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Title page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Approval page                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi




1.1       Background of the study                                                                                           

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                           

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                                

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                   

1.5       Hypothesis                                                                                                                

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                          

1.7       Scope and Delimitation of the Study                                                                        

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                                                                          

2.1 Conceptual Framework

  • The Concept of education
  • Concept Conflict
  • Concept of Peace
  • Effects of conflict
  • Conflict Management Mechanism
  • Role of Education in Conflict Management
  • Role Education in Promoting Peace

2.2 Theoretical Framework

  • The Karl Marx Model of Conflict Theory (1984)

2.3 Review of Empirical Studies

2.4 Summary of Literature Review



3.1       Research Design                                                                                                        

3.2       Population and sample of the Study                                                                          

3.3       Sampling Techniques                                                                                                 

3.4       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                  

3.5       Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                                                      

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                   

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           



4.1       Presentation of Data                                                                          

4.2       Analysis of Data                                                                                                        

4.3       Discussion of Findings                                                                                              



5.1       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                     

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                 

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                     

5.4       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                





The study focused on appraisal of the role of education in conflict management in Langtang-North local Government Area. The study employed a survey research design. Population consisted of 68 public and private secondary schools with the total number of 2410 teachers. A simple sampling technique was used to sample 250 respondents was drawn 2410 population, a questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection, mean score was used to analysis the research question, while chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significant. The findings revealed that political difference lead to conflict in most communities. The causes of conflict is mostly political instability in the nation which invariably affects the economy, poor financial base, incessant demand for increase in wages, fringe benefits, irregular payment of salaries, leadership problem and lack of proper communication about issues and the absence of effective organisational framework to handle workers’ grievances Struggle and claim for land ownership always caused conflict. The study recommend among others that Government should recruit and educate more personnel into security organization. People should be taught the importance of accepting other peoples’ ways of life by respecting their cultural, religious beliefs and values






1.1 Background of the study

It is universally accepted, that education enables individuals to contribute to the development and improvement in the quality of life for themselves, their communities and the nation as a whole. Education is the most important component of human resources development and is accorded a pride of a nation. There is no doubt that the importance of education cannot be underscored because there is no country that has succeeded without educating its people. Education according to Osokoya (2009) helps to improve security, health, prosperity, and ecological balance in the world. It encourages social, economic, and cultural progress, tolerance, national and international cooperation. Akomolafe (2009) describes education as a single most effective means of curbing population growth, reducing child mortality, eradicating poverty, and ensuring democracy, peace, and sustainable development. Offorma, (2009) defines education as the process of providing information to an inexperienced person to help him/her develop physically, mentally, socially emotionally, spiritually, politically, and economically. According to Chidebulu (2010), education is a process of cognitive, effective and psycho motive development of an individual with a view to moulding the individual for a total contribution to the development of the community and the promotion of cultural heritage. Armstrong (2011), asserted that in education, “new or modified ideas, insights, approaches and solution can be generated by a joint re-examination of the different points of view as long as this is based on an objective and rational exchange of information and ideas in conflict management”. According to Ugwuanyi, (2010) education is the process by which societies established to assist the younger ones to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society. Emeka (2012) sees education as a process by which any society through schools; colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmit knowledge, values, and skills from one person to another. The aims and objectives of education towards nation building can only be achieved in a peaceful environment.    

            Peace is generally conceived as the absence of war or physical violence. However, scholars have made several attempts to define the concept, especially on the analysis of what constitute violence and how inimical it is to peace. According to Adedimeji, (2012), peace is a situation in which there is no war between countries or in a country. It is a direct opposite of conflict or crises. Peace is a direct or original state of security and absent of social, political or religious tensions that can debar progress in human societies. Based on the opinion of Mohammad, (2008) as cited in Doki, Dasun, & Angela, (2016) who explained in a clear term that peace is the absence of hostility and antagonistic relationship that may degenerate into state of distorting a harmonious existence that could lead to war. On the same vein, Best (2012) asserts that peace is the period or state of calmness, friendship, love and understanding as a result of adequately established structures that can guarantee fundamental human rights. According Doki, Dasun, & Angela, (2016) peace is the process, state, or period that human being in any society either as individual or groups enjoyed tranquility, harmony and cordial relationship without discord, violence, anxiety,  disagreement or war. Often this is not to say that conflict may not occur, but the ability to address is in a non-violent way and life goes on is peace.

            Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interest. Conflict can be intrapersonal (internal or within oneself), interpersonal (between two or more people) or prevalent (affecting many people). Conflict can be defined as a direct harm caused to a person’s body or direct harm to other social problems that have some degree of adverse consequences. Conflict is the result of many social vices such as social disagreement, conflict of interest and fight between two individuals, groups, or organizations. It can occur between two individuals, groups of friend, within and between families, within ethnic groups and between organizations etc. Conflict is a common phenomenon which has become present at one time or the other in every environment. It is well pronounced among the youths and adults in Nigeria. This is because human beings have different backgrounds, interest, and worldviews (Saraki, 2013). It is the way we respond to conflict that determines whether it would be positive or negative. Therefore, conflict is what we make it to be. Positive conflict is constructive and negative conflict is destructive (Adam and Abdulsalam , 2013).

            Conflict usually reflects a clash of interest or goal between parties, which may be individuals or group of individuals, or ethnic groups or states. Conflict occurs when two or more people engage in a struggle over values and claims to status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals, (Abebe, Gbesso, & Nyawalo2006). According to Bercovitch, (2016) Conflicts have become more complex with time especially with Terrorism threats increasing rampantly in Nigeria. Many lives are lost, property destroyed, many people rendered homeless forcing others to flee as refugees and this gives less hope for development and prosperity for the young generation. When two people are in conflict, they often make negative assumption about “the other” mutual respect of values and the underlying spiritual and ethical foundation can be influence by education system in different society, (UNESCO 2012). One way to realize peace is through education which focuses on the importance of peace and peaceful coexistence among communities and with each other as well as how to respond in situations that may lead to conflict.

            The role of education in conflict affected area has received increased attention during the current Nigerian situation because of its significance for the achievement in the development of our society. There has been an increasing awareness that Education can achieved it goals through success in accessing people in conflict affected contexts, who are among the hardest situation of survival,  (Save the Children Alliance 2006). According to UNICEF (2009) education can play a crucial role in peace-building processes (before, during, or after conflict) and can help to prevent conflict and contribute to long-term peace. Sinclair (2002) demonstrates that the provision of education during conflict stages can be refer to as “emergency education which concerns the basic child rights and ranges from addressing the psychosocial needs of children and adolescents to the protection of children from harm and the development of skills through education for peace.

            In the contemporary society there is increasingly multicultural and identity resulting from the society which often threatens peaceful human existence and development. Conflict is an inevitable friction in a society thus efficient and effective management of conflicts is fundamental to the development of any society. A well-managed conflict using education as an instrument will not degenerate into violence. Since violence will not erupt without conflicts as antecedents, one can be assured that many of the conflicts in most community is because their antecedents were not properly managed, or that the conflicting parties did not explore to the influence of education and conflict manager’s personality in resolving the crises (Agbonna, Yusuf & Onifade 2009).

1.2 Statement of the problem

            Education plays a key role in sustainable development and equips one with skills necessary in life. Similarly, the introduction of Peace and conflict resolution in the school curriculum is aimed at fostering peace and conflict resolution in Nigeria in the long run. Given the priority that was given by UNESCO (2016) and the Ministry of Education the introduction of peace and conflict resolution, there exists a gap between the peace education curriculum and its impact in conflict resolution. However, little has been written on the role of education toward peace in the school curriculum and its relevance in building a culture of peace in Nigeria. This study therefore seeks to analyze and examine the role of peace education in the school curriculum in conflict transformation since its inception in Nigeria and whether having peace education within other subjects taught in school has had an impact on conflict transformation in the country.

            The economic downturn in Nigeria in the present situation has led to poor economic status and wages for workers and introduction of minimum wage. The attendant disparity in incomes and inflation has produced great dissatisfaction and agitations among Nigerian, which has often resulted in conflict in almost every society. This has become a major concern for school administrators, scholars, securities, legislatives, judiciary, policies makers and curriculum planners. To seek for a lasting solution to these lingering problems, education has only been the survival hope for peace development in Nigeria. Securities has failed in the cost to maintained peace, religion is considered as a strong causes of conflict in Nigeria, therefore, religion can never be considered as an instrument for peace development. The only surviving hope for Nigerian today is education, through education citizens get to be aware of the destructive effects of conflict. Education is the only way which beneficiaries will be aware of the causes why lives and properties were destroyed and resultant effects of such act to individual growth geometrical development. Based on the above mentioned problems, the researcher being a potential educationist deem it necessary to assess the role of education toward conflict management in our society and the nation at large.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose of the study is to investigates the role of education in conflict management in Langtang North LGA of plateau state, the specific objective incudes;

  1. To investigate the causes of conflict in Langtang-North local government Area of plateau state
  2. To investigate the effects of conflict on the educational and economic development in Langtang-North Local Government Area
  3. To determine the role played by educationist in conflict management in Langtang-north local government area of plateau state
  4. To determine the strategies adopted by government in settling dispute in Langtang-North

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of conflict in Langtang-North local government Area of plateau state?
  2. What are the effects of conflict on the educational and economic development in Langtang-North Local Government Area?
  3. What are the roles of educationist in conflict management in Langtang-north local government area of plateau state?
  4. What are the strategies adopted by the government in settling dispute in Langtang-North?

1.5       Research Hypotheses                             

  • There is no significant difference between the roles of education and conflict management in Langtang-north local government area of plateau state

1.6 Significant of the Study

            This study will be of benefit to the school administrators, Educational Boards, Ministries of Education, Parents, community stakeholders and government at all levels.

            The principals, teachers and staff of ministries of education, besides other educational agencies, will benefit from this study by sensitizing them of the adverse effects of conflict and inculcate possible means of avoiding any tendency of conflict. It will further help them to know the values of education towards conflict management among them and the entire community.

Head-teachers and teachers at the primary school level and other organizational leaders, school inspectors of the ministries of education will equally benefit from this study by inculcating mutual respect and regard to human dignity and individual right. As well as helps, them to organize workshops, seminar, and conferences to enlighten teachers on the role of education toward resolving dispute within their communities.   

This study is expected to be beneficial to school administrators because when they get to know the intervention techniques a teacher should adopt in conflict management, they shall be willing to give teachers free hand and support when such cases arise.

            The findings of this study will be most valuable to Educational Boards, Ministries of Education and the government at all levels in reducing and averting conflicts that have to do with non-satisfaction of human needs and poor incentives in the teaching and learning field by making sure that the teachers’ needs are adequately and timely met.

The study will add to the existing phenomenon of conflict resolution. It will provide general guide in conflict resolution. It will equally add to the existing concepts and ideas on intervention techniques for conflict resolution.

This study will help parent to know the situation of the community, thus, the awareness will help them to avoid actions leading to conflict for the interest of their children.

            Equally, the study will be of benefit to organizational leaders, school inspectors, and others educational agencies because it will help them to know the types of rules to make in order to manage conflicts.

            This study will be of benefits to stake holders to understand that education is not all about knowing how to read and write but also knowing how to respect people and their values. This is done by embracing the role education play toward conflict management. These will also enlightening them not to allow themselves to be used as tools for fermenting conflict in the society.

            The information obtained from this study could also bring to the realization of those working in the field of conflict resolution that a multidimensional approach may be required in helping individuals resolve their conflicts.

            Finally, information gathered in this study will serve as a source of literature and guide for future researchers as well as empirical references for future studies

1.7 Scope and Delimination of the Study

            This study is delimited to appraisal of the role of education in conflict management in Langtang-North Local Government Area of Plateau state. The scope covers some ten selected community with standard secondary schools. the scope in terms of contain concern concept peace, conflict, cause of conflict, effects of conflict and management of conflict through education

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The role of education in conflict management: this dealt with skills and techniques required of an educationist to settle disputes between individuals of the ethnic cleansing.

Conflict management: this is the gradually avoiding involvement in any misunderstanding between parties

Conflict Management: In this study refer to those qualities that educationist have that enable them to resolve disputes that may arise interpersonally or intra-personally especially in their work place. These include stress management skills, social skills, avoidance skills competing skills and collaborating skills.

Stress management skills: In this study means how one reacts to challenges e.g. knowing your limits and sticking to them, good time management, learning to be okay with “good enough and not demanding for perfectionism, focusing on the positive, avoid controlling the uncontrollable, seeing challenges as opportunities, sharing your feeling, learning to forgive and make time for fun and relaxation.

Collaborative Skills: In this study means any action that centres on working together e.g. investigating issues thoroughly, sharing information with others in resolving disagreement, open sharing of concerns and issues, stating your position.




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