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The study assessed the Teaching of the Concept Osmosis in Senior Secondary One in Kangmun Ward of Chip District in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. The study adopted a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control group. The sample for the study consisted of 150 senior secondary I biology students. Purposive sampling was used to select three schools in Kangmun Ward of Chip District in Pankshin local government area. The instrument used for the study was the Biology Achievement Test (BAT) designed by the researcher. Section A of the instrument contained 20 multiple-choice items; section B contained 2 essay questions all for the measurement of students’ achievement in the Concept Osmosis. Three research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation and chi-square statistical tools. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of SS 1 students of Kangmun Ward of Chip District in Pankshin LGA taught Osmosis using laboratory method and those taught using lecture method with those taught using laboratory teaching strategy having a higher mean gain. This shows that laboratory teaching method has more effect on students’ achievement in osmosis than the lecture method. The result also shows that gender was not a significant factor in determining students’ achievement in the concept osmosis. The study concludes that laboratory method is a good instructional method for teaching the concepts of osmosis if properly utilized. Furthermore, the study observed that laboratory technique fosters students learning outcomes by engaging students actively in solving problems and effective participating in practical exercise and becoming aware of every phase in complex process. Finally the study recommend among others that government through the ministry of education should provide laboratory facilities to secondary schools and as well create in the teacher’s awareness on the effectiveness of laboratory learning approach, thereby shaping their teaching strategies from traditional teacher-learner interaction to hands-on activities to promote active students participation.




1.0       Introduction   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1     Background to the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2     Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           –           –           4

 1.3     Purpose of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

 1.4    Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

 1.5     Research Hypotheses             –           –           –           –           –           –           5

 1.6   Significance of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.7      Limitation of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.8     Delimitation of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.9     Definition of Terms     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6





3.1       Design of the Study   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

3.2       Population of the Study        –           –           –           –           –           –           40

3.3       Sample and Sampling Techniques –           –           –           –           –           41

3.4       Instrument for Data Collection       –           –           –           –           –           42

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument           –           –           –           –           –           43

3.5.2    Reliability of the Instrument           –           –           –           –           –           44

3.6       Method of Data Collection   –           –           –           –           –           –           45

3.7       Methods of Data Analysis    –           –           –           –           –           –           46



4.0       Introduction    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47

4.1       Results –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47

4.2       Hypotheses Testing    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

4.3       Discussion of the Findings     –           –           –           –           –           –           51




5.1       Summary of the Findings       –           –           –           –           –           –           53

5.2       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           54

5.3        Recommendation       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           54

5.4       Suggestions for Further Studies         –           –           –           –           –           55

REFERENCE           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

APPENDIX 1  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

APPENDIX 2  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

APPENDIX 3  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

APPENDIX 4  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           68


1.0       Introduction

In the teaching any science or biological course, for effective lesson delivery and clear understanding of science concepts, the approach considered for the instructions is very important. Techniques like the expository technique, discussion technique, project-based techniques, mastery technique (skill and practice), demonstration and laboratory techniques among other are adopted for instruction. Science aims and objectives cannot be reached or obtained through just use of expository or obtained through just the use of expository or lecture method of teaching as it is theoretically based. It just states concept, principles and rules without further explanation or activities to boost learners understanding and to verify these principles. It has been observed that the expository method used in teaching cell and its environment (Osmosis in SS 1) in most secondary schools in Nigeria does not bring about the desired outcomes in learning.  Therefore, an appropriate approach should be adopted the desired result. The use of laboratory teaching method in the study of osmosis to junior secondary II, student is expected to enhance student and prepare them for further studying of Osmosis at the senior secondary level which would boost their performance and academic achievement.

 1.1     Background to the Study

          Science is a great enterprise which most nations depends on in other to advance technologically. Science is therefore receiving much attention as the world is being describe as a scientific village. In Nigeria, advancement in science and technology has taken a very slow pace unlike other countries. This is due to a lot of facilities which range from economy, poor educational system, poor method of teaching, poor quality of school variables, poor scientific culture, lack of scientific facilities, Teacher’s attitude to work among others. The best way of complimenting science is by starting from the basic level of education and consolidating as you cascade the knowledge process skills of science as you progress to junior secondary school level where science is taught in broad terms using the subject science The Objectives of Biology as a Science in Secondary Schools are;

  1. To develop interest in science and technology
  2. Acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology
  3. Apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs
  4. Take advantage of the numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology.
  5. Become prepared for further studies in science and technology

Science introduces the studies in science and technology science. Science introduces the studies in science and technology science. Science as interdisciplinary deals with all approaches to the teaching and learning of science, Science is a science subject taught to the students at middle basic (JSS1-JSS3) formally known as Junior Secondary (JS). It is aimed at introducing African child like any other child in the globe right from the beginning to start to develop basic scientific skills, and attitudes such as curiosity, manipulative ability, spontaneous flexibility, experimentation, mechanical comprehension among others. And, if taught properly it will develop the students interest in science. The method used in teaching basic in junior secondary schools plays a vital role in the development of science. Teaching methods are means to making students study effectively. Teaching methods concern the tactics teachers use to meet teaching tools and materials.

Ameh and Danntani (2008), observe that teaching methodology is vital in any teaching learning situation and the method adopted by the teacher can promote or hinder learning. Science is a conceptual fact governs by laws, principles and theories and can be verifiable in the laboratory.

Laboratory method of teaching is the best method available for every teacher teaching science in Secondary Schools. It promotes information acquisition through observation, experimentation, solutions to problems guide by reflective thinking and acquisition of manipulative skills. It provides students opportunity to participate or conduct original research in using laboratory method, it involves the preparation stage, the pre-laboratory preparation, the actual work period and the combinative activities. The processes of investigation don’t always run smoothly, and students need guidance to make sense of their results, therefore those stages are necessary. This method of teaching considers both the content and the inquiry skills intended for students to master.

It is essential to coordinate the teaching of concepts with their laboratory applications but they are constraints like funds for learning materials and tools, time factors for lesson and equipment of laboratory facilities.

According to Robert James and Frank Crawley (2000), observed that science teachers also require laboratory teaching skills for effective teaching-learning process and to help curb the problems of laboratory instruction.

  • Statement of the Problem

While teaching osmosis some years back to SS 1 students in Kangmun Ward of chip district, Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State. I observed that over the period of time I was on teaching practice there; the other colleagues taught the osmosis theoretically and there was no effort to demonstrate the concept to better students understanding. Furthermore, the examiner report following the report from the West African Examination Council (WAEC) of (2013 – 2015), has consistently reported the poor performance of Biology students in questions on osmosis.

 1.3     Purpose of the Study

          The purpose of this study is to access the teaching of the concept osmosis to SSS 1students in Kangmun ward of Chip District, Pankshin local government area, Plateau State. Specifically the study will examine the following;

  1. Most frequently used method of teaching osmosis
  2. Types of experiment used by teachers in teaching osmosis
  3. The types of apparatus used for the experiment of osmosis

 1.4    Research Questions

To carry out this research, the following questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using laboratory method and those taught using lecture method.
  2. What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Science using laboratory method.


 1.5     Research Hypotheses   

The following research hypotheses were formulated for the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of student taught osmosis using laboratory method and those taught osmosis using conventional method.
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of male and female students taught osmosis using laboratory teaching method.

  1.6     Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will/may be of immense benefits to:

  1. The government or the policy makers in formulating effective planning and implementation of policies that will make science a more practical oriented course.
  2. Science teachers and prospective teachers for choosing suitable teaching strategy.
  3. Science teachers when choosing topics and resource materials for lessons and for instruction delivery.
  4. Other researchers in this field of study.

1.7      Limitation of the Study

There were a lot of impediments encountered during the course of this research. The major impediment was finance and time constraint, availability to various relevant materials and area related to the study. The researcher used her slim resources to finance the project involving purchase of books, photocopying papers and collecting data for the study.



1.8     Delimitation of the Study

This study is limited in scope to the use of practical method in teaching the concept osmosis to SS 1 students in Kangmun ward of Chip District, Pankshin LGA, to ascertain whether the practical method of teaching the concept is better than the conventional method.

 1.9     Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined based on the context used in this research work.

Conventional teaching method (lecture method): This is also called the traditional teaching method. This involves the students and the teacher, where the teacher is actively involved than the learners. Lecture method is usually an exposition and autocratic in form and style. It might seem that lecture method is the easiest teaching strategy as it describes and defines, since the lecturer’s role is to transmit information.

According to Obanya (2019) a lecture method is usually a combination of;

A       Citing what well known authors have written on the topic of the lecture.

B        Expressing the lecturer’s own opinion demonstrating how something work, starting the arguments in favour of and against a particular proposition. This method of teaching is used at all level of education. At the primary and secondary school levels, this method may not be very suitable.

Laboratory Method of Teaching: This is defined as a planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of problem. It is a process that uses apparatus and materials to discover or verify facts.

Teaching Method: The process which teachers use to present and evaluate the experience of the students to achieve desirable outcomes in a period (lesson).

Eddie (2014) quotes Aina et al (1989) to say that teaching method is a way of doing something. He added that it is an approach or stand, which a teacher adopts to explain a subject matter to a group of students or a student.

Laboratory Equipment: These are tools and materials used by teachers and laboratory technicians who work in a laboratory for practical experiments.

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