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1.1 Background of the study
This requires little or no effort to convince Nigerians that prisons in the country are congested. It may however be difficult to convince most Nigerians that prison terms serving any useful purpose such as punishment and reformation may be responsible for the discussion aimed at the international administration.
The primary purpose of penal establishment is to provide a secured humanity on custody. Rusk (1998) stated that education is a process through which we foster in the individual the desirable attitude, quite often, the elements of skills, knowledge and it acquisition are rightly added to give clearer meaning to the concept. Viewed as a process, education generally involves the interaction between the educator and the educated. In the process to boost adult education in the prison therefore, the education and the criminal justice program originated at the Paris conference of the international council for adult education (ICAE) in 2002. A number of steps were taken to respond to the interest expressed in 2002 – 2005 in Paris.
At the world assembly in 2005, a statement of objective and suggested plans of action was developed. These were subsequently approved by the ICAE program advisory committee. The objectives of the programs are as follows:
• To introduce, develop and gain acceptance as an educational approach in the field of crimes prevention.
• To persuade national education authorities to take up their natural role in this area of education
• To persuade national government to adopt panel policies which includes the followings:
i. Every person should be regarded as having an intrinsic dignity and view himself regardless of his condition.
ii. Panel institution shall have as one of their essential purpose at least equal right in the development of the individual human right.
• To persuade national government to ask the United Nations to adopt an ICAE draft resolution.
• To amend the substandard minimum rule for the treatment of prisoners (IBE 2006).
Prisons cannot finance educational programs themselves; hence this was established by the former civilian governor of Kano State, Alhaji Baku Zuwo (late) in 1986 when he was serving seven years jail term.
Considering the chronological conditions for which an individual offender can be remanded in Nigerian prisons, physical, social and psychological parameters too, it is clear that strictly those who have attained adulthood are found in prisons, and in order not to make their prison jail term a waste of time, adult education programs are necessary in reforming and transforming the prisons inmates. This adult education programs will enable the inmates to become better people while in remand and after their discharge from prison, this also enable them become useful to themselves and the outside world which awaits them. Adult education program will also go a long way in making sure that these inmates don’t return to prison after being released, in essence, it reduces recidivism.
Adult education programs most importantly help prison inmates get over idleness which is one major cause of crimes committed by individuals in the society, therefore, with the help of these programs, ex – convicts will find it easy to be self employed with the knowledge and skills acquired during their jail term. Therefore, a critical look at the last two paragraphs above, one can simply conclude that adult education programs help in reformation and transformation of ex – convicts/prisoners attitudes and also beneficial to the society which they find themselves as it serves as correctional education to prisoners.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Adult education programs are beneficial in prisons and important that without them, the aim of remanding criminals will be defeated; there will be no desirable changes in character and attitudes of the offenders. Through these programs, inmates discover their strength and ability to do positive things to empower themselves, these programs also help prison inmates to find their jail term easier to complete no matter how long it seems. Adult education programs help in the areas of crimes prevention or reduction by keeping prison inmates busy after been released (ex – convicts) thereby, ruling out idleness and boredom which encourages criminal activities.
In addition, adult education programs in prison help to reduce the rate of recidivism; which is the possibility of the released criminals to return to prison remand by committing similar or different crimes even after prior prison jail term, in essence, these programs enable criminals who have been released to gain employment that help them stay busy and making incomes that keep their minds away from criminal activities.
Yet effective running of adult educational programs in prisons can be hindered if the living condition in the prison yard does not encourage the inmates to enroll in such adult education programs, such as poor health services or attention on inmates, malnutrition, lack of ventilation and congestion due to over population in the prison yard. Another hindrance to the adult education programs in prisons can be seen in areas of inadequate manpower or adult educators who can tutor the prisoners toward acquiring the desirable skills and knowledge which they need to become reformed, finally, inadequate learning materials or equipments for prisoners can hinder the smooth running of adult education programs in prisons.
The foregoing therefore constitutes the problems of this study and as such, one may ask, how can the benefits of adult education programs in Pankshin prison, Jos Plateau State materialize?

1.3 Purpose of the study.
The main purpose of this study is to look into the benefits of adult education programs in Pankshin prisons, Jos Plateau State.
Specifically this study will:
1. Find out the various adult education programs obtainable in panshin prison, Plateau State.
2. Find out whether the obtainable adult education programs in Pankshin prison, Plateau state has impacted the live of its prisoners.
3. Find out how these programs have helped notorious criminals who are serving very long jail term as a result of cases such as murder cope easily with the long duration of imprisonment.
4. Find out how these adult education programs have helped female inmates to develop positive self concept about themselves both during and after their jail term.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions are used to guide the study:
1. What are the various adult educational programs obtainable in Pankshin prison, Plateau state?
2. What are the impacts of these adult education programs on the lives of prison inmates in Pankshin Plateau state?
3. How have these adult educational programs helped notorious criminal serving very long jail term as a result of cases such as murder cope easily with the long duration of imprisonment?
4. How have these adult educational programs helped female inmates develop positive self concept about themselves during and after their jail term?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The practical importance of this study stands clear, the major beneficiaries of this study is the prison inmates while serving their jail term and after jail term, the society which they belong and the government.
Prison inmates during their jail term acquire knowledge and skills that help them make their jail term easier to complete by getting engage in learning the activities that help them pass the time, afterwards after their release also, prison inmates now ex – convicts become reformed individuals by putting whatever skills and knowledge they have acquired into practice, this in turn helps them become employed and make income to sustain themselves and their families. This in ultimate conclusion will help them reintegrate into the society again as better individuals with reformed characters and attitudes.
Another major significance of this study is that it enables the society which these ex – commits live to remain in peace and experience harmonious atmosphere to dwell in. The society also experience an increase in manpower demand as a result of the ex – commits establishments and also an increase in supply of labor as result of the knowledge and skills which the ex – commits must have acquired during their jail term.
Finally, the government also benefits indirectly from this in the sense that when ex – convicts have acquired the desired educational training, there is reduction in crime rates because the individuals eventually become engaged in one activity or the other and no longer give themselves to criminal acts, this makes the government experience peaceful administration and political activities. In another view, the economic situation of the country receives a boost when these criminals become self employed and employers of labor. This also reduces the pressure of unemployment cases on the government.

1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to the benefits of adult education programs in prisons, using Pankshin prison of Plateau state as case study. The study also focuses on the various adult educational programs that are obtainable in Pankshin prison of Plateau state, the impact of these programs on the lives of the prison inmates, how these programs helps notorious prisoners who are serving very long jail term cope easily with the long duration of stay and how it helps female inmates in custody develop positive self concepts about themselves both during and after their jail term.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
• Prison: An institutional building where those who have committed one crime or the other are kept as punishment which acts as reformation centers for criminals.
• Inmates: People who are living in prison confinement for committing crimes.
• Jail term: The period with which a criminal will remain in custody of prison.
• Reformation: The act of improving or changing somebody.
• Adult education: A kind of education that involves the acquisition of knowledge and skills desirable in developing the appropriate attitudes and character in various individuals.






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