even before the introduction of the degree program in the year 2009 in the college and its full and successful accreditation in 2014 by the National University Commission (NUC) as a degree course.
The department is now located in the south-north axis of Fungbis within the college as it’s popularly called by social studies lecturers covering about a distance of approximately one kilometer from the school main gate. So many students nowadays view social studies as less important to other field of studies due to the kind of students, attitude and behaviors among many issues that question begin to raise among students, teachers, and lecturers in the field and those who are not even in the field as to whether social studies have achieved its objectives or not that led to the misfortunes and deviant behaviour among students and the like that prompt the researcher to find out the causes of failure in achieving social studies objectives among students of tertiary institutions
1.2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.
The purpose of this researcher work is to find out the “causes of failure in achieving social studies objectives among students of tertiary institutions” and equally want to know whether the failure is caused by the teachers, lecturers, students, schools, materials, or structures and other students within the college who are not even in the department so as to proffer solution to the seeming problem.
In the same vain, the purpose of this research is to point the aims and objectives of social studies neglected by lecturers and students for re-visit in order to produce productive would-be teachers who will contribute their quota to the development of their community, state, country and the world at large.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There appear to be a deliberate neglect by some social studies teachers, lecturers and students on the aims and objectives of social studies, following the introduction of the new subject “civic education” and its immediate entrance as a compulsory subject in the school curriculum from the primary to the senior secondary school level which seems to be a duplication of the content of social studies. This came with mixed reaction as to whether social studies have failed to achieve its set objectives among students that led to the introduction of civic education and its immediate inclusion as a compulsory subject for all levels of the countries educational system. This can be seen in most student’s lack of courage, discipline, self esteem, cooperation, social and manipulative skills among many students of social studies during presentation of assignment and have called to question the achievement of social studies objectives. Other issues are; High record of examination malpractice in the social studies department over the years, drug abuse, prostitution, trafficking, kidnapping, bribery and corruption, impersonation, falsification of result, ethnicity, the recent breaking of the school of arts and social sciences by unknown robbers, cultism, electoral violence, ethno-religious conflict, religious indiscipline and above all attacked among students in our colleges and universities and insurgency all over the country which are mostly fueled and perpetrated by youths and students who had at one point or the other attended social studies class in the primary, secondary and even those in the tertiary institution studying social studies as a course are not left out of the issues or the social vices mentioned above.
Inadequate knowledge of social studies due to inadequate,
unprofessionally trained instructors (lecturers) in the field coupled with insufficient, irrelevant teaching materials and non use of teaching method, with over enrollment in social studies an the like in our universities and colleges as well as congestion in lecture halls, inadequate manpower, as well as irregularities in leadership in the department and even the students of the department in the higher institution that this research is designed to find out “The causes of failure in achieving social studies objectives among students of tertiary institutions” it is on this note that I as a researcher and social scientist found it important to identify the causes or setback to the achievement of social studies objective with the view of finding solution to the causes as a social scientist where necessary and possible.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
Social studies have contributed in many countries, and Nigeria is not an exception, however, the schools, departments, lecturers, students, materials and structures and associations have not contributed for the full achievement of social studies objectives.
The following research questions will serve as a guide to this research.
1. That social studies as a subject will soon be scraped out?
2. What are those areas that social studies objectives have failed?
3. Is the subject different from other social sciences?
4. Do inadequate teaching aids constitute a cause of failure in achieving social studies objectives in the tertiary institutions?
5. Is unprofessionalism, poor teaching method by the lecturers the causes of failure in achieving social studies objectives
The following hypotheses are formulated.
(H1) There is a significant difference between failure and achievement of social studies objectives among students of tertiary institution.
(H0) There is no significant difference between failure and achievement of social studies objectives among students of tertiary institution.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significances of this research work is in its generated evidence. If completed, it is my hope that the quality findings from this work would; help stakeholders, federal government, National commission for colleges of education (NCCE), Nigerian University Commission(NUC), social studies and civic educators association (SOCEAN), the social studies department federal college of education Pankshin, the Nigerian teachers education project (NNTEP),which contributed to the development of social studies.
It will also help the lecturers, teachers and students to appreciate social studies and its objectives if well taught and achieved and to begin to see themselves and their position in the teaching of social studies as a discipline
Eventually on the provision of reliable information after this research, lecturers, teachers and students will tend to discovered themselves, the objective of social studies as important and apply it to practical daily life situations.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work it would have been in the whole colleges, but due to the quest for authenticity of information, it covers only the social studies department in federal college of education Pankshin plateau state. It would be limited to selected lecturers and students within the department. It is only intended to find out “The causes of failure in achieving social studies objectives among students of tertiary institutions” in social studies department, federal college of education Pankshin, plateau state.
And since this study is limited to only a small sample of lecturers and students, generalization emerging from the findings would be applied with caution.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS.
The following concepts below are defined based on the context in which they are use in this research, not conventional meanings that are already known.
CAUSES: The state of inability to meet a particular and intended
ACHIEVING: Succeeding in reaching a particular goal, status or
SOCIAL STUDIES: In this context is the study of human science which study how man relate with the environment, harness, influence and in turned is influenced by the environment in which he lives.
TERTIARY INSTITUTION: In this study refers to a place of learning higher than secondary school where lives of the students are under their own care and control.
With the gloomy population of students and those seeking admission in to the college from different parts of the country in to the federal college of education Pankshin, for different courses with their different behaviors.
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