ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL TOPICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM BY CHEMISTRY TEACHERS IN BOKKOS L.G.A OF PLATEAU STATE
ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL TOPICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM BY CHEMISTRY TEACHERS IN BOKKOS L.G.A OF PLATEAU STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES
Table of contents
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Delimitation the study
Operational definition of terms
Types of assessment
Teacher quality assessment
Qualifications credentials and teacher characteristics
Students achievement measures
Teacher evaluation approaches
Communications and information system
Concept of entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship education in Nigerian schools
Content of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria
How entrepreneurship can be taught
Historical background of the chemistry curriculum
Goals of chemistry program/education
Impact of chemistry on the society
METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE
Instrument for data collection
Validity and reliability of the instrument
Procedure for data collection
Method of data analysis
Data presentation, Analysis and Discussion of findings
Analysis of Responses on table
Testing of hypothesis
Discussion of results
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOOMENDATION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Suggestions for further study
This study assessed the awareness of entrepreneurial topics in senior secondary chemistry curriculum by teachers in Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau state. 20 teachers were randomly selected from twenty (20) secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was a structural questionnaire. Simple percentage, mean and t-test for two related samples were used for the data analysis and the result of the findings showed that the teachers are not aware of the entrepreneurial topics in the chemistry curriculum, the concept that are entrepreneurial in nature there are available laboratory apparatus and chemicals for teaching chemistry which are inadequate, though the teachers use demonstration method to teach the students, they are confronted with challenge for effective implementation of the chemistry curriculum. Such challenges include: The teachers perceived Chemistry as being abstract and difficult for students to understand, there are inadequate Chemistry teachers to teach Chemistry in schools, there are inadequate chemicals in the schools, students are not ready to provide materials needed for practical’s, teachers have too much work to spear time for practical works. The result also showed that there is a significant difference in the awareness of the entrepreneurial concept in the chemistry curriculum by male and female teachers. It was recommended that teachers should emphasize connection between what happened in the classroom and the wider society, the teaching methods should be oriented towards the application of chemical principles rather than the acquisition of paper certificate. Teachers should always make themselves appraised with government policies so that they can contribute to the upliftment of the society.
Education and its importance cannot be over-emphasized in this twenty-first century, every parent’s wants to see his or her child thrive well in school. The educational systems of every country have set goals relevant to the citizens need, and national aspirations.
The educational systems have the task on how to expose the talents embedded in its citizens. To prepare them to utilize those skills through trainings that will equip them with relevant skills and knowledge for, viable functionality and ability to cope with changes, such as intellectual and cultural changes which the rapidly changing environment may demand in future (National Policy on Education, 2004)
Education as defined by oxford advanced learners dictionary is ‘’the systematic training and instructions of people especially the young ones in schools and colleges”. It can also be defined as the aggregate of all process by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviors which are of positive values to the society in which he lives’’ ( Fafunwa,1974).
For an individual to view his society as ‘’good’’ The need for science education especially that of chemistry is needed. Chemistry education is central in the learning of other science such as Biology, Physics, mathematics, Geology, Astronomy, Medicine and industries. It is also needed and important in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries, people talk about chemistry at home, schools and sometimes in their places of work and therefore phrases and questions like: what is not chemistry? Did we really understand the knowledge we acquired in school? How can we convert this knowledge we have acquired to wealth? has being raised at the process, but what is chemistry about? Bagley(2004) defined chemistry as the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances interacts with energy. Chemistry studies the interaction and transformations of matter. Understanding basic chemistry concepts is important for almost every profession, it is interesting to know that chemistry can be found in the kitchen, restaurant, laundry, beauty salon, garden, swimming pool, hospital, hotel and beer parlor, toilets and bathroom, air, bakery, water co-operation, power station, military formations, barracks, photo-laboratory, paint and textile stores, business centers, house roof, inside ship, car and train and aircraft, waste dumpsites, fire station, barbing salon, artist shop, plumbers shop, coal pit and other areas of human endeavor.
Chemistry is everything and everywhere, but the question is why are the so called chemists so passionate about paper results with the sole aim of working in oil coy? Chemists have a wider range of entrepreneurial opportunities than any other discipline. It is high time chemists start embracing reality and forgets about those big molecular structures, the balancing of the backward and forward reactions of reactants to form products.
The real equations is balanced when chemicals are added together to produce soap, paint, detergents, cements, Vaseline, fertilizers, custard powders, extraction and refining of edible oils which in turn leads to wealth and job creation for the tamely unemployed youths.
The growing problem of unemployment in plateau state especially Bokkos L G A has contributed to the worsening problem of poverty in the populace unemployment according to Olaitan(1996) leads to frustration and disillusionment, which may result in crime or drug abuse. The high rate of poverty amongst Nigerian population especially amongst youth as a result of lack of entrepreneurial skills, innovation and creativity, even shortage of entrepreneurial individuals in the society. This is because the society eagerly waits for the white collar jobs after graduation which never comes or take so long a times to come, resulting in frustration after attending countless interviews with no fruitful results. In a futile attempt to escape and forget the pains and humiliation of poverty and lack individuals resorts to crimes in order to get rich by all means.
The future of the Nigerian society lies in knowledge, but the ability to generate new knowledge and use it innovatively depends upon having a scientifically literate population. The ability of chemistry teachers to organize classrooms, manage behavior of their students and use instructional materials effectively in their teaching is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes; although sound behavior management does not guarantee effective instruction possible, proper assessment of the awareness of teachers concerning entrepreneurial topics in the senior secondary chemistry curriculum becomes eminent.
Achor(2001) and Ibe (2010), defined curriculum as an organized knowledge and learning activities which the society presents to learners in order to achieve predetermined goals. In the chemistry curriculum, teachers are supposed to be highly competent and full of iniatives in order to enrich the content with relevant materials and pieces of information from their immediate environment (Ajaja,2009). One out of the emerging issues in science education is teacher understanding of the philosophy and objectives of chemistry curriculum as opined by Flick and Bell,(2006). The overall objectives of chemistry curriculum are to assist the students to develop interest in science and technology, acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology, applying their scientific and technology, applying their scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs, take advantage of numerous career opportunities by science and technology, prepare for further studies in science and technology and prepare for career choice in science and technology (FME,2005& 2010).
In order to achieve the objectives of the chemistry curriculum, teachers in the field of chemistry need to understand why they teach chemistry and how they can teach chemistry so as to develop in the individual the necessary skills needed to be self-reliant after graduation. Entrepreneurship is the effective manipulation of human intelligence as demonstrated in a creative performance, choosing to assume risk, identify business opportunities, gathering resources, initiating actions and maximizing opportunities(Ikeme and Onu,2006). Entrepreneurship is more than mere creation of business. It is characterized by seeking opportunities, taking risk beyond security. Stinnoff and Burges(1993) opined that entrepreneurship occurs when an individual develops a new venture, a new approach to an old business or idea, a unique way of giving the market place a product or service by using resources in a new way under conditions of risk.
The role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst for economic development is well demonstrated by the experience of industrialized societies, as employers look for graduating students who do not only have solid education but can stand out from the rest by making things happen. With the economy more globalized, it is important to have a background and a skill that allows graduates to become immersed in the global economy right from graduation (Cote, 2007).
The objectives of entrepreneurship education centers on producing individuals who are not job seekers but job creators, which is in line with the attainment of the broad goal of secondary education as outlined in the National Policy on education (NPE,2004), which is to prepare the individual for useful living in the society. Chemistry has attained a unique position in the curriculum, it is a real life science, and the subject chemistry should be aimed at showing its link with industry and everyday life.
The success of any school program including chemistry depends on a large extent of what the teacher does with his students (Kalu, 1970). It is generally believed that the instructional method adopted by a teacher can promote effective chemistry teaching in the classroom. The national science curriculum(2005) recommended that the following instructional methods to be used in teaching and learning of chemistry for the achievement of the stated objectives. These include field trip, guided discovery, inquiry, game and laboratory methods.
The need for chemistry education in this contemporary world cannot be overemphasized as there lies so many things to be discovered, with adequate understanding of chemistry a student would explore his environment, taking the necessary risk during exploration, putting his creative ideas into action and being innovative, making things that would be useful to society which will in turn enable him be self-reliant. But the question is; are the teachers aware of the need for entrepreneurship in today’s world, are they aware of entrepreneurial concepts in the senior secondary school curriculum? And what methods are they use in teaching their students these concepts if they are aware?
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The increasing rate of poverty in the society especially in Bokkos local government area of Plateau state is a bone of contention. Bokkos being a land that is abundantly rich in the production and huge yield of Irish potatoes amongst the Ron people, Acha amongst the Kulere people and sugar cane amongst the Mushere people and yet people especially the youth lack knowledge on basic principles on how to preserve and transform these farm product into new products that will generate wealth and help them become self-reliant. And yet chemistry is being taught of whether the teachers do teach the subject chemistry to their students comes to mind and the question of whether they are aware that there are concepts in the school curriculum of chemistry that are entrepreneurial is nature comes to play.
1.3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is set out to assess chemistry teachers on whether they are aware that chemistry as a subject has concepts in its secondary school curriculum that when taught to students will develop in them skills that would help them become self-reliant after graduation
The study is designed to:
1. Find out if the chemistry teachers are aware of entrepreneurial concepts being present in the senior secondary chemistry curriculum.
2. To find out if the curriculum contents of the chemistry program are taught by the teachers as specified.
3. To find out the teaching methods employed by the chemistry teachers teaching chemistry concepts.
4. To find out the availability and adequacy of teaching facilities for the teaching of chemistry concepts by the teachers.
5. To find the challenges confronting the effective implementation of the chemistry curriculum is senior secondary schools by the teachers in Bokkos L.G.A.
1.4. RESAERCH QUESTIONS
1. Are the chemistry teachers aware that the senior secondary school chemistry curriculum contains entrepreneurial concepts?
2. To what extent do the teachers teach these concepts present in the chemistry curriculum?
3. What are the teaching methods employed by the teachers in teaching their students chemistry concepts present in the senior secondary school curriculum?
4. How adequate and to what extent are the facilities for the teaching and learning of chemistry concepts available in the school?
5. What are the challenges confronting the effective implementation of the chemistry program in senior secondary schools of Bokkos L.G.A?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research hypothesis below will be tested:
1. The chemistry teachers in Bokkos L.G.A of Plateau state are not aware of the entrepreneurial topics in the senior secondary school curriculum.
2. There is no significant difference in the awareness of the entrepreneurial concepts in the senior secondary chemistry curriculum by the female and male teachers.
3. There is no significant difference in the awareness of the entrepreneurial concepts in the senior secondary chemistry curriculum by the chemistry teachers in the urban and rural areas.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Given that entrepreneurship can positively impact economic growth and development, the report by the European commission 2004, regards education as a fundamental and necessary means of creating entrepreneurial skills and attitudes amongst youths. Dana(2001) asserts that entrepreneurship is essential for economic growth in, modern economies. Considering the relevance of entrepreneurship education perceived at the level of economic growth and development and individuals level of satisfaction and achievement. There is need to develop educational programs that would encourage and promote entrepreneurship in the education system.
With application skills other than just knowledge skills, this implies that teachers should teach more of practical’s than theories. To be able to produce job creators, there is need to infuse entrepreneurship into the mode of science teachers (chemistry in particular) to facilitate the emergence of entrepreneurial students according to Ogunleye(2007)
1.7. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is set to cover the aspect of investing into seeing how chemistry education can be taught by the chemistry teachers to improve the entrepreneurial skills of students for self-reliance.
1.8. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
. ASSESSMENT: it is the process of gathering information to monitor progress and make educational decisions if necessary. Assessment in this context is used interchangeably with evaluation.
AWARENESS: means knowing that something exist and it is important. ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS: they are simply the things an individual learns in other to be creative and innovative with the ability to manage risk. In order to combine people, money and resources to meet identified needs and thereby create wealth.
CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM: it is defined as an organized knowledge and learning activities which the society presents to learners in order to achieve predetermined goals.
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