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Title page                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                 ii

Approval page                                                                                             iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                          vi

Abstract                                                                                                      ix



1.1     Background of the study                                                                    1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                                   6

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                         7

1.4     Research Questions                                                                           8

1.5     Significance of the Study                                                                   9

1.6     Delimitation of the Study                                                                   10

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms                                                         11



2.1 The Concept of Principals/Administrative Practice                                  14

2.2 The secondary school level of education                                                 18

2.3 The administrative roles of secondary school check pale.                        23

2.4 Challenges of school principals in the administrative

          practices of secondary school,                                                            32

2.6 Factors responsible for high quality assurance in

          secondary school administrative practice                                            34

2.7 Summary of literature review                                                                 37



3.0     Research Methodology                                                                     39

3.1     Research Design                                                                                39

3.2     Population and Sample of the Study                                                   40

3.3     Sampling Techniques                                                                         41

3.4     Instrument for Data Collection                                                           42

3.5     Validity and Reliability of Instrument                                                 43

3.6     Procedure for Data Collection                                                            43

3.7     Method of Data Analysis                                                                   44



4.1     Presentation of Demographic Data                                                     46

4.2     Analysis of Research Questions                                                          49

4.3     Discussion of Findings                                                                       58



5.1Summary                                                                                                62

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                            64

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                 66

5.4 Suggestion for Further Study                                                                  67

Reference                                                                                                    68

Appendices                                                                                                 76













The research work X-rayed the “Administrative Practice of Secondary School Principals in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State”. Five purpose of study was used, and relevant literature was reviewed. A survey research design was adopted, the population of the study was 5042 teachers and 105 of principals, 120 respondents were selected for the study using a stratified sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire which was validated by research experts in test and measurement unit. The data obtained were analysed using mean score. The findings revealed that principals to introduce innovation that brings about improvement in academic standards of schools, principal involved the assistance of expert like the bursar or accountant in the preparation of budget. The study recommend that principals should adopt and implement ICT to enhance teaching and learning in school as part of the innovations,  school principal organizing strategies through the government and proprietors of secondary schools should consciously form and make sure Parents Teachers Association (PTA) is functioning well in order to check-mate the organ responsible for organizing school policy







  • Background of the Study

Education is seen as a veritable means of bringing about socio – cultural, political, and economic mobilization. All over the world, education is seen to be the only avenue through which a nation growth is assured. It is an instrument per – excellence and the means of developing human intellect, technical skills character, and effective citizenship for self – reliance and effective national development. A simple way of appreciating education is that it is a tool or necessary weapon that is needed by every human being in order to effectively navigate this complex world (Aguba, 2009). Education has the power to transform the individual and the world for the better, because it is a tool for riches and transforming one from poverty to riches and self-sufficiently by enabling one from raises one’s status to move high on the social ladder. The priority is to ensure equitable access and improvement in the quality and efficiency of all level of education hence, educational policy of any nation is achieved educationally.

    The achievement of good administrative practices in secondary school is the concern of the principal who’s activities to teachers (Non – teaching and teaching) staff and even students is geared towards the educational objectives. Administrative practice in school implies helping an institution to define task, goals and purposes as well as helping to maintain standard of schools through provision of its educational need’s (Udoh and Akpa, 2004). The roles to be performed by the school administrator includes supervision of the school programmes which include curricula and extra curricula activities (allocation of schedules of duty or subjects, school time table, school organization) and interpersonal relation which involves school discipline, evaluation of teachers performance, community support and involvement, helping in solving staff and student personal problems.

Maduabuchi, (2002) in his view added that principal of a school is a planner director, controller, coordinator, organizer, adviser, and a problem solver. He also identified and set goals and objectives of the school, which of course must be in line with national objective of the school, analyses task and share responsibilities to the staff. A good principal should champion the course of quality standard in schools by using better administrative practice. There is a number of administrative practices that exist which administrator is to carry out in his day to day activities. Secondary school principal who ignores those practices is likely to encounter problems in the task of school administration.

    The scenario described above, implies that the success of any learning outcome remains the focus of challenge to a very large extend depends on the administrative ability to harness the capacity of student and teacher under the control of the various stake holders in education in the leader and facilitators of all learning experience and activities in school, particularly the rapid changes in the education sector. Since independence the sector has been depicted, the result is that numerous problems are easily descendible in the sector including poor state of plant, limited number of quality of teachers in our schools, poor quality products (graduate) from secondary schools and lost of confidence by the general public in the sector.

    FRN, (2004) national policy on education affirms that indeed, the broad aim of secondary education within overall national objectives is the preparation for useful living within the society and for higher education. Secondary education should equip students to live effectively in the modern age of science and technology raise a generation of individual who can think for themselves, respect the dignity of labour and lives as a good citizens, foster the desire for achievement and self – improvement. The ultimate goals of effective educational administration at all level according to Ugochi, (2017) is to develop and all inclusive and quality education that is accessible and relevant for self-reliance, this is guided by the understanding that good education that is accessible and relevant for self-reliance, this is guide by the understanding that good education contributes significantly to economic growth, improvement of employment, prospects and income generating opportunities for sustainable development. He also added that for qualitative education to be achieved in a nation, the teacher (Human resources) financial and instructional facilities (Material resources) must be co – operatively organized. In other words, the teacher in secondary school must be well trained and supervised continuously evaluation of the system and funds, facilities and equipment should be adequately provided.

    No administrator can function alone without the assistance of others in order to achieve the set educational objectives, the administrator must have a frame work or structure for his school on which post are created and assigned  to people. Enyi (2005) sees organizing in schools as an administrative process of having a structure and assigning people to the post for the purpose of performing specific duties. Thus a secondary school with different functions needed to be properly coordinated to ensure that the set secondary schools objectives are achieved. In school situation, staff personnel, administration plays important responsibilities of the secondary school principal in achieving the goals of education in general. Staff of secondary schools includes not only the teachers but also non – teaching staff are important tools in the hands of the secondary school principals in achieving educational objectives.

    The administrative dealings of various secondary schools in Kanke local government seem to have been hindered by numerous problems. These problems may be linked to poor supervision, conflict among teachers, inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, and poor leadership styles of the principal among others. Some school principals seem to lack vision, there appears to be inadequate job analysis and work plan with poor instructional supervision and poor instructional curriculum implementation. Given this background the aim of this present study is to examine and identify principal administrative practices for effective teaching and learning, it is the achievement of quality assurance in secondary school in Kanke local government of plateau state.

  • Statement of the Problems

          Ideally, secondary schools administration has been tropical issue and it is expected to promote quality assurance in education of the citizen for national development, parents, and even students that quality education is received by students in Nigeria secondary schools through the adaption of appropriate administrative practices / strategies by the principals.

          However, observations have shown that they seems to be poor secondary school principal administrative practices. This can be notice in the outcome of the poor performance of the secondary school students in public examination like the West African Examination council (WAEC), Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), National Board for Technical Education Board (NABTEB) etc. these situation seem to have led to loss of confidence by the public in sending their children to the public schools. it is also worry some to note that the sector is scan –derlized by high drop – out and high rate of examination malpractice, poor reading and writing cultures among other, thus arouses the interest of researcher to investigate on the principals administrative practices which include planning strategies, organizing practices, staff personnel strategies coordinating practices in schools in Kanke local government area of plateau state.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to x-ray the Administrative Practice of Secondary School Principals in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State. Specially, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine principals planning strategies for the achievement of quality assurance in secondary schools in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State.
  2. Ascertain principal organizing practices in secondary schools in Kanke Local Government of Plateau State.
  3. Find out personnel management strategies of secondary school principals in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State.
  4. Identify principals Co-ordination practice in secondary schools in Kanke local government
  5. Determine principals’ budgetary practice in secondary schools in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State.
    • Research Questions

The following question will guide the study.

  1. To what extent do principals planning strategies for the achievement of quality assurance in secondary schools in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State?
  2. To what extent are the principals organizing strategies for the achievement of standard in secondary schools in Kanke Local Government of Plateau State?
  3. What are some of personnel management strategies of secondary schools principal in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State?
  4. What are the principal Co-ordinating practices in secondary school in Kanke local government area of plateau state?
  5. To what extent are principals budgetary practices in secondary schools in Kanke local government area of plateau state?


  • Significance of the Study

          The benefits that shall accrue from this study are many. Especially to schools principals, teachers, parents, students, management of Kanke local Government area of plateau state and future research.

          The findings of this study will acquaint school principal on the poor quality of educational system in their locality and also offer them credible practices to restrain such trend and improve to the quality of learning. Another group that will benefit are teacher, these study will unveil some of the teacher problems with lead to poor teaching and learning in secondary school. As the principal adopt and implement some practice suggested in this study in their bid to solve these problems, teacher will be favored.

          Parent will benefit from the findings of this study when adequate care is given to teachers, they will be happy to teach their student with enthusiasm. Consequently student will receive quality education and also excel academically to the glory of their parents.

          The finding of the study will be of immense benefit of various tiers of government such as local, state, and federal government. It will uncover the academic and administrative problems which is the root of low quality education and administrative system that has been obliterating various secondary schools in the recent time. This study will serve as an eye – opener to the state government and also give and insight on how to tackle these problems. Most exodus of teacher (brain drain) from the area will reduce drastically. Kanke Local Government will be rated high as one of the best educationally developed area in plateau state and Nigeria as a whole. The findings of this study will be added to the existing literature, a researcher in a similar field study will also find the result of this study very interesting and useful.

  • Delimitation of the Study

        It is an acceptable fact that importance of secondary school cannot be over emphasized since it has both consumer and producer status in the educational field. This study however will be delimited to all government owned secondary school in Kanke Local Government Area of Plateau State public schools. the content scope focused on principal administrative practice in secondary schools in Kanke Local  Government Area these included principal planning strategies principal organizing practices, personnel management strategies, coordinating practices in schools and budgetary practice of secondary school principal in Kanke local government area of plateau state.

  • Operation Definition of Terms

Secondary Education: is an instruction or education given in institution for student age ten to sixteen plus

Education: an organized and sustained instruction use to transmit values and knowledge across time space.

Principal: a leader of an entire school community responsible for managing the major administrative aspect of the school.

Planning: an act of organizing all the activities required to achieve a desire goal of a school

Budget: is a statement showing the income and expenditure over a given period of time.

Recommendation: suggestion over an opinion in which something is good for a particular purpose.

Organizing: getting people to do a particular function in order to achieve success over a given task.

Gender: male and female such as masculine and famine in the school system.

Relationship: interaction between two or more people example principle and teachers in the school.


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